Abstract:
This is an English translation of the manuscript which appeared in Surikaiseki Kenkyusho Kokyuroku No. 1055 (1998). The asymptotic efficiency of statistical estimate of unknown quantum states is discussed, both in adaptive and collective settings. Aaptive bounds are written in sigle letterized form, and collective bounds are written in limitting expression. Our arguments clarify mathematical regularity conditions.

Abstract:
Entanglement concentration from many copies of unknown pure states is discussed, and we propose the protocol which not only achieves entropy rate, but also produces the perfect maximally entangled state. Our protocol is induced naturally from symmetry of $n$-tensored pure state, and is optimal for all the protocols which concentrates entanglement from unknown pure states, in the sense of failure probability. In the proof of optimality, the statistical estimation theory plays a key role, for concentrated entanglement gives a natural estimate of the entropy of entanglement.

Abstract:
We simply construct a quantum universal variable-length source code in which, independent of information source, both of the average error and the probability that the coding rate is greater than the entropy rate $H(rho_p)$, tend to 0. If $H(rho_p)$ is estimated, we can compress the coding rate to the admissible rate $H(rho_p)$ with a probability close to 1. However, when we perform a naive measurement for the estimation of $H(rho_p)$, the input state is demolished. By smearing the measurement, we successfully treat the trade-off between the estimation of $H(rho_p)$ and the non-demolition of the input state. Our protocol can be used not only for the Schumacher's scheme but also for the compression of entangled states.

Abstract:
We derived an asymptotic bound the accuracy of the estimation when we use the quantum correlation in the measuring apparatus. It is also proved that this bound can be achieved in any model in the quantum two-level system. Moreover, we show that this bound of such a model cannot be attained by any quantum measurement with no quantum correlation in the measuring apparatus. That is, in such a model, the quantum correlation can improve the accuracy of the estimation in an asymptotic setting.

Abstract:
Using invariance of the $n$-th tensored state w.r.t. the $n$-th symmetric group, we propose a 'variable length' universal entanglement concentration without classical communication. Like variable length data compression, arbitrary unknown states are concentrated into perfect Bell states and not approximate Bell states and the number of Bell states obtained is equal to the optimal rate asymptotically with the probability 1. One of the point of our scheme is that we need no classical communication at all. Using this method, we can construct a universal teleportation and a universal dense coding.

Abstract:
We propose a new protocol of \textit{universal} entanglement concentration, which converts many copies of an \textit{unknown} pure state to an \textit{% exact} maximally entangled state. The yield of the protocol, which is outputted as a classical information, is probabilistic, and achives the entropy rate with high probability, just as non-universal entanglement concentration protocols do. Our protocol is optimal among all similar protocols in terms of wide varieties of measures either up to higher orders or non-asymptotically, depending on the choice of the measure. The key of the proof of optimality is the following fact, which is a consequence of the symmetry-based construction of the protocol: For any invariant measures, optimal protocols are found out in modifications of the protocol only in its classical output, or the claim on the product. We also observe that the classical part of the output of the protocol gives a natural estimate of the entropy of entanglement, and prove that that estimate achieves the better asymptotic performance than any other (potentially global) measurements.

Abstract:
We construct an optimal quantum universal variable-length code that achieves the admissible minimum rate, i.e., our code is used for any probability distribution of quantum states. Its probability of exceeding the admissible minimum rate exponentially goes to 0. Our code is optimal in the sense of its exponent. In addition, its average error asymptotically tends to 0.

Abstract:
We show that the capacity region of the broadcast channel with confidential messages does not change when the strong security criterion is adopted instead of the weak security criterion traditionally used. We also show a construction method of coding for the broadcast channel with confidential messages by using an arbitrary given coding for the broadcast channel with degraded message sets.

Abstract:
We determine the capacity region of the secure multiplex coding with a common message, and evaluate the mutual information and the equivocation rate of a collection of secret messages to the second receiver (eavesdropper), which were not evaluated by Yamamoto et al.

Abstract:
We consider the random linear precoder at the source node as a secure network coding. We prove that it is strongly secure in the sense of Harada and Yamamoto and universal secure in the sense of Silva and Kschischang, while allowing arbitrary small but nonzero mutual information to the eavesdropper. Our security proof allows statistically dependent and non-uniform multiple secret messages, while all previous constructions of weakly or strongly secure network coding assumed independent and uniform messages, which are difficult to be ensured in practice.