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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 753 matches for " Mats Clarsund "
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Evaluation of ColdZyme Mouth Spray for the Protection against Common Cold in Elite Athletes to Reduce Unwanted Absence from Training and Competition  [PDF]
Mats Clarsund
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2017.73010
Abstract: This study evaluated the protective effect of ColdZyme on common cold infections in elite athletes from three different sports (biathlon, ice-hockey and handball), and assessed the level of reduction in corresponding sick days. The biathlon team (n = 11) and the ice-hockey team (n = 29) significantly reduced the average number of sick days by 51% respectively 67% compared to historical data. No historical data on sick days was available for the handball team but 76% of those who experiences a cold during the study period reported little or very little impact on training and competition. Conclusion: Using ColdZyme may be an easy and practical way for elite athletes to protect themselves against the common cold and to prevent corresponding unwanted absence from training and competition.
Evaluation of ColdZyme Mouth Spray against Common Cold in Preschool Staff  [PDF]
Mats Clarsund
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2017.74014
Abstract:
The common cold is one of the most frequently encountered infectious diseases in humans and, despite the modest severity in most cases; it presents a significant economic burden upon society and individuals. ColdZyme Mouth Spray (ColdZyme, Enzymatica AB, Lund, Sweden) is a mouth spray intended to reduce the probability of catching a cold and can also help shorten the duration of a cold if used at an early stage of the infection, by forming a barrier on the oropharyngeal mucous membrane. This study evaluated the effect of ColdZyme on common cold related sick-leave in preschool (kindergarten) staff. Fifteen preschool staff members were evaluated over a 6-month period and ColdZyme was used according to instructions. Sick-leave days were recorded and compared to historical data. The number of average sick leave days decreased during the period from 7.4 days to 4.1 days (p = 0.04). It is notable that, if occurring, the majority of subjects perceived a common cold infection as milder than usual. Conclusion: Using ColdZyme to apply a barrier to the pharyngeal mucous membrane may be an easy and practical way to prevent or reduce infections and corresponding sick leave in personnel from the preschool environment.
Evaluation of ColdZyme Mouth Spray against Common Cold in Elderly Care Personnel  [PDF]
Mats Clarsund, Christina Br?kenhielm Persson
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2017.71002
Abstract: ColdZyme? Mouth Spray (ColdZyme) is a mouth spray intended to reduce the probability of catching a cold and/or can help shorten the duration of a cold if used at an early stage of the infection, by forming a barrier on the pharyngeal mucous membrane. This study evaluated the preventative effect of ColdZyme on common cold infections in personnel at elderly care facilities, and assessed the level of reduction in corresponding sick leave. The number of sick-leave days for the personnel decreased from an average of 5.2 days to 3.7 days (29%) when using ColdZyme compared to control period (p = 0.054). 63% of those who had a cold reported the symptoms to be milder than previous colds. Conclusion: Using ColdZyme? Mouth Spray to apply a barrier to the oropharynx may be an easy and practical way to prevent or reduce infections of the common cold virus and corresponding sick leave in personnel working in elderly care.
A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Clinical Study on ColdZyme® Mouth Spray against Rhinovirus-Induced Common Cold  [PDF]
Mats Clarsund, Marcus Fornbacke, Lena Uller, Sebastian L. Johnston, Cecilia Ahlstr?m Emanuelsson
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2017.74013
Abstract:
Common colds incur significant costs in terms of sick leave and personal discomfort for affected individuals. This study investigated the performance of ColdZyme Mouth Spray (ColdZyme), a protective barrier against common cold, in rhinovirus-inoculated healthy volunteers. This randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted on 46 healthy volunteers inoculated with rhinovirus 16 via the nose. Subjects self-administered ColdZyme or placebo 6 times daily for 11 days. Symptoms were recorded daily in a diary. Rhinovirus 16 in nasal and oropharyngeal samples at days 0, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 10 were quantified by RT-qPCR. The primary outcome measure was the reduction in viral load in oropharyngeal samples. Rhinovirus 16 was only detected in 35 out of 46 inoculated subjects. Exploratory analysis measuring the total viral load (i.e., area under the curve (AUC)) for days 3 - 10 in successfully inoculated subjects found that ColdZyme treatment resulted in a lower total viral load in the oropharynx (p = 0.023). In subjects who experienced symptomatic common cold, irrespectively, if virus were detected, treatment with ColdZyme resulted in a reduction in the number of days with common cold symptoms from 6.5 to 3.0 days (p = 0.014) in comparison to placebo. ColdZyme reduced virus infection in the oropharynx and reduced the number of days with common cold symptoms and highlights the possible importance of the oropharynx in common cold infections. Suitable outcome measures for a feasible study on ColdZyme are total viral load in the oropharynx in subjects having detectable virus present in nasal or oropharyngeal samples.
Substance Identification in Anti-Doping Control by Means of Mass Spectrometry. Data Reduction and Decision Criteria  [PDF]
Mats Larsson
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation (JASMI) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jasmi.2011.12003
Abstract: A real doping case for which the national-level reviewing body deemed it probable that a misidentification of the national-level athlete’s sample occurred at the WADA accredited laboratory, thus making the athlete in this case strictly anonymous, is used to discuss criteria for data reduction and tolerance windows in GC-MS and LC-MS/MS. Stricter criteria for data reduction would remedy the present ambiguities.
Depressive Expression and Anti-Depressive Protection in Adolescence: Stress, Positive Affect, Motivation and Self-Efficacy  [PDF]
Mats Lindahl, Trevor Archer
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.46070
Abstract:

