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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 304848 matches for " Matthew J. Draud "
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Have the Algae-Grazing Fish in the Back Reefs of Jamaica and Grand Cayman Changed in Size? A View across 36 Years  [PDF]
Matthew J. Draud, M. Itzkowitz
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2018.82016
The island of Jamaica is often cited as an example of how overfishing has dramatically reduced the sizes of coral reef fishes. To examine the change in fish sizes over a 36-year period, we analyzed data from systematic surveys conducted in 1977 and 2013/14 of the sizes and relative abundances of four common algae-grazing fishes in the shallow backreef habitats of Jamaica and Grand Cayman. The four species are: striped parrotfish (Scarus iseri), stoplight parrotfish (Sparisoma viride), ocean surgeon (Acanthurus tractus) and the blue tang (Acanthurus coeruleus). We predicted that all four species would be larger in Grand Cayman than in Jamaica in 1977 as well as in 2013/14, because Grand Cayman has been cited as having less fishing pressure than Jamaica. For the same reason, we expected all four species would have declined in size over the 36 years in Jamaica but not in Grand Cayman. Furthermore, we predicted that the compressed body shape of the ocean surgeon and the blue tang would have made them especially vulnerable to net and trap fishing compared to the two parrotfishes, and that accordingly the effects of overfishing would be greater in these two species. We rejected this hypothesis. The size distributions of the laterally compressed species changed significantly on both islands over the 36-year time span, although not as predicted. At both islands, the blue tangs shifted toward smaller sizes and the ocean surgeons shifted toward larger sizes. There were no size distribution changes detected in the two fusiform species. There was also no support for the prediction that the sizes of these four species were larger in Grand Cayman than in Jamaica during either time period.
Iron Overdose during Pregnancy: Case and Treatment Review  [PDF]
Matthew J. Geraci, Haesuk Heagney
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.37A126

A 22-year-old pregnant female was transferred to the emergency department having ingested a bottle of iron-containing prenatal vitamins, ondansetron (Zofran?) tablets and alcohol. The patient was hemodynamically stable but suffered from intense bouts of brown, sandy emesis for the first few hours. Investigation revealed the patient ingested 13.57 mg/kg of elemental iron. Due to the initial iron level, history and presentation time whole bowel irrigation was initiated with polyethylene glycol solution. Acute iron toxicity in pregnancy is a medical emergency that can result in multisystem organ failure leading to maternal death and potential fetal demise. High maternal serum iron loads do not affect the developing fetus and are not associated with fetal malformations; however advanced poisoning can lead to maternal death, spontaneous abortions or preterm emergency deliveries. Initial treatment strategies may include whole bowel irrigation using polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution and deferoxamine treatment along with necessary supportive care management. Despite concerns of teratogenicity deferoxamine does not cross the placenta and is regarded as safe for use during pregnancy. Maternal resuscitation must always be the primary objective in acute iron overdoses and, therefore such concern should not delay clinically indicated maternal treatment.

Cardiac tamponade due to group a streptococcal pericarditis in a 10-month-old boy and a review of the literature  [PDF]
Matthew C. Schwartz, Matthew J. Gillespie, Paul Stephens, Brian Fisher
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2011.14020
Abstract: Group A streptococcus (GAS) is a rare cause of purulent pericarditis in pediatric patients as only 7 cases have been reported. We present a 10-month-old boy who developed cardiac tamponade from GAS and was successfully treated with subxiphoid tube drainage and 4 weeks of antibiotics at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.
Myeloperoxidase- a link between inflammation and cardiovascular disease
Myeloperoxidase – a link between inflammation and cardiovascular disease

Matthew J Sorrentino,

老年心脏病学杂志(英文版) , 2007,
Abstract: The majority of acute myocardial infarctions occur because of the sudden development of a thrombus in a coronary artery. The thrombus is frequently associated with a ruptured plaque releasing tissue factor into the circulation which is highly thrombotic. Plaques that are prone to rupture tend to have large lipid pools, a large number of inflammatory cells, and a thin fibrous cap. The inflammatory cells are thought to contribute to the vulnerability of the plaque by inhibiting cells that synthesis collagen and by releasing proteinases that degrade collagen in the fibrous cap. The measurement of inflammatory makers such as C-reactive protein has been proposed as a potential way to identify patients that have inflamed and vulnerable plaques. Therapies, such as high doses of statins, can be initiated to reduce cardiovascular events in part by reducing inflammation and stabilizing vulnerable plaques.
