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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10564 matches for " Matthew Bohensky "
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Effect of Induced Anxiety on Respiratory Resistance Using Virtual Reality Simulation  [PDF]
Matthew Bohensky, Arthur T. Johnson, Jafar Vossoughi
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2017.72008
Abstract: Background: The purpose of this research was to identify significant changes to respiratory resistance resulting from anxiety inducing simulations presented through the medium of virtual reality (VR) goggles. The tested hypothesis was that a virtual reality simulation would produce anxiety in the wearer, and, with it, a statistically significant change in subject respiratory resistance. It was also suggested that there may be a significant difference in the levels of respiratory resistance responses of males and females. The Oculus Rift DK2 VR goggles with video software designed for the Rift were used to induce anxiety in the wearers. Methods: Respiratory resistances in both inhalation and exhalation directions were measured with the Airflow Perturbation Device (APD), a medical instrument used noninvasively. Two groups of subjects were tested: the test group watched a simulation deemed to be anxiety inducing, and the Control group watched a simulation determined to be non-anxiety inducing. Anxiety levels and respiratory resistance were measured before and during the simulation with two anxiety measures, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Subjective Units of Distress Scale (SUDS). Results: Statistically significant increases in anxiety level and respiratory resistance were found in the Test group, but no significant differences in anxiety and respiratory resistance levels were found in the control group. Anxiety affected both breathing phases similarly. For the gender hypothesis, we found that one of the tests used to measure anxiety, (the SUDS difference) was statistically significant, while the other test and the difference in respiratory resistance were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Results from this experiment show that anxiety level can be a significant contributor to the physiological measurement of respiratory resistance, and this can have implications for pulmonary function test environments and the psychological conditions of the patients being tested.
Evaluating Responses in Complex Adaptive Systems: Insights on Water Management from the Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA)
Erin Bohensky,Timothy Lynam
Ecology and Society , 2005,
Abstract: Ecosystem services are embedded in complex adaptive systems. These systems are riddled with nonlinearities, uncertainties, and surprises, and are made increasingly complex by the many human responses to problems or changes arising within them. In this paper we attempt to determine whether there are certain factors that characterize effective responses in complex systems. We construct a framework for response evaluation with three interconnected scopes or spatial and temporal domains: the scope of an impact, the scope of the awareness of the impact, and the scope of the power or influence to respond. Drawing from the experience of the Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA), we explore the applicability of this framework to the example of water management in southern Africa, where an ongoing paradigm shift in some areas has enabled a transition from supply-side to demand-side responses and the creation of new institutions to manage water across scales. We suggest that the most effective responses exhibit congruence between the impact, awareness, and power scopes; distribute impacts across space and time; expand response options; enhance social memory; and depend on power-distributing mechanisms. We conclude by stressing the need for sufficient flexibility to adapt responses to the specific, ever-evolving contexts in which they are implemented. Although our discussion focuses on water in southern Africa, we believe that the framework has broad applicability to a range of complex systems and places.
Discovering Resilient Pathways for South African Water Management: Two Frameworks for a Vision
Erin L. Bohensky
Ecology and Society , 2008,
Abstract: Factors that constitute resilience can themselves change over time in social-ecological systems. This poses a major challenge for understanding resilience and suggests greater investigation is needed of how social-ecological systems evolve through time and how to manage along more resilient pathways given continuous change. Resilient pathways account for the changing context of social-ecological systems, such as changing management discourses and their societal inclusiveness, changing system boundaries and external connections, and lingering consequences of past management actions. In this paper I use two well-known conceptual frameworks to explore change in social-ecological systems and associated resilience in the case of water management in South Africa, which is undergoing a major transformation: (1) the conceptual framework of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) and (2) the adaptive cycle described by Holling and others. Both frameworks, with minor adaptations, illustrate the system's shift from a centralized command-and-control style bureaucracy to a decentralized system guided by new legislation and a vision to balance efficiency, equity, and sustainability. During the former era, water managers attempted to maintain system stability and productivity through institutional and technical means that favored certain sectors of society, but resilience of the water management system declined as a result of increasingly unpopular policies and loss of ecosystem services. In using both frameworks, it becomes clear that the water management system contains two distinct social subsystems, representing South Africa's previously advantaged and disadvantaged populations, and that these do not progress through the phases of the MA framework and adaptive cycle uniformly. This implies particular challenges for achieving the water management vision: (1) the potential for management discourses to be manipulated by powerful groups, (2) equity issues that reflect new system boundaries that extend beyond South Africa's borders, and (3) past overallocation and poor management of water that make the previous level of privileges unattainable today. The South African water sector is a compelling case because of its dramatic transformation with as-yet unknown outcomes, but it presents challenges that are common among many large-scale social-ecological systems. With great international interest in operationalizing resilience definitions and frameworks, this exercise suggests the need to revisit definitions, continue applying these frameworks, and adapting them to captu
Indigenous Knowledge, Science, and Resilience: What Have We Learned from a Decade of International Literature on "Integration"?
