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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 127302 matches for " Matthew T. Gailliot "
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Happiness as Surplus or Freely Available Energy  [PDF]
Matthew T. Gailliot
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.39107
Abstract: This paper presents a literature review that indicate happiness as a state of freely available or surplus energy. Happiness is associated with good metabolism and glucose levels, fewer demands (from parenting, work, difficult social relationships, or personal threats), and goal achievement, as well as increased ease of processing, mental resources, social support, and monetary wealth. Each of these either provide or help conserve energy.
Mortality Salience and Metabolism: Glucose Drinks Reduce Worldview Defense Caused by Mortality Salience  [PDF]
Matthew T. Gailliot
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.311149
Abstract: The current work tested the hypothesis that a glucose drink would reduce worldview defense following mortality salience. Participants consumed either a glucose drink or placebo, wrote about either death or dental pain, and then completed a measure of worldview defense (viewing positively someone with pro-US views and viewing negatively someone with anti-US views). Mortality salience increased world- view defense among participants who consumed a placebo but not among participants who consumed a glucose drink. Glucose might reduce defensiveness after mortality salience by increasing the effectiveness of the self-controlled suppression of death-related thought, by providing resources to cope with mortality salience and reducing its threatening nature, or by distancing the individual from actual physical death.
Improved Self-Control Associated with Using Relatively Large Amounts of Glucose: Learning Self-Control Is Metabolically Expensive  [PDF]
Matthew T. Gailliot
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.311148
Abstract: The current study examined whether changes in glucose during a self-control task would predict changes in self-control performance later on. Participants attended two experimental sessions, spaced two weeks apart. During each session, they had their glucose measured, completed the Stroop task as a measure of self-control, and then had their glucose measured again. Larger decreases in glucose (from before to after the Stroop task) during the first session predicted larger increases in improvement on the Stroop task dur- ing the second session, in the form of increased speed. Learning self-controlmight benefit from using lar- ger amounts of glucose. Learning self-control is metabolically expensive. These findings raise the possi- bility that self-control fatigue occurs because metabolic energy is depleted during the learning of self- control.
Hunger and Reduced Self-Control in the Laboratory and across the World: Reducing Hunger as a Self-Control Panacea  [PDF]
Matthew T. Gailliot
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.41008

Ten studies link hunger to reduced self-control. Higher levels of hunger-as assessed by self-report, time since last eating, or physiology-predicted reduced self-control, as indicated by increased racial prejudice, (hypothetical) sexual infidelity, passivity, accessibility of death thoughts and perceptions of task difficulty, as well as impaired Stroop performance and decreased self-monitoring. Increased rates of hunger across 200 countries predicted increased war killings, suggestive of reduced aggressive restraint. In a final experiment, self-reported hunger mediated the effect of hungry (v fed) participants performing worse on the Stroop task, suggesting a causal relationship of hunger reducing self-control.

Breaking the Rules: Low Trait or State Self-Control Increases Social Norm Violations  [PDF]
Matthew T. Gailliot, Seth A. Gitter, Michael D. Baker, Roy F. Baumeister
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.312159
Abstract: Two pilot and six studies indicated that poor self-control causes people to violate social norms and rules that are effortful to follow. Lower trait self-control was associated with a greater willingness to take ethical risks and use curse words. Participants who completed an initial self-control task that reduced the capacity for self-control used more curse words and were more willing to take ethical risks than participants who completed a neutral task. Poor self-control was also associated with violating explicit rules given by the experimenter. Depleting self-control resources in a self-control exercise caused participants subsequently to talk when they had been instructed to remain silent. Low trait self-control and poor performance on a behavioral measure of self-control (the Stroop task) predicted poor compliance following experimental instructions over a 2-week span. Poor self-control thus undermines adherence to some social rules and regulations, therefore possibly contributing to a broad variety of social ills.
Self-Regulation to Maintain Moderate Self-Views: Prior Self-Regulation Increases Biases Related to Self-Esteem  [PDF]
Matthew T. Gailliot, Anne L. Zell
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101018
Abstract: High self-esteem is associated with biases in which the person overestimates their positivity, whereas low self-esteem is associated with underestimations of one’s positivity. The current study examined whether these biases emerge more strongly when self-regulation is impaired. Participants first completed a task that either did or did not require self-regulation. They later interacted with another participant and indicated the extent to which they viewed themselves as having behaved positively during the interaction and to which the other participant viewed them positively. Higher self-esteem predicted a greater bias in overestimating the extent to which the other person viewed one positively, but this relationship was the strongest among participants who had completed the self-regulatory task. Past work has found that self-regulating impairs self- regulation later on. These findings therefore suggest that self-regulation is a mechanism through which personal biases are avoided and moderate views are maintained.
Having Used Self-Control Reduces Emotion Regulation—Emotion Regulation as Relying on Interchangeably Used “Self-Control Energy”  [PDF]
Matthew T. Gailliot, Anne Zell, Roy F. Baumeister
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101017
Abstract: Four studies tested and confirmed the hypothesis that having used self-control reduces subsequent emotion regulation. Participants first completed a task that either did or did not require self- control (attention control, overriding one’s accustomed writing style, or breaking a habit). They later encountered situations designed to activate emotions that typically are downregulated. Participants either met someone new (anxiety), anticipated speaking publicly (anxiety), or recalled times when they felt sad or romantically jealous. Compared to participants who had not completed a self-control task, those who had used self-control task reported feeling of the target emotion to a greater extent. The results from a final study supported the idea that having used self-control reduces emotion regulation rather than increasing the strength of emotion generally.
Identification of Bridge Movement Mechanisms  [PDF]
Matthew T. Yarnold
Engineering (ENG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2014.69059

