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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10661 matches for " Matthew Herndon "
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Standard Model Higgs Boson Searches through the 125 GeV Boson Discovery
Gregorio Bernardi,Matthew Herndon
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/RevModPhys.86.479
Abstract: Searches for the standard model Higgs boson are reviewed from the 2 TeV run of the Tevatron with ~ 10 fb-1 of recorded data, and from the 7 and 8 TeV runs of the LHC, with ~ 5 and ~ 6 fb-1, respectively, i.e., until the July-2012 discovery of a new particle by the LHC experiments. The CMS and ATLAS Collaborations observe independently a new boson with mass ~ 125 GeV, mainly through its bosonic decays in gammagamma, ZZ, and W+W-, consistent with the standard model Higgs boson. The CDF and D0 experiments combine their results to see evidence of a similar particle produced in association with a vector boson and decaying fermionically in bbbar.
Reduction of Beta-Lactam Antimicrobial Activity in Staphylococcus aureus Abscesses by Neutrophil Alteration of Penicillin-Binding Protein 2  [PDF]
David M. Bamberger, Matthew Goers, Tim Quinn, Betty Herndon
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2012.22007
Abstract: We previously demonstrated that brief nonkilling neutrophil exposure diminishes the binding affinity of S. aureus penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2. We sought to investigate further the role of the neutrophil in the alteration of antimicrobial activity and its interaction with PBP-2 by studying the activity of cefotaxime, which highly binds to PBP 2, and cephalexin, which minimally binds to PBP 2. Using S. aureus, cultured in vitro in sterile-filtered normal and neutrophil depleted abscess fluid, we sought to demonstrate an in vivo significance of the neutrophil effect upon the activity of antimicrobials that target PBP-2 by studying the same antimicrobials in an experimental S. aureus abscess. Rats were implanted with perforated tissue cages and infected with S. aureus; some rats were neutrophil depleted by mechlorethamine. Abscess fluids from normal and neutropenic abscesses were harvested, pooled, sterile-filtered and stored for the time-kill studies. Treatment studies were performed by administering either 300 μg/kg/d cefotaxime or cephalexin for 7 days in other rats with 24 hour-old tissue-cage S. aureus abscesses. In time-kill studies, cefotaxime was highly active against stationary phase S. aureus in MHB and in neutropenic abscess fluid, but less active in the non-neutropenic abscess fluid (p < 0.05 compared to neutropenic abscess fluid). Cephalexin was equally active in neutropenic and non-noneutropenic abscess fluids, and more active than cefotaxime in the abscess model after 7 days of therapy (2.1 ± 1.7 log10 kill, p = 0.029 vs. 0.81 ± 2.5, p = NS). These data suggest that neutrophil exposure, which diminishes S. aureus PBP-2 binding affinity [or total quantity], also adversely affects the antimicrobial activity of cefotaxime, which binds to PBP-2, as compared to cephalexin. Altered PBP targets from neutrophil exposure may be a mechanism of antimicrobial resistance within abscesses.
Inseparability of science history and discovery
J. M. Herndon
History of Geo- and Space Sciences (HGSS) , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/hgss-1-25-2010
Abstract: Science is very much a logical progression through time. Progressing along a logical path of discovery is rather like following a path through the wilderness. Occasionally the path splits, presenting a choice; the correct logical interpretation leads to further progress, the wrong choice leads to confusion. By considering deeply the relevant science history, one might begin to recognize past faltering in the logical progression of observations and ideas and, perhaps then, to discover new, more precise understanding. The following specific examples of science faltering are described from a historical perspective: (1) Composition of the Earth's inner core; (2) Giant planet internal energy production; (3) Physical impossibility of Earth-core convection and Earth-mantle convection, and; (4) Thermonuclear ignition of stars. For each example, a revised logical progression is described, leading, respectively, to: (1) Understanding the endo-Earth's composition; (2) The concept of nuclear georeactor origin of geo- and planetary magnetic fields; (3) The invalidation and replacement of plate tectonics; and, (4) Understanding the basis for the observed distribution of luminous stars in galaxies. These revised logical progressions clearly show the inseparability of science history and discovery. A different and more fundamental approach to making scientific discoveries than the frequently discussed variants of the scientific method is this: An individual ponders and through tedious efforts arranges seemingly unrelated observations into a logical sequence in the mind so that causal relationships become evident and new understanding emerges, showing the path for new observations, for new experiments, for new theoretical considerations, and for new discoveries. Science history is rich in "seemingly unrelated observations" just waiting to be logically and causally related to reveal new discoveries.
Ordinary Chondrite Formation from two Components: Implied Connection to Planet Mercury
J. Marvin Herndon
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: Major element fractionation among chondrites has been discussed for decades as ratios relative to Si or Mg. Expressing ratios relative to Fe leads to a new relationship admitting the possibility that ordinary chondrite meteorites are derived from two components: one is a relatively undifferentiated, primitive component, oxidized like the CI or C1 chondrites; the other is a somewhat differentiated, planetary component, with oxidation state like the reduced enstatite chondrites. Such a picture would seem to explain for the ordinary chondrites, their major element compositions, their intermediate states of oxidation, and their ubiquitous deficiencies of refractory siderophile elements. I suggest that the planetary component of ordinary chondrite formation consists of planet Mercury's missing complement of elements.
