oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Any time

3 ( 1 )

2019 ( 2 )

2018 ( 4 )

2017 ( 1 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2864 matches for " Matteo Gulino "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /2864
Display every page Item
The Old Roots of the Italian Health Legislation
Caterina Bassetti,Matteo Gulino,Valentina Gazzaniga,Paola Frati
Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: urrent Italian Health legislation is a paradigmatic example of a system based on the fundamental principles of the safeguard and right to individual health.This raises the question of its evolution and gradual shaping stemming from very old and deep roots. Such a long process started in the second half of the 19th century, when the newly reunified Kingdom of Italy, born in 1861, started to face the issue of a very obsolete health system. A number of laws sequentially provided the regulation of physician activities and health care for all people in need, regardless of their economic status and without any religious or political belief distinction, and culminate in the “Comprehensive Law on Health” enacted in 1934. These whole systems of laws have oriented the legislation on health care and organization, becoming a fundamental landmark until the promulgation of the Italian Constitution in 1948.
Hedgehog signaling pathway and its targets for treatment in basal cell carcinoma
Cucchi D, Occhione MA, Gulino A, De Smaele E
Journal of Experimental Pharmacology , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JEP.S28553
Abstract: gehog signaling pathway and its targets for treatment in basal cell carcinoma Review (776) Total Article Views Authors: Cucchi D, Occhione MA, Gulino A, De Smaele E Published Date December 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 173 - 185 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JEP.S28553 Received: 06 September 2012 Accepted: 02 November 2012 Published: 17 December 2012 Danilo Cucchi,1,* Maria Anna Occhione,2,* Alberto Gulino,2,3 Enrico De Smaele1 1Department of Experimental Medicine, 2Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, 3Center of Life NanoScience @ La Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Rome, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is the most common type of cancer and accounts for up to 40% of all cancers in the US, with a growing incidence rate over recent decades in all developed countries. Surgery is curative for most patients, although it leaves unaesthetic scars, but those that develop locally advanced or metastatic BCC require different therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, patients with BCC present a high risk of developing additional tumors. The increasing economic burden and the morbidity of BCC render primary interest in the development of targeted treatments for this disease. Among the molecular signals involved in the development of BCC, the critical role of the morphogenetic Hedgehog (Hh) pathway has become evident. This pathway is found altered and activated in almost all BCCs, both sporadic and inherited. Given the centrality of the Hh pathway in the pathophysiology of BCC, the primary efforts to identify molecular targets for the topical or systemic treatment of this cancer have focused on the Hh components. Several Hh inhibitors have been so far identified – from the first identified natural cyclopamine to the recently Food and Drug Administration-approved synthetic vismodegib – most of which target the Hh receptor Smoothened (either its function or its translocation to the primary cilium). Other molecules await further characterization (bisamide compounds), while drugs currently approved for other diseases such as itraconazole (an antimicotic agent) and vitamin D3 have been tested on BCC with encouraging results. The outcomes of the numerous ongoing clinical trials are expected to expand the field in the very near future. Further research is needed to obtain drugs targeting downstream components of the Hh pathway (eg, Gli) or to exploit combinatorial therapies (eg, with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors or retinoids) in order to overcome potential drug resistance.
HEPATITIS B AND C IN HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANT
Anna Locasciulli,Barbara Montante,Emanuela Morelli,Virginia Gulino
Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.4084/mjhid.2011.
Abstract: Although the risk of acquisition of hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus through blood products has considerably reduced since the last decade, some infected patients are candidates to stem cell transplantation. Others may have no alternative than an infected donor. In all these cases, recipients of transplant are prone to short and long term liver complications. The evolution of liver tests under chemotherapy before transplant may give useful information to anticipate on the risk of hepatitis reactivation after transplant, both for HBv and HCv. More than sixty percent of the patients who are HBsAg-positive before transplant reactivate after transplant, and 3% develop acute severe liver failure. Because both viral replication and immune reconstitution are the key factors for reactivation, it is crucial to closely follow liver function tests and viral load during the first months of transplant, and to pay a special attention in slowly tapering the immunosuppression in these patients. Lamivudine reduces HBv viremia, but favors the emergence of HBv polymerase gene mutants and should be individually discussed. Both in case of HBv or HCv hepatitis reactivation with ALT > 10N concomitantly to an increase in viral load at time of immune reconstitution, steroids should be given. In case there is no alternative than a HBv or HCv positive geno-identical donor, the risk of viral hepatitis, including acute liver failure and late complications, should be balanced with the benefit of transplant in a given situation.
