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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10634 matches for " Matthew Onyema Agu "
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The Prevalence of Parasitic Human Intestinal Helminthes and the Efficacy of Anthelmintic Drug in Children in Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Cletus Anes Ukwubile, Otalu Otalu Jr., Uduak Akpabio, Matthew Onyema Agu
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2013.34032
Abstract: Introduction: A study on the current status of parasitic intestinal helminthes and the efficacy of anthelmintic drug was carried out among primary school pupils at Community Primary School Ogurugu, Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area, Enugu State. Objectives: The research was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of human intestinal helminthes among primary school pupils, and also to determine the prevalence in relation to age and sex, and to check the efficacy of anthelmintic drug (Levamisole) on the worms, in Ogurugu Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 242 faecal samples were collected randomly from the school children and analyzed using standard parasitological procedures. Results: Data obtained showed an overall prevalence of 143 (59.1%) out of 242 samples and that the efficacy of anthelmintic drug Ergamisole? (Levamisole R12564; Unicure Pvt.ltd India) 50 mg in reducing the worm burden was 99 (82.5%) in 120 samples treated. Age related prevalence and efficacy of anthelmintic varied across the sample groups. There was no significant difference in sex related infections in the sample group (P > 0.5). The efficacy of the drug reduces with the increase in age. Also the efficacy of Levamisole drug in reducing the worm burden were hookworm 59 (89.5%), Ascaris 24 (85.7%), Trichuris 26 (78.6%) while Taenia and Strongyloides showed drug resistance. This indicates that a single dose of the medication is not enough for total elimination of these endo parasites. Conclusion: The study revealed that poor hygienic practices as well as unsanitary conditions were responsible for high prevalence recorded in the area, and advocated health education through primary health care and mass deworming of primary school children as control measures.
Investigatory Study of Long Term Doses of Costus afer, Snail Slime, and Their Combination with a Standard Pharmaceutical Drug on Blood Glucose Level of Alloxan Induced Swiss Albino Rat  [PDF]
Matthew Onyema Agu, Barminas Jeff Tsware, A. Osemeahon Sunday, Jude Chinedu Onwuka, Hotton Joseph Anthony
Open Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (OJMC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojmc.2018.81001
Abstract: The Plant, Costus afer Ker Gawl. belongs to the family of Costaceae and has various uses where they exist. Their use in folk medicine and phytomedicine is in the treatment and management of variety of human ailment, like diabetes mellitus, abdominal problems etc. The search for new antidiabetic therapies has become increasingly urgent due to the development of adverse effects and resistance by the chemically synthesized drugs on one hand and effectiveness with low cost of the plant materials on the other hand. The investigations carried out is to determine the long term effects of Costus afer leaf methanol extract, snail slime and the combined Costus afer and snail slime extracts on blood glucose levels of alloxan induced diabetic Swiss albino rats treated orally for 21 days on graded dose of (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg). From the determination, the snail slime showed positive effect on blood glucose lowering level but less effective when compared with similar dose of the Costus afer leaf methanol extract. The investigation indicated that there was 103 mg/dL and 87 mg/dL blood glucose reduction for the low dose of Costus afer and Snail slime respectively while the standard hypoglycemic drug (Glibenclamide, 5 mg/kg) used for comparison yielded a blood glucose level reduction of 103 mg/dL. Similarly, the high dose used in the study gave a blood glucose reduction of 99 mg/dL