Erin L. Bohensky,Yiheyis Maru
Ecology and Society , 2011, DOI: 10.5751/es-04342-160406
Abstract: Despite the increasing trend worldwide of integrating indigenous and scientific knowledge in natural resource management, there has been little stock-taking of literature on lessons learned from bringing indigenous knowledge and science together and the implications for maintaining and building social-ecological system resilience. In this paper we investigate: (1) themes, questions, or problems encountered for integration of indigenous knowledge and science; (2) the relationship between knowledge integration and social-ecological system resilience; and (3) critical features of knowledge integration practice needed to foster productive and mutually beneficial relationships between indigenous knowledge and science. We examine these questions through content analyses of three special journal issues and an edited book published in the past decade on indigenous, local, and traditional knowledge and its interface with science. We identified broad themes in the literature related to: (1) similarities and differences between knowledge systems; (2) methods and processes of integration; (3) social contexts of integration; and (4) evaluation of knowledge. A minority of papers discuss a relationship between knowledge integration and social-ecological system resilience, but there remains a lack of clarity and empirical evidence for such a relationship that can help distinguish how indigenous knowledge and knowledge integration contribute most to resilience. Four critical features of knowledge integration are likely to enable a more productive and mutually beneficial relationship between indigenous and scientific knowledge: new frames for integration, greater cognizance of the social contexts of integration, expanded modes of knowledge evaluation, and involvement of inter-cultural "knowledge bridgers."
Scenarios for Knowledge Integration: Exploring Ecotourism Futures in Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea
E. L. Bohensky,J. R. A. Butler,D. Mitchell
Journal of Marine Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/504651
Abstract: Scenario planning, a method for structured thinking about the future, offers an important tool for integrating scientific and stakeholder knowledge at different scales to explore alternative natural resource management and policy options. However, actual examples of such integration are rare. A scenario planning exercise was conducted in Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea, to integrate knowledge among scientists, ecotourism experts, and ecotourism stakeholders to explore possible futures for Milne Bay's nascent ecotourism industry. Four scenarios focused on climate change and technology, highlighting the risks and opportunities associated with rapid information exchange, and options to develop alternative ecotourism activities despite climate change impacts on natural assets. Although ecosystem-based management strategies were not investigated in detail by participants, all scenarios recognized and identified important cross-scale partnerships required to achieve sustainable management of natural resources and to promote ecotourism. An evaluation of changes in perceptions at the beginning and end of the scenario exercise suggests that participants became more aware of social and ecosystem processes occurring at broad spatial and temporal scales. 1. Introduction Marine ecosystem management operates in a context of high uncertainty due to processes that occur at and across multiple spatial and temporal scales [1, 2]. This is particularly so in the Pacific Islands, where uncertainty in marine management stems in part from local cultural norms that can influence resource use and conservation decisions [3–5] and a general lack of data to support decision-making [6, 7]. In this context of uncertainty, planning for the future presents a challenge and is confounded by complex system dynamics such as nonlinearity and reflexivity—people’s actions in response to future expectations can, in fact, lead to a different future than they expected [8]. Furthermore, beliefs about the future may be based on different epistemologies or knowledge systems [9]. Indeed, because the future is yet to happen, there is no “true” state of the future and, therefore, alternative characterizations or images of the future that illustrate a range of possible states may collectively provide the most insight into what the future might hold [10]. Scenario planning is a structured process of exploring the future in situations when uncertainty is high and controllability is low [11]. Alternative scenarios produced through such a process are in effect conceptual models or stories that
Linking Futures across Scales: a Dialog on Multiscale Scenarios
Reinette Biggs,Ciara Raudsepp-Hearne,Carol Atkinson-Palombo,Erin Bohensky
Ecology and Society , 2007,
Abstract: Scenario analysis is a useful tool for exploring key uncertainties that may shape the future of social-ecological systems. This paper explores the methods, costs, and benefits of developing and linking scenarios of social-ecological systems across multiple spatial scales. Drawing largely on experiences in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, we suggest that the desired degree of cross-scale linkage depends on the primary aim of the scenario exercise. Loosely linked multiscale scenarios appear more appropriate when the primary aim is to engage in exploratory dialog with stakeholders. Tightly coupled cross-scale scenarios seem to work best when the main objective is to further our understanding of cross-scale interactions or to assess trade-offs between scales. The main disadvantages of tightly coupled cross-scale scenarios are that their development requires substantial time and financial resources, and that they often suffer loss of credibility at one or more scales. The reasons for developing multiscale scenarios and the expectations associated with doing so therefore need to be carefully evaluated when choosing the desired degree of cross-scale linkage in a particular scenario exercise.