Hedgehog signaling pathway and its targets for treatment in basal cell carcinoma
Cucchi D,Occhione MA,Gulino A,De Smaele E
Journal of Experimental Pharmacology , 2012,
Abstract: Danilo Cucchi,1,* Maria Anna Occhione,2,* Alberto Gulino,2,3 Enrico De Smaele1 1Department of Experimental Medicine, 2Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, 3Center of Life NanoScience @ La Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Rome, Italy*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is the most common type of cancer and accounts for up to 40% of all cancers in the US, with a growing incidence rate over recent decades in all developed countries. Surgery is curative for most patients, although it leaves unaesthetic scars, but those that develop locally advanced or metastatic BCC require different therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, patients with BCC present a high risk of developing additional tumors. The increasing economic burden and the morbidity of BCC render primary interest in the development of targeted treatments for this disease. Among the molecular signals involved in the development of BCC, the critical role of the morphogenetic Hedgehog (Hh) pathway has become evident. This pathway is found altered and activated in almost all BCCs, both sporadic and inherited. Given the centrality of the Hh pathway in the pathophysiology of BCC, the primary efforts to identify molecular targets for the topical or systemic treatment of this cancer have focused on the Hh components. Several Hh inhibitors have been so far identified – from the first identified natural cyclopamine to the recently Food and Drug Administration-approved synthetic vismodegib – most of which target the Hh receptor Smoothened (either its function or its translocation to the primary cilium). Other molecules await further characterization (bisamide compounds), while drugs currently approved for other diseases such as itraconazole (an antimicotic agent) and vitamin D3 have been tested on BCC with encouraging results. The outcomes of the numerous ongoing clinical trials are expected to expand the field in the very near future. Further research is needed to obtain drugs targeting downstream components of the Hh pathway (eg, Gli) or to exploit combinatorial therapies (eg, with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors or retinoids) in order to overcome potential drug resistance.Keywords: BCC, Hedgehog, vismodegib, Smo inhibitors, Gli antagonists, retinoids, itraconazole, vitamin D3
Somatic cell mutations in cerebral tissue of cattle affected by bovine spongiform encephalopathy  [PDF]
Matteo Busconi, Corrado Fogher
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/as.2010.11005
Abstract: In animals the prion disease includes sheep and goat scrapie and the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). While several polymorphisms of the prion (PRNP) gene have been identified in sheep and some of them have been associated with susceptibility to scrapie, few mutations are reported in cattle and no correlation with BSE have been demonstrated. Genetic screening for mutants in the PRNP gene of 21 BSE positive animals by direct sequencing of the amplified gene, using DNA extracted from brain as template, confirmed that only few polymorphisms are present. However DNA molecules cloned and sequenced from the population of fragments considering a total of 90 clones from 9 BSE positive and 70 clones from 7 BSE negative animals, gave a highly significant differences in the frequency of mutations (p = 0.01). The high frequency and type of variants found cannot be explained only with misincorporation error of the Taq polymerase. Interestingly one of the mutations found in the BSE positive animals (F209S) corresponds to a mutant that causes a familiar form of prion disease in humans (F198S). These data can be explained with the presence of somatic mutations modifying the PRNP gene in single brain cells.
Related Party Transactions and Financial Performance: Is There a Correlation? Empirical Evidence from Italian Listed Companies  [PDF]
Matteo Pozzoli, Marco Venuti
Open Journal of Accounting (OJAcct) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojacct.2014.31004
Abstract: Related party transactions (RPTs) can have a dual nature. On one hand, these transactions may be considered sound business exchanges, fulfilling the economic needs of the company. On the other hand, RPTs may be considered a mechanism to exploit company resources as a consequence of existing conflicting interests. This study takes into account both aspects. Specifically, this paper investigates the relation between RPTs and companies’ financial performance, and thus verifies whether there is an association between these kinds of transactions and earnings management. This study examines the existence of this relation as regards the universe of Italian listed companies for the period of 2008-2011. According to the related data analysis, the research concludes that related party transactions and companies’ financial performance results are not correlated and that there is no evidence of a cause-effect relation. Therefore, related party transactions do not appear—thanks also to the existence of control mechanisms—a means used by Italian listed companies to realize earnings management, especially earnings smoothing.
Bruno Migliorini nella cultura del Novecento.