The present study aims at identifying predisposing and protective factors for the purpose of showing their respective contribution and interaction for adolescents’ stress disorders and depressive states, and to find key attributes for the identification of pupils at risk in a normal population of adolescents. The study was performed with 211 high-school pupils over a period of 18 months. The results are reported from the pupils participating in 4 consecutive administrations of the instruments (N = 115). The following instruments were used: “Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale”, “Stress”, “Helplessness”, “Hopelessness”, “Uppsala Sleep inventory”, “Barratt’s Impulsiveness Scale”, “Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale”, “Life Orientation Test”, “General Self-Efficacy”, “Locus of Control”, “Situational Intrinsic Motivational Scale”. The Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale were also used to categorize participants into four affective profiles: “self-fulfilling”, high affective”, “low affective” and “self-destructive”. Linear regression analyses showed that situational depression (hopelessness) was predicted by depressive. Negative affect predicted stress, which in turn predicted general and situational depressiveness. General self-efficacy, positive affect and Identified regulation were found to be protective factors to both general and situational depressiveness. Depressiveness was found to be linked to the “self-destructive” affective personality type. “Negative affect” and distractiveness are suggested as markers for pupils at risk, whereas positive affect, self-efficacy and identified regulation appear to have protecting roles.

Productivity and Efficiency in the Development of the Swedish Construction Sector  [PDF]
Anne Landin, Mats Oberg
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2014.46038
Abstract:

The measurement of productivity and efficiency of activities in the Swedish construction sector is examined. Understanding past and present levels of productivity is necessary to steer emerging and future developments aimed at increasing efficiency of construction. The absence of purposeful measurement methods and tools for determining current and targeted levels of productivity creates confusion for clients, designers, constructors and end-users, who are unable to make confident forecasts of costs and revenues or benefits over project life cycles. The findings of an investigation using panels of expert practitioners guided by senior researchers revealed shortcomings in the understanding of factors of driving productivity as well as uncertainty over where improvements might be achieved. The significance of the findings is that methods and tools must be calibrated to current and emerging construction practices and their technical bases rather than continuing with measurements that were conceived for earlier processes and products. The paper concludes with an outline of further research aimed at improving self-learning in regard to both process and product as part of a broad response to raising efficiency through innovation.