Data Linkage: A powerful research tool with potential problems
Megan A Bohensky, Damien Jolley, Vijaya Sundararajan, Sue Evans, David V Pilcher, Ian Scott, Caroline A Brand
BMC Health Services Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-10-346
Abstract: A narrative review, using structured search methods was undertaken. Key words "data linkage" and Mesh term "medical record linkage" were applied to Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL databases between 1991 and 2007. Abstract inclusion criteria were; the article attempted an empirical evaluation of methodological issues relating to data linkage and reported on patient characteristics, the study design included analysis of matched versus unmatched records, and the report was in English. Included articles were grouped thematically according to patient characteristics that were compared between matched and unmatched records.The search identified 1810 articles of which 33 (1.8%) met inclusion criteria. There was marked heterogeneity in study methods and factors investigated. Characteristics that were unevenly distributed among matched and unmatched records were; age (72% of studies), sex (50% of studies), race (64% of studies), geographical/hospital site (93% of studies), socio-economic status (82% of studies) and health status (72% of studies).A number of relevant patient or population factors may be associated with incomplete data linkage resulting in systematic bias in reported clinical outcomes. Readers should consider these factors in interpreting the reported results of data linkage studies.Reports in the United States [1], Canada [2], United Kingdom [3] and Australia [4] have recommended increasing the use of existing data, such as administrative and clinical registry data, to provide comparative clinical performance data to health services, hospitals, clinical units and clinicians via internal channels and to consumers via publicly accessible media. Although a limited number of patient outcomes, such as in-hospital mortality, complication and re-admission rates are currently available from some administrative data sources, obtaining data from several different databases pertaining to the one individual or participant using data linkage is often necessary to ensure adequa
The SMS Chaum Mix  [PDF]
Matthew Rothmeyer, Dale R. Thompson, Matthew Moccaro
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2014.24010
Abstract:

Mobile devices such as smartphones are prime candidates for the application of mixing techniques to provide anonymity for small groups of individuals numbering 30 to 40 members. In this work, a Chaum mix inspired, smartphone based network that uses the Short Message Service (SMS) is proposed. This system leverages both techniques used by current anonymity networks as well as knowledge gained from current and past research to make messages private and untraceable. Previously published attacks to anonymous systems are addressed as well as mitigation techniques.

pHluorin2: an enhanced, ratiometric, pH-sensitive green florescent protein  [PDF]
Matthew John Mahon
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2011.23021
Abstract: Green florescent protein (GFP) variants that are sen-sitive to changes in pH are invaluable reagents for the analysis of protein dynamics associated with both endo- and exocytotic vesicular trafficking. Ratiomet-ric pHluorin is a GFP variant that displays a bimodal excitation spectrum with peaks at 395 and 475 nm and an emission maximum at 509 nm. Upon acidi-fication, pHluorin excitation at 395 nm decreases with a corresponding increase in the excitation at 475 nm. GFP2, a GFP variant that contains mammalian-ized codons and the folding enhancing mutation F64L, displays ~8-fold higher florescence compared to pHluorin upon excitation at 395 nm. Using GFP2 as a template, an enhanced ratiometric pHluorin (pHluorin2) construct was developed to contain fully mammalianized codons, the F64L mutation and ten of the thirteen pHluorin-specific mutations. As a result, pHluorin2 displays markedly higher flores-cence when compared to pHluorin while maintaining the ratiometric pH-sensitivity. Unlike native pHluorin, pHluorin2 expressed in the ligand-binding domain of the parathyroid hormone 1 receptor is readily detectable by confocal microscopy and dis-plays a marked increase in florescence upon ligand-induced endocytosis to intracellular vesicles. Thus, pHluorin2 displays enhanced florescence while sustaining ratiometric pH-sensitivity, representing a significant improvement for this methodological ap-proach.
Internet of Things: Services and Applications Categorization  [PDF]
Matthew Gigli, Simon Koo
Advances in Internet of Things (AIT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ait.2011.12004
Abstract: In this paper we attempt to categorize the services provided by the Internet of Things (IoT) in order to help application developers build upon a base service. First we introduce the four main categories of services, and then follow by providing a number of examples of each of the service categories so as to provide an example of how each type of service might be implemented, and how it can be used to build an IoT application.
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