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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 95 matches for " Matilda Mtaya "
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Malocclusion, psycho-social impacts and treatment need: A cross-sectional study of Tanzanian primary school-children
Matilda Mtaya, Anne N Astrom, Pongsri Brudvik
BMC Oral Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-8-14
Abstract: One thousand six hundred and one children (mean age 13 yr) attending primary schools in the districts of Kinondoni and Temeke completed face to face interviews and a full mouth clinical examination. The survey instrument was designed to measure a Kiswahili translated and culturally adapted Child Oral Impact on Daily Performance (Child-OIDP) frequency score, reported dental problems, dissatisfaction with dental appearance/function and socio-demographic characteristics.The prevalence of malocclusion varied from 0.9% (deep bite) to 22.5% (midline shift) with a total of 63.8% having at least one type of anomaly. Moderate proportions of children admitted dental problems; ranging from 7% (space position) to 20% (pain). The odds ratio of having problems with teeth position, spaces, pain and swallowing if having any malocclusion were, respectively 6.7, 3.9, 1.4 and 6.8. A total of 23.3% children were dissatisfied with dental appearance/function. Children dissatisfied with their dental appearance were less likely to be Temeke residents (OR = 0.5) and having parents of higher education (OR = 0.6) and more likely to reporting problem with teeth position (OR = 4.3) and having oral impacts (OR = 2.7). The socio-dental treatment need of 12% was five times lower than the normative need assessment of 63.8%.Compared to the high prevalence of malocclusion, psycho social impacts and dissatisfaction with appearance/function was not frequent among Tanzanian schoolchildren. Subjects with malocclusion reported problems most frequently and malocclusion together with other psycho-social impact scores determined children's satisfaction with teeth appearance- and function.It is generally accepted that the main benefit of orthodontic treatment relates to improvements in oral function and oro-facial aesthetics and thus to improved oral health related quality of life [1-3]. A recent review on the impact of malocclusion on quality of life based on studies from industrialized countries concluded t
Applicability of an abbreviated version of the Child-OIDP inventory among primary schoolchildren in Tanzania
Matilda Mtaya, Anne N ?str?m, Georgios Tsakos
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-5-40
Abstract: to assess the psychometric properties, prevalence and perceived causes of the child version of oral impact on daily performance inventory (Child-OIDP) among school children in two socio-demographically different districts of Tanzania. Socio-behavioral and clinical correlates of children's OHRQoL were also investigated.One thousand six hundred and one children (mean age 13 yr, 60.5% girls) attending 16 (urban and rural) primary schools in Kinondoni and Temeke districts completed a survey instrument in face to face interviews and participated in a full mouth clinical examination. The survey instrument was designed to measure a Kiswahili translated and culturally adapted Child-OIDP frequency score, global oral health indicators and socio-demographic factors.The Kiswahili version of the Child-OIDP inventory preserved the overall concept of the original English version and revealed good reliability in terms of Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.77 (Kinondoni: 0.62, Temeke: 0.76). Weighted Kappa scores from a test-retest were 1.0 and 0.8 in Kinondoni and Temeke, respectively. Validity was supported in that the OIDP scores varied systematically and in the expected direction with self-reported oral health measures and socio-behavioral indicators. Confirmatory factor analyses, CFA, confirmed three dimensions identified initially by Principle Component Analysis within the OIDP item pool. A total of 28.6% of the participants had at least one oral impact. The area specific rates for Kinondoni and Temeke were 18.5% and 45.5%. The most frequently reported impacts were problems eating and cleaning teeth, and the most frequently reported cause of impacts were toothache, ulcer in mouth and position of teeth.This study showed that the Kiswahili version of the Child-OIDP was applicable for use among schoolchildren in Tanzania.Emerging consensus in the literature has identified oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) as a multidimensional construct containing physical, social and p
Discriminative ability of the generic and condition-specific Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP) by the Limpopo-Arusha School Health (LASH) Project: A cross-sectional study
Hawa S Mbawalla, Matilda Mtaya, Joyce R Masalu, Pongsri Brudvik, Anne N Astrom
BMC Pediatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-11-45
Abstract: In Arusha, 1077 school children (mean age 14.9 years, range 12-17 years) and 1601 school children in Dar es Salaam (mean age 13.0 years, range 12-14 years) underwent oral clinical examinations and completed the Kiswahili version of the generic and CS Child-OIDP inventories. The discriminative ability was assessed as differences in overall mean and prevalence scores between groups, corresponding effect sizes and odd ratios, OR.The differences in the prevalence scores and the overall mean generic Child-OIDP scores were significant between the groups with (DMFT > 0) and without (DMFT = 0) caries experience and with (simplified oral hygiene index [OHI-S] > 1) and without periodontal problems (OHI-S ≤ 1) in Arusha and Dar es Salaam. In Dar es Salaam, differences in the generic and CS Child-OIDP scores were observed between the groups with and without dental caries, differences in the generic Child-OIDP scores were observed between the groups with and without periodontal problems, and differences in the CS Child-OIDP scores were observed between malocclusion groups. The adjusted OR for the association between dental caries and the CS Child-OIDP score attributed to dental caries was 5.4. The adjusted OR for the association between malocclusion and CS Child-OIDP attributed to malocclusion varied from 8.8 to 2.5.The generic Child-OIDP discriminated equally well between children with and without dental caries and periodontal problems across socio-culturally different study sites. Compared with its generic form, the CS Child-OIDP discriminated most strongly between children with and without dental caries and malocclusion. The CS Child OIDP attributed to dental caries and malocclusion seems to be better suited to support clinical indicators when estimating oral health needs among school children in Tanzania.Planning dental treatment within a public health system requires information on the prevalence and distribution of oral diseases [1]. However, normative treatment needs, ref
A Review of Wavelets Solution to Stochastic Heat Equation with Random Inputs  [PDF]
Anthony Y. Aidoo, Matilda Wilson
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.614196
Abstract: We consider a wavelet-based solution to the stochastic heat equation with random inputs. Computational methods based on the wavelet transform are analyzed for solving three types of stochastic heat equation. The methods are shown to be very convenient for solving such problems, since the initial and boundary conditions are taken into account automatically. The results reveal that the wavelet algorithms are very accurate and efficient.