Matteo Santipolo,Matteo Viale
Italiano LinguaDue , 2011, DOI: 10.6092/2037-3597/1251
Abstract: RECENSIONE
Effects of Heliox in Stable COPD Patients at Rest and during Exercise
Matteo Pecchiari
Pulmonary Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/593985
Abstract: Heliox has been administered to stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients at rest and during exercise on the assumption that this low density mixture would have reduced work of breathing, dynamic hyperinflation, and, consequently, dyspnea sensation. Contrary to these expectations, beneficial effects of heliox in these patients at rest have been reported only sporadically, and the majority of the studies performed until now suggests that heliox is not a therapeutic option in spontaneously breathing resting COPD patients. On the other hand, when it is administered to COPD patients exercising at a constant work rate, heliox systematically decreases dyspnea sensation, and, often but not always, increases exercise tolerance. For these reasons, heliox has been evaluated as a non pharmacological tool to power rehabilitation programs. The conflicting results provided by the published trials probably point at a substantial heterogeneity of the COPD patients population in terms of respiratory mechanics and gas exchange. Therefore, further studies, aimed to the identification of mechanisms conditioning the response of exercising COPD patients to heliox, are warranted, before heliox administration, which is costly and cumbersome, can be routinely used in rehabilitation programs. 1. Introduction The clinical use of helium-oxygen mixtures (heliox) in patients with asthma or with larynx or trachea obstruction was first described in 1934 by Barach [1]. From then, the interest in the clinical use of heliox declined, in part because of the discovery of bronchodilators and in part because of the loss of many locations of natural helium during the Second World War [2]. The enthusiasm for heliox resurged in the late 1980s, concomitantly with increased mortality from asthma [3]. At present, the use of heliox has been advocated for a number of conditions, like upper airway obstruction, croup, acute asthma, and postextubation stridor [4]. Heliox has been administered in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients on the assumption that this gas mixture, because of its low density, is able to reduce pulmonary resistance. It is thus worth to briefly revise the physical properties of heliox and their impact on the dynamics of the respiratory system. 2. Physical Properties of Helium Helium is the lighter element after hydrogen and it heads the noble gas series in the periodic table, with an atomic number of 2 and an atomic weight of 4?g?mol?1. Due to its low melting and boiling point, at ambient temperature and pressure it exists as a gas. Helium is
Amplification of Trial-to-Trial Response Variability by Neurons in Visual Cortex
Matteo Carandini
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020264
Abstract: The visual cortex responds to repeated presentations of the same stimulus with high variability. Because the firing mechanism is remarkably noiseless, the source of this variability is thought to lie in the membrane potential fluctuations that result from summated synaptic input. Here this hypothesis is tested through measurements of membrane potential during visual stimulation. Surprisingly, trial-to-trial variability of membrane potential is found to be low. The ratio of variance to mean is much lower for membrane potential than for firing rate. The high variability of firing rate is explained by the threshold present in the function that converts inputs into firing rates. Given an input with small, constant noise, this function produces a firing rate with a large variance that grows with the mean. This model is validated on responses recorded both intracellularly and extracellularly. In neurons of visual cortex, thus, a simple deterministic mechanism amplifies the low variability of summated synaptic inputs into the large variability of firing rate. The computational advantages provided by this amplification are not known.
Using Natural Gradients to Infer a Potential Response to Climate Change: An Example on the Reproductive Performance of Dactylis Glomerata L.
Matteo Dainese
Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/biology1030857
Abstract: An understanding of the climate conditions governing spatial variation in the reproductive performance of plants can provide important information about the factors characterizing plant community structure, especially in the context of climate change. This study focuses on the effect of climate on the sexual reproductive output of Dactylis glomerata L., a perennial grass species widely distributed throughout temperate regions. An indirect space-for-time substitution procedure was used. Sixty mountain populations of the same target species were surveyed along an elevation gradient, and then, a relevant climate model was used to infer a potential response to climate change over time. Within each population, information on the number of stems, seed number and seed mass were collected. Resource investment in reproduction (RIR) was quantified as seed number × seed mass. A clear variation was found in the reproductive performance of D. glomerata along the elevational gradient: RIR improved with increasing temperature. The best model included only one term: the maximum temperature of the warmest month. This study demonstrates that mountain ecosystems offer particularly good opportunities to study climate effects over relatively short distances and suggests that warming will enhance D. glomerata’s reproductive output throughout its elevational range. Furthermore, it can be hypothesized that a potential migration of D. glomerata toward higher altitudes may occur in response to accelerated climate change.
Page 1 /2864
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.