Magnetic Field Generation in Planets and Satellites by Natural Nuclear Fission Reactors
J. Marvin Herndon
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: One of the most fundamental problems in physics has been to understand the nature of the mechanism that generates the geomagnetic field and the magnetic fields of other planets and satellites. For decades, the dynamo mechanism, thought to be responsible for generating the geomagnetic field and other planetary magnetic fields, has been ascribed to convection in each planet's iron-alloy core. Recently, I described the problems inherent in Earth-core convection and proposed instead that the geomagnetic field is produced by a dynamo mechanism involving convection, not in the fluid core, but in the electrically conductive, fluid, fission-product sub-shell of a natural nuclear fission reactor at the center of the Earth, called the georeactor. Here I set forth in detail the commonality in the Solar System of the matter like that of the inside of the Earth, which is my basis for generalizing the concept of planetary magnetic field generation by natural planetocentric nuclear fission reactors.
Nuclear Georeactor Generation of Earth's Geomagnetic Field
J. Marvin Herndon
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: The purpose of this communication is to suggest that the mechanism for generating the geomagnetic field and the energy source for powering it are one and the same, a nuclear georeactor at the center of the Earth. Toward this end, I: i) Present evidence that the nuclear georeactor fission-product sub-shell is fluid; ii)Suggest that the geomagnetic field is generated within the georeactor sub-shell, rather than within Earth's iron-alloy fluid core; iii) Describe why convection appears more feasible within the georeactor sub-shell than within the iron-alloy core; iv) Disclose additional relative physical advantages for georeactor sub-shell dynamo operation; and, v) Outline briefly the research that should be conducted to advance the state of knowledge of georeactor-geomagnetic field generation. The concept of geomagnetic field production by the nuclear georeactor is presented specifically for the Earth. The concepts and principles, however, are generally applicable to planetary magnetic field production.
Archimedean Proof of the Physical Impossibility of Earth Mantle Convection
J. Marvin Herndon
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: Eight decades ago, Arthur Holmes introducted the idea of mantle convection as a mechanism for continental drift. Five decades ago, continental drift was modified to become plate tectonics theory, which included mantle convection as an absolutely critical component. Using the submarine design and operation concept of "neutral buoyancy", which follows from Archimedes' discoveries, the concept of mantle convection is proven to be incorrect, concomitantly refuting plate tectonics, refuting all mantle convection models, and refuting all models that depend upon mantle convection.
Teaching About Nature's Nuclear Reactors
J. Marvin Herndon
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: Naturally occurring nuclear reactors existed in uranium deposits on Earth long before Enrico Fermi built the first man-made nuclear reactor beneath Staggs Field in 1942. In the story of their discovery, there are important lessons to be learned about scientific inquiry and scientific discovery. Now, there is evidence to suggest that the Earth's magnetic field and Jupiter's atmospheric turbulence are driven by planetary-scale nuclear reactors. The subject of planetocentric nuclear fission reactors can be a jumping off point for stimulating classroom discussions about the nature and implications of planetary energy sources and about the geomagnetic field. But more importantly, the subject can help to bring into focus the importance of discussing, debating, and challenging current thinking in a variety of areas.
Teaching Earth Dynamics: What's Wrong with Plate Tectonics Theory?
J. Marvin Herndon
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: Textbooks frequently extol plate tectonics theory without questioning what might be wrong with the theory or without discussing a competitive theory. How can students be taught to challenge popular ideas when they are only presented a one-sided view? In just a few pages, I describe more than a century of geodynamic ideas. I review what is wrong with plate tectonics theory and with Earth expansion theory, and describe my new Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics Theory, which unifies the two previous dominant theories in a self- consistent manner. Along the way, I disclose details of what real science is all about, details all too often absent in textbooks and classroom discussions. In these few pages, I only touch on highlights and just part the curtain a bit so that teachers might glimpse ways to bring to their students some of the richness and excitement of discovery that becomes evident when one begins to question prevailing, currently popular perceptions of our world.
Georeactor Variability and Integrity
J. Marvin Herndon
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: As a deep-Earth energy source, the planetocentric nuclear-fission georeactor concept is on a more secure scientific footing than the previous idea related to the assumed growth of the inner core. Unlike previously considered deep-Earth energy sources, which are essentially constant on a human time-scale, variability in nuclear fission reactors can arise from changes in composition and/or position of fuel, moderators, and neutron absorbers. Tantalizing circumstantial evidence invites inquiry into the possibility of short-term planetocentric nuclear fission reactor variability. This brief communication emphasizes the importance of scientific integrity and highlights the possibility of variable georeactor power output so that these might be borne in mind in future investigations, especially those related to the Earth's heat flux.
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