Bridge behavior is highly dependent upon the movement mechanisms present throughout the structure. These mechanisms (e.g. bearing, joints, etc.) have a substantial impact on the long-term durability and potential safety of the structure. A major distinguisher between the varieties of movement systems is their operating timescale. In some cases, they function rapidly, within fractions of a second, and in other cases gradually over days, months or even years. However, in nearly all cases, the lifecycle of the movement system is shorter than that of the bridge assuring the need for future intervention. Breakdown of a movement system can produce unintended forces/deformations that progressively degrade the structure. Identification and tracking of movement mechanisms proactively address long-term durability by helping to avoid these unintended consequences. A general framework for characterization of these mechanisms was developed. This framework was applied to an operating bridge that includes several critical mechanisms operating over different timescales. As a result of this and other studies, recommendations are provided for identification of bridge movement systems.


A Theory of Political Entrepreneurship  [PDF]
Matthew McCaffrey, Joseph T. Salerno
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.24061
Abstract: This paper adapts the entrepreneurial theory developed by Richard Cantillon, Frank Knight, and Ludwig von Mises to the theory of “political entrepreneurship.” Political entrepreneurship is an outgrowth of the theory of the market entrepreneur, and derives from extending entrepreneurial theory from the market into the political sphere of action. By applying the theory of the entrepreneur to political behavior, we provide a basis for identifying political entrepreneurs, and for separating them analytically from other government agents. The essence of political entrepreneurship is the redirection of production from the path it would have taken in an unregulated market. Nevertheless, this production does produce an income stream to political entrepreneurs which closely resembles the profit of market entrepreneurs.
Validation of the Physical Education Teacher’s Efficacy for Standards-Based Instruction (ESBI) Scale  [PDF]
Matthew T. Buns, Katherine Thomas Thomas
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2015.53019
Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Efficacy for Standards-Based Instruction (ESBI) scale, developed by the current investigators, and to compare the ESBI with two other self-efficacy scales that had been used in physical education (TESPE, Chase, Lirgg, & Carson, 2001;TSES, Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2001). The ESBI, TESPE, and TSES were administered to 60 physical education teachers from 16 school districts in Iowa. Cronbach’s alpha (internal consistency) for the ESBI was .96, and the Equal-Length Spearman Brown split-half coefficient inferred good reliability (r = .90). The ESBI demonstrated better validity and reliability than the previously developed TESPE (Cronbach’s alpha = .89; Spearman Brown split-half coefficient = .86) and TSES (Cronbach’s alpha = .84; Spearman Brown split-half coefficient = .79). As a test of concurrent validity for ESBI, Pearson’s product moment correlations were performed to test the extent to which the total efficacy scores and subscales were related. The ESBI, TESPE, and TSES all had significant positive correlations with each other (p < .01). Validation of the three self- efficacy scales was also performed using the ranked Physical Education Curriculum Analysis Tool (PECAT) score for each district as an independent measure. The ESBI scale produced a low but significant correlation (r = .28, p < .05) with PECAT, but TSES and TESPE were not significant. This suggested that ESBI was more related to standards and benchmarks than the other two measures. These results indicate that the ESBI has shown good (versus TESPE) or better (versus TESES) validity and reliability compared with previous work. This work also supports Bandura’s (1986) notion of specificity for self-efficacy.
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