Managing Dynamics in Corporate Networks  [PDF]
Mike Danilovic, Mats Winroth
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2014.21004
Abstract: A crucial issue in collaborating in manufacturing corporate networks between different companies is to identify to what extent different strategic and operational decisions need to be coordinated between the involved companies. In this paper, we elaborate on the issue of synchronization and coordination of information flow based on interconnectivities between companies in order to coordinate a corporate network by the means of DSM, Dependence Structure Matrix. The results show that DSM can be used to identify interconnectivities, dependencies on information flow among actors in a network and to identify which information needs to be shared between companies in the network.
Endometrial Polyps: Which Patients Should Be Selected for Hysteroscopic Surgery?
—A Study Using Data from the Swedish National Quality Registry of Gynecological Surgery
 [PDF]

Stefan Zacharias, Mats L?fgren
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2015.511084
Abstract: Objective: To illuminate the findings after hysteroscopic surgery of endometrial polyps. Method: Data were extracted from The Swedish National Quality Registry of Gynecological Surgery. Endometrial polyps were identified in 1934 cases in a total of 4512 hysteroscopic operations. Data on all hysteroscopic procedures registered as surgery of endometrial polyps between 1997 and January 2013 were analyzed with logistic regression analysis and effect size was calculated. Main outcome measure was malignancy in endometrial polyps. Results: The most frequently reported symptoms of endometrial polyps were: postmenopausal bleeding, metrorrhagia, pain, and infertility. Among the registered biopsies, there were: 30 malignancies (1.8%), and 41 dysplasias (2.5%). The remaining polyps were benign. Only 1/30 cancer patients were <52 years old (p < 0.001). Among those women with dysplasia, 12/41 (29%) were <52 years old (p = 0.07). All cancer patients at age ≥52 had postmenopausal bleeding. The <52-year-old cancer patient had treatment-resistant bleeding. Increasing weight was a risk factor associated with tissue alterations in endometrial polyps (p = 0.014), controlling for age as a confounding factor. Conclusion: Hysteroscopic surgery should be recommended for women with postmenopausal bleeding and presence of endometrial polyps according to the findings of this study. The results further indicate a low risk of malignancy in premenopausal women <52 years with endometrial polyps. In those cases, it seems to be safe to refrain from surgery.
Pharmacological Treatment of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a Longitudinal Observational Study: Estimated Treatment Effect Strengthened by Improved Covariate Balance  [PDF]
Ole Klungs?yr, Mats Fredriksen
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2017.76070
Abstract: An improved method for estimation of causal effects from observational data is demonstrated. Applications in medicine have been few, and the purpose of the present study is to contribute new clinical insight by means of this new and more sophisticated analysis. Long term effect of medication for adult ADHD patients is not resolved. A model with causal parameters to represent effect of medication was formulated, which accounts for time-varying confounding and selection-bias from loss to follow-up. The popular marginal structural model (MSM) for causal inference, of Robins et al., adjusts for time-varying confounding, but suffers from lack of robustness for misspecification in the weights. Recent work by Imai and Ratkovic[1][2] achieves robustness in the MSM, through improved covariate balance (CBMSM). The CBMSM (freely available software) was compared with a standard fit of a MSM and a naive regression model, to give a robust estimate of the true treatment effect in 250 previously non-medicated adults, treated for one year, in a specialized ADHD outpatient clinic in Norway. Covariate balance was greatly improved, resulting in a stronger treatment effect than without this improvement. In terms of treatment effect per week, early stages seemed to have the strongest influence. An estimated average reduction of 4 units on the symptom scale assessed at 12 weeks, for hypothetical medication in the 9 - 12 weeks period compared to no medication in this period, was found. The treatment effect persisted throughout the whole year, with an estimated average reduction of 0.7 units per week on symptoms assessed at one year, for hypothetical medication in the last 13 weeks of the year, compared to no medication in this period. The present findings support a strong and causal direct and indirect effect of pharmacological treatment of adults with ADHD on improvement in symptoms, and with a stronger treatment effect than has been reported.
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