Chronic Marijuana Smoking Does Not Negatively Impact Select Blood Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Young, Physically Active Men and Women  [PDF]
Richard J. Bloomer, Matthew Butawan, Nicholas J. G. Smith
Health (Health) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/health.2018.107071
Abstract: Background: The smoking of Cannabis sativa, the marijuana plant, is increasing in popularity among young adults, even those who may be engaged in regular exercise (i.e., athletes). Research has shown the plant to have antioxidant and analgesic properties, but the effects on oxidative stress are conflicting. The purpose of this study was to measure blood oxidative stress and cardio-metabolic parameters in physically active men and women who regularly smoke marijuana. Methods: A total of 43 marijuana smokers (23 ± 4 years) and 22 non-smokers (24 ± 7 years), who did not smoke tobacco products, participated in this study. Both smokers and non-smokers engaged in regularly exercise, totaling several hours per week (6.4 ± 4.0 and 6.8 ± 4.4, respectively). Smokers reported using marijuana frequently during the week (4.5 ± 2.3 sessions) for a minimum of three consecutive months prior to participating in the study. Blood samples were collected from participants following a 12-hour fast (all food, drink [except water] and smoking) and analyzed for malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Heart rate and blood pressure was also measured and recorded. Results: No differences of statistical significance were noted for any variable (p > 0.05), with very similar values noted between smokers and non-smokers. Conclusions: In a sample of young, physically active men and women, regular marijuana smoking is not associated with untoward effects on select biomarkers of oxidative stress and cardio-metabolic health. These findings do not suggest that marijuana smoking can be done without harm, as limitations of this study need to be considered.
The Valuable Role of Endoscopy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Matthew J. Hamilton
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/467979
Abstract: Endoscopy is a valuable clinical tool for the clinician who takes care of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The role of endoscopy in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of IBD is discussed in this review. The central role that colonoscopy plays in screening for colon cancer in patients with longstanding IBD is also addressed. 1. Introduction Endoscopy is an essential clinical tool to assist in the diagnosis and management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) [1]. By direct visual inspection of the intestinal mucosa used in conjunction with histology from biopsies, a diagnosis of IBD can be made. Proper use of endoscopy with biopsies also enables evaluation of other disorders that may mimic the gastrointestinal features of IBD. Once the diagnosis of IBD is made, endoscopy is performed to assess the severity and location of inflammation, and to evaluate for other disease possibilities in the midst of a flare. Response to medical treatment or surveillance for postoperative disease recurrence may also be evaluated. Finally, endoscopy is used in colon cancer surveillance in those with longstanding IBD. The role of endoscopy in these areas will be reviewed in this paper. The emerging role of wireless capsule endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound in IBD will not be addressed. 2. Endoscopy in the Diagnosis of IBD Because IBD is a chronic lifelong condition that requires careful medical management and followup and can be associated with significant morbidity with hospitalizations and surgeries, establishing that the diagnosis is essential. Once IBD is suspected based on clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory, and/or radiology studies, endoscopy with mucosal biopsies adds considerably to the diagnosis [2, 3]. The index colonoscopy is critical in establishing the disease extent and severity. Special note must be made of the perianal area for tags, fissures, strictures, and fistula tract openings which may suggest Crohn’s disease (CD). The rectal mucosa must be carefully inspected and biopsied to evaluate for at least microscopic inflammation as involvement here is always present in ulcerative colitis (UC) [4]. Close attention to the mucosal features seen throughout the colon can help suggest IBD and even decipher between UC and CD. Sensitive endoscopic features to establish a diagnosis of CD are patchiness of the disease extent, apthous ulcers (Figure 1(a)), and cobblestoning [3] (Figure 1(b)). It is the penetrating nature into the deeper layers of the colon wall that can sometimes give the characteristic cobblestoning appearance. The discrete
Imaging of the Head and Neck following Radiation Treatment
J. Matthew Debnam
Pathology Research International , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/607820
Abstract: Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck occurs in approximately 40,000 patients annually in the United States and is often treated with radiation therapy. Radiological studies are obtained following treatment for head and neck malignancies to assess for recurrent tumor, posttreatment changes, and associated complications. Radiation treatment creates a difficult clinical picture for oncologists, head and neck surgeons, neuroradiologists, and neuropathologists. As post-treatment imaging studies are often discussed at radiology/pathology working conferences, knowledge of the imaging appearance of radiation-associated changes in the head and neck and the terminology used by neuroradiologists may not only aid in interpretation of the pathologic specimen, but also assist in communications with neuroradiologists and referring clinicians. 1. Introduction Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is diagnosed annually in approximately 40,000 patients in the United States [1]. Radiation therapy is one component of the treatment for this disease. This treatment leads to endothelial damage and fibrosis, causing impairment of vascular and lymphatic flow [2], producing hypoxic, hypocellular, and hypovascular tissue. This tissue is unable to maintain normal tissue turnover [3, 4] resulting in tissue necrosis, infection, and ulceration [4–6]. Imaging of the head and neck in patients treated for malignancy is routinely performed to evaluate for recurrent tumor and treatment complications and is complementary to the physical examination. CT examinations can evaluate the underlying soft tissues and bony structures, which cannot be visualized on physical examination. There are a variety of complications following radiation treatment to the neck and it is important for neuropathologists involved with head and neck cancer to be aware of these complications. This paper reviews treatment-related changes including osteoradionecrosis of the mandible, hyoid bone, and skull base, discusses the imaging appearance of soft tissue ulceration and fistulous tract formation, as well as intracranial radiation injury and radiation-associated lesions. Knowledge or the imaging appearance of radiation-associated changes in the head and neck and the terminology used by neuroradiologists may aid in interpretation of the pathologic specimen and will assist in communications with neuroradiologists, head and neck surgeons, and referring clinicians. 2. Mucosal Irritation and Edema Within the first two weeks of treatment, mucosal irritation and edema may occur. In the pharynx and larynx,