Transdisciplinarity as an Inference Technique to Achieve a Better Understanding in the Health and Environmental Sciences
Matilda Annerstedt
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7062692
Abstract: The problems of the world are not categorised into disciplines. They are far more complex, a reality that the tradition of transdisciplinary research has recognised. When faced with questions in public health and sustainability, the traditional scientific paradigm often seems inadequate, and, at least in medicine, transdisciplinary research has not yet been fully appreciated or acknowledged. This lack of recognition may be partly caused by a lack of cooperation between disciplines and between science and society. In this paper, I discuss some of the challenges that scientists and policymakers face in public health and environment within a methodological context. I present transdisciplinarity as a modern research tool that should be applied in research in health and the environment and argue that these topics can be approached beyond the inherent obstacle of incommensurability between disciplines. Thus, a small step might be taken in this immense research arena.
Beer-an antidote or a stepping stone to liquor? Conceptions of different beverage types in alcohol policy
Matilda Hellman
Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs , 2012, DOI: 10.2478/v10199-012-0001-3
Abstract:
Studying young recipients of alcohol marketing - Two research paradigms and their possible consolidation
Matilda Hellman
Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10199-011-0039-7
Abstract: AIMS - The article discusses and compares two European studies that investigate young recipients of commercial messages on alcohol. The studies spring out of very different science philosophical paradigms. Their comparison therefore brings certain ontological, epistemological and methodological questions to a head. DATA AND METHODS - A large amount of existing research and theorizing has been reviewed in order to frame the studies concerning the following aspects: their goals (genesis, purposes etc.); their view on the nature of reality (ontology); their view on how knowledge is created and expanded (epistemology) and, their view on the role of values in research and theory building (axiology). RESULTS - It is suggested that although the studies work in separate paradigms and are concerned with different phenomena, they could gain from a consolidation for complementary purposes. CONCLUSIONS - The task of studying alcohol marketing audiences puts the alcohol research field's methodological capacities to the test. The field needs more interactive collaboration between different research traditions in order to produce credible research in this area.
Museums and the Intangible Heritage : the Case Study of the Afrikaans Language Museum
Matilda Burden
International Journal of Intangible Heritage , 2007,
Abstract: IntroductionTwo issues are addressed in this paper, namely the problem of representing heritage that is totally intangible in a museum ‘exhibition’, and the issue of the Afrikaans language and its place within the many officially recognized languages of the new South Africa. The two issues are linked in this analysis of the current exhibition in the Afrikaans Language Museum in Paarl, SouthAfrica.Having been involved in museums for the past two to three decades in different ways, from an academic as well as a popular viewpoint, in theory and in practice, I have always been very much aware of the importance of acknowledging and exhibiting intangible culture. I remain astonished that the literature on museums to a great extent still focuses very largely on material culture and in many cases totally ignores the existence of the perhaps intimately intangible culture. For example the Museums Association of the UK, still defines a museum as an institution which “collect, safeguard and make accessible artefacts and specimens [my emphasis], which they hold in trust for society”, while the International Council ofMuseums (ICOM) only added references to the intangible heritage and cultural centres to its definition of a museum in October 2004. However, on the positive side,the 2006 meeting of States Parties to the UNESCO Intangible Heritage Convention of 2003 nominated ICOMas one of five recognized expert non-governmental advisory organisations to assist in the implementation of the Convention.Languages are recognised in the Convention as one of the most important aspects of the intangible heritage of peoples, not just because of their intrinsic interest, but also because it is through language that so many important manifestations of the intangible heritage are transmitted from generation to generation.
Gert J J Biesta & Denise Egéa-Kuehne, red (2001): Derrida & Education, London: Routledge. 251 s
Matilda Wiklund
Utbildning & Demokrati : Tidsskrift f?r Didaktik och Utbildningspolitik , 2003,
Abstract:
Evaluation of large intestinal mucosa regeneration in ulcerative colitis using linear measurements
?olai Matilda
Medicinski Pregled , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/mpns0502011d
Abstract: Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by three phases: active, regression and remission phase. The active phase is followed by atrophy of the large intestinal mucosa. Although its evaluation is sometimes difficult, quantification of ceratin mucosal parameters can be used as an accessory method. The aim of the study was to determine the parameters of linear micrometry in order to estimate the regeneration of the large intestinal mucosa in ulcerative colitis, and to evaluate the efficiency of this method in everyday work. The measurements were performed on routine bioptic samples after qualitative histologic analysis and determination of the type and stage of the disease. The measurements were carried out to determine: the number of crypts per unit length, the height of crypt epithelium, diameter of crypts, their lumen and interstices; also, the quotient between the diameters of crypts and interstices was calculated. The analysis of the measured parameters points to presence and degree of regeneration and/or atrophy of mucosa, particularly by following the parameters of crypt epithelium. Linear measurements can be used in estimation of regeneration and atrophy of large intestinal mucosa. .
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