and 95 mg/dL for Costus afer leaf methanol extract and Snail slime respectively. The results obtained when alloxan induced rats was treated with C. afer leaf methanol extract, Snail slime extract, and combined C. afer and snail slime extracts was analysed using Statistix 8.0 American version. The result showed a dose dependent fashion and the difference obtained from the compared results was statistically significant at p < 0.05. This result supports the views of other researchers that some herbal anti-diabetic remedies which reduce blood glucose levels were similar to those of synthetic oral hypoglycemic drugs like metformin and sulfonylurea etc [1]. Still to that, medicinal and pharmacological activities of medicinal plants are often attributed to the presence of the so called secondary plant metabolites. Hence this regenerative capacity of snail slime and the fact that diabetes is characterized by damage of the pancreatic beta cells, may give credit to the hypoglycaemic effect observed in Costus afer methanol leaf extract and snail slime for possible drug formulation for
Evaluation of Total White Blood Cells and Cluster of Differentiation 4 Cells among Post-Menopausal Women in Elele, Nigeria  [PDF]
Benjamin Onyema Eledo, Matthew Ugwu Igwe, Sylvester Chibueze Izah
Modern Research in Inflammation (MRI) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/mri.2018.72003
Abstract: This study investigated some immune system related parameters among post-menopausal women in Elele, River state, Nigeria. Forty-two individuals participated in this study and forty control subjects were established as well. Blood was collected from the participants, and CD4 cells and total white blood cells count were analyzed using standard procedures. Result showed that test subjects and control values were 5.46 ± 1.64 × 109/L and 7.24 ± 1.47 × 109/L, respectively for total white blood cell and 1265.19 ± 458.56 cells/μl and 2159.53 ± 400.02 cells/μl respectively, for CD4 cells. There was significant difference (P < 0.001) among the test subject and control for both parameters. The results in the test subjects for both parameters were significantly lower compared to the control. The decline in immune system related parameters among the test subjects may predispose them at risk of multiple infections and other associated health conditions.
Evaluation of the Level and Impact of Selected Physiochemical Parameters of Fertilizer Effluent on Obinna River, Adani, Enugu State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Chizoba Chinelo Agu, Matthew Chukwudi Menkiti, Bernard Ibezim Okolo, Patrick Chukwudi Nnaji
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.67069
Abstract:

This work quantitatively evaluates the level and impact of selected physiochemical properties of fertilizer effluent on the Obinna River of Adani, Enugu State, Nigeria. The fertilizer effluent originated from surrounding farms and flushed into the Obinna River. Water samples were collected from designated points along the river and analysed for physical, chemical and biological properties using standard methods of APHA. Impact of selected key parameters such as nitrate, phosphate, manganese, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand and heavy metals (lead, iron and manganese), was studied. The results of the parameters were compared with the World Health Organisation (WHO) permissible standard for freshwater. Measured concentrations of phosphate (5.00, 7.21, 3.92 mg/L), manganese (1.53, 1.18, 1.47 mg/L) and lead (18.9, 21.7, 39.7 ppm) were found to be above the WHO standard while nitrate (0.04, 0.03, 0.03 mg/L) and iron (0.001, 0.001, 0.1 mg/L) were within the standard. The mean concentrations of heavy metals increased in the following order: Fe (0.034) < Mn (1.4) < Pb (26.8) from upstream S1 to downstream S3, with manganese and lead being above WHO standard. The results showed a level of significance for the chi-square distribution and correlation coefficients while the analysis of variance (ANOVA) results was conflicting. It could be inferred that the impact of the selected parameters contributed to the pollution of Obinna River.