PRDM9 points the zinc finger at meiotic recombination hotspots
Matthew J Neale
Genome Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2010-11-2-104
Abstract: In most organisms, a central feature of meiosis is the induction of homologous recombination. In meiosis, homologous recombination involves searching for homologous DNA sequences on homologous chromosomes, not on sister chromatids as in somatic recombination. The result is the effective alignment of chromosome pairs (a prerequisite for their subsequent accurate segregation into separate gametes), and the reciprocal exchange of chromosomal regions between the two homologs to create new allele combinations (recombination). These rearrangements mean that each gamete contains a unique mixture of the parental alleles.In mammals, multiple lines of investigation (studies of pedigree, linkage disequilibrium and sperm typing) show that meiotic recombination events are not uniformly distributed across the genome. Instead, large areas with low median recombination rate are punctuated by discrete 1 to 2 kb regions called 'hotspots' that have a much higher recombination rate (reviewed in [1]). How this distribution arose and how it is maintained are topics of great interest to genome biologists.The punctate hotspot distribution observed in mammals is directly comparable to the detailed recombination maps also described in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where the molecular steps of meiotic recombination have been characterized most clearly [1,2]. In one way this similarity is unsurprising. All organisms seem to induce meiotic recombination by the same evolutionarily conserved process: DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation catalyzed by the topoisomerase-like protein Spo11 (reviewed in [1]). Thus, all meiotic recombination hotspots are also Spo11-DSB hotspots. However, what is it about Spo11-induced recombination that causes such discrete hotspots to arise?In budding yeast, DSB hotspots generally map to short 50 to 200 bp regions of open chromatin found almost exclusively adjacent to transcription promoters, but with no obvious DNA sequence motif (reviewed in [1]). I
BMC Bioinformatics comes of age
Matthew J Cockerill
BMC Bioinformatics , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-6-140
Abstract: In the past few months, developments have included a refreshed international editorial board, which now consists of over 50 leaders in the field, and a Bioinformatics and Genomics gateway that brings together relevant content from across BioMed Central's 130+ Open Access journals. And by the time you read this, BMC Bioinformatics should have its first official ISI Impact Factor. Impact factors certainly have their problems – a previous editorial in this journal[1] discussed the arbitrariness of the process by which ISI selects journals for tracking, and the resulting unnecessary time delay before Impact Factors become available. One thing is clear though – with BMC Bioinformatics having an Impact Factor, there are more reasons than ever to make it the first choice for your research.Looking back over the first 5 years of the journal, are any significant trends evident? One thing that is noticeable is the prevalence of the open-source model of software development. In fact more than 10% of all BMC Bioinformatics articles include the term "open-source". Hundreds of open-source bioinformatics projects are now hosted on sites such as bioinformatics.org and sourceforge.net. No doubt the similar philosophies of open-source software and Open Access publishing have been a factor in making BMC Bioinformatics one of BioMed Central's most successful journals. Two other emerging trends are, firstly, an increasing use of web service technology to connect disparate tools into analysis pipelines, and secondly, the development of systems to allow biological knowledge to be modelled and expressed in structured form. The linking factor between both these trends is that increasingly, as the data deluge continues, the 'users' of bioinformatics tools and the 'readers' of the biological literature, are likely to be computer systems rather than human beings.As bioinformatics tools have proliferated, the complexity of data analysis has increased. Often, a sequence of analysis steps each usi
Delayed impact: ISI's citation tracking choices are keeping scientists in the dark
Matthew J Cockerill
BMC Bioinformatics , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-5-93
Abstract: The scientific community has come to regard impact factors, calculated by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), as providing a quantitative and largely objective guide to which journals publish the best research.Although many problems can result from na?ve reliance on journal impact factors as a quality metric (especially when attempting to compare different fields) [1], the perception of many scientists is that, to get recognition and career advancement, they must publish in a journal with a good impact factor.An impact factor is defined by a simple calculation: "The impact factor is calculated by dividing the number of current citations to articles published in the two previous years by the total number of articles published in the two previous years."[2].This presents a major obstacle to publishers of new journals, since even the best journal won't have a proper impact factor for three years. But this situation is even worse than it sounds, as the clock only starts ticking when ISI starts "tracking" the journal.When does ISI start tracking the journal? It depends… According to ISI, the factors it uses to decide when to start tracking a journal include:· how many articles the journal publishes· how many competing journals ISI already tracks in the same discipline· the previous citation record of the journal's editorial board· the previous citation record of the authors who publish in the journal· the number of times the journal has been cited in journals that are already tracked by ISIUnfortunately, despite good intentions, this selectivity on ISI's part has the unintended consequence of concealing the success of new journals. A case in point is BMC Bioinformatics. Since it published its first article in 2000, this journal has rapidly established itself as one of the most active and successful in its field (see Figure 1).However, since ISI only began tracking BMC Bioinformatics in 2002, this will not translate into an official impact factor until June 20
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