Assessment of Natural Radionuclides in Fly Ash Produced at Orji River Thermal Power Station, Nigeria and the Associated Radiological Impact  [PDF]
Janet A. Ademola, Uzoma C. Onyema
Natural Science (NS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.610075
Abstract: Coal fired power plants produce significant amounts of ashes, which are quite often being used as additives in cement and other building materials. Coal contains trace quantities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The concentrations of these radionuclides are usually low in the coal, but enriched in fly ash. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in fly ash and soil samples in the vicinity of Orji River thermal power station in Nigeria was determined by gamma ray spectroscopy method using NaI(Tl) detector. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the fly ash were 40.8 ± 11.6, 49.1 ± 9.3 and 321 ± 17 Bq·kg1, respectively. Coarse fly ash collected from the dump site had mean activity concentrations of 28.2 ± 8.3, 37.6 ± 5.0 and 335 ± 32 Bq·kg–1, respectively for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. Soil samples collected at about distances of 10 m from the dump site had 32.7 ± 4.3, 40.0 ± 4.2 and 298 ± 15 Bq·kg-1, respectively. Those collected at about distances of 100 m from the dump site had 39.1 ± 11.2, 34.1 ± 5.2 and 257 ± 19 Bq·kg-1, respectively. Occupational dose received by workers due to exposure to the fly ash ranged between 33.0 and 61.2 μSv·y-1 with a mean value of 47.1 ± 8.4 μSv·y-1, which is below the intervention exemption level of 1 mSv·y-1. The radium equivalent activity concentration, external and internal hazard indices of the fly ash were below the recommended maximum values for building materials. The mean outdoor absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose obtained in the vicinity of the plant were 49.7 ± 4.0 nGy·y-1 and 0.30 ± 0.02 mSv (dump site), 51.7 ± 3.6 nGy·y-1 and 0.32 mSv (soil 10 m from dump site), 49.4 ± 4.9 nGy·y-1 and 0.30 ± 0.03 mSv (soil 100 m away from dump site), which are lower than the world average. The results obtained in this study show that there is no significant radiological impact of the fly ash on both the workers and the public from radiation protection point of view.


Comparative Assessment of Phytochemicals, Proximate and Elemental Composition of Gnetum africanum (Okazi) Leaves  [PDF]
I. O. Okerulu, C. T. Onyema
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2015.67058
Abstract: The leaves of Gnetum africanum were studied for their proximate (nutrient), mineral (elemental) and phytochemical constituents. All analyses were done using standard analytical procedures and the results obtained showed a moisture content, crude protein, ash content, crude fibre, crude lipids and carbohydrates of 10.9%, 20.12%, 6.70%, 7.10%, 2.79% and 52.39% respectively. The mineral (elemental) analysis showed the presence of sodium, magnessium, calcium, iron, zinc, manganesse, potassium and copper in that order of decreasing concentration while notably absent was chromium and lead in the examined leaves. The phytochemicals detected in the leaves using various selected solvents were alkaloids, saponins, glycosides and tannins with various concentrations while flavonoids, phenols and steroids were totally absent. From the results of the aforementioned analyses, it could be concluded that the leaves of Gnetum africanum contain some beneficial nutrients, mineral elements and secondary metabolites justifying the medicinal status and possible potency of the plant part.
Perpetuating Nigerian Cultures in Musical Arts Education within the Threshold of Current Global Environment
DCC Agu
UJAH: Unizik Journal of Arts and Humanities , 2012,
Abstract: In the past, articulation of traditional musical arts offered the Nigerian child opportunity for demonstrating sense of belonging with his environment. Participation in traditional music unveiled to him, key aspects of socio-cultural expression and behavior that stimulated new levels of appreciation of his culture. The current trend in musical arts education has denied the child the great opportunity of acquiring basic local knowledge, attaining social, cultural, religious and cosmic awareness, which the western music practices, could not offer him. Our inadequacies in playing or singing our indigenous music and inability to identify the folk taxonomies of our traditional musical instruments are glaring. Research conducted in selected Primary Schools in Anambra State, Nigeria over a period of five years (2003 – 2008) has proved that the Nigerian child still has the capacity and ability to effectively perform the traditional music of his community with great enthusiasm and passion. This article suggests ways of reviving our musical roots by examining the society’s attitude towards traditional music, restructuring the music curricula and retraining the music educators. It posits that only such appropriate measures could refocus and strengthen our musical arts delivery and put us on the right track towards making a bold statement in the current global setting.
In Community Dwelling Females Age 65 or Older, Gait Speed Declines as Kinesthetic Awareness of the Lower Legs Decreases  [PDF]
Minsun Hong, Ngozi Onyema, Ayse Ozcan Edeer, Valerie Olson
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2017.61003
Abstract: Purpose: This study investigates the existence of a correlation between the gait speed and kinesthetic sense in lower legs and to conduct further analysis of kinesthetic sense in relation to the risk of fall among community dwelling females aged 65 years or older. Materials and Methods: A non-experimental correlational, descriptive, and cohort study included 38 community dwelling females (average age of 82.5 years). The kinesthetic ruler (K-Ruler) and kinesthetic test protocol were created and used to assess lower extremity kinesthetic awareness. The GaitRite System was used to assess gait speed. Each subject was categorized into four groups: “LL” (Low K-Score and low gait speed), “LH” (Low K-Score and high gait speed), “HL” (High K-Score and low gait speed), and “HH” (High K-Score and high gait speed) according to kinesthetic awareness and gait speed measured. Voluntary fall incidence reporting over the 6-month period was followed by the initial data collection. Results: Pearson product-moment correlation (2-tailed) showed that there is a statistically significant, positive moderate-to-strong correlation between K-score and gait speed (ICC = 0.692, p < 0.05). Additionally there were statistically significant negative moderate to strong correlations between age and K-score, and age and gait speed (ICC = -0.648, and -0.596 respectively, p < 0.05). The 13 subjects reported fall incidences over the 6-month period. No falls were reported among subjects in HL group. Discussion: Gait speed declines as kinesthetic awareness of lower extremity decreases in community dwelling 65 or older female subjects. Additionally, the combination of kinesthetic awareness and gait speed can be served as a predictor of fall risk. The K-ruler can be used to assess lower extremity kinesthetic awareness in older people as a feasible and standard test.
Severe generalised hypersensitivity reaction to topical neomycin after cataract surgery: a case report
Imran A Ansari, Ernest Onyema
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-2-57
Abstract: A post-operative cataract surgery patient developed a severe and generalised hypersensitivity reaction following topical treatment with Maxitrol (Dexamethasone and Neomycin) eye drops. The patient reported a previous allergic reaction to Neomycin.This case report emphasises the importance of a thorough drug and allergy history when patients are seen at pre-assessment or clerked in for surgery.Adverse external ocular effects of topical ophthalmic therapy have been estimated to occur in 10 % of all adverse reactions [1].Drug-related ocular allergies are often the result of type IV hypersensitivity reactions, although type 1 and type 3 hypersensitivity reactions may also be involved [2].Hypersensitivity to localised ocular therapy may involve a localised contact reaction which may include itching, redness, tearing, mucopurulent discharge, and papillary conjunctivitis as well as corneal involvement [3]. Dermatitis, oedema and chemosis of the eyelids and skin can also occur [4].Anaphylactoid reactions are rare and can be the result of type 1 (immediate) hypersensitivity reactions [1]. They are not usually associated with systemic anaphylaxis but involve an acute shock syndrome that may be immunologically mediated [5].Anaphylactoid reactions are characterised by acute itching, conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis and oedema of skin in the form of urticaria and angioedema Neomycin is an antibiotic that is often used in the form of Maxitrol (Neomycin, Polymyxin B and Dexamethasone) after cataract surgery in the prophylaxis of infection.When used in ophthalmic preparations, it is well known to be a cause of allergic localised contact reactions, but it is rare for it to cause a diffuse cutaneous systemic reaction [6]. One study has estimated the incidence of allergic contact reactions to topical neomycin as 1 to 29/100,000 [7]. We describe a case of severe systemic allergy with a diffuse cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction following topical ophthalmic administration of neomycin i
Evaluating Students’ Plagiarism in Higher Education Institutions
NN Agu, E Olibie
African Research Review , 2009,
Abstract: Plagiarism is a threat to students’ empowerment in higher education in a knowledge economy. In this paper the phenomenon of students’ plagiarism in higher education institutions and how it disempowers the advancement of global knowledge by students, are discussed. The paper begins with a description of the meaning, forms and reasons for plagiarism among students. It goes further to discuss some strategies for evaluating and detecting plagiarism in students’ works using Information technology. Finally some knowledge empowerment strategies are presented to show how lecturers could tackle plagiarism by empowering students to be genuine in receiving and producing information for constructing new knowledge.
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