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Du vieux vin dans de nouvelles bouteilles ? Une comparaison des opérations de réaménagement des quartiers Nord et Midi à Bruxelles Comparing restructuring schemes of the North and South station neighbourhoods in Brussels
Mathieu VanCriekingen
Belgeo : Revue Belge de Géographie , 2012,
Abstract: Les opérations récentes de réaménagement des quartiers de gare constituent des scènes privilégiées de mise en oeuvre des normes contemporaines de production sociale des espaces urbains. Ce texte propose une comparaison de deux opérations entamées à un quart de siècle d’intervalle à Bruxelles, soit l’opération sur le quartier Nord (entamée dans les années 1960) et l’opération sur le quartier de la gare du Midi (lancée à la fin des années 1980, dans la foulée de l’implantation d’un terminal TGV). La comparaison met en évidence la permanence du r le essentiel dévolu aux mécanismes de (re)valorisation et de spéculation foncières dans ces opérations : la “nouveauté” apportée par l’opération sur le quartier Midi ne tient ni à l’existence, ni à la nature de ces mécanismes (appropriation du foncier, remembrement, changement de l’affectation règlementaire du sol, valorisation immobilière) mais aux modalités de leur mise en oeuvre et au r le des autorités publiques. La continuité diachronique est également manifeste eu égard aux conditions d’écrasement des intérêts des résidents et usagers de ces quartiers initialement populaires. Recent redevelopment schemes targeting station districts can be viewed as key scenes for the design and implementation of the set of norms framing contemporary models of social production of urban spaces. This paper offers a comparison of two large-scale urban restructuring schemes launched about a quarter of a century apart in Brussels, respectively in the North station neighbourhood (since the 1960s) and the South station district (since the decision to build a HST terminal in the late 1980s). This diachronic comparison highlights the permanence of mechanisms of land (re)valorisation and speculation in these state-led urban restructuring schemes: what’s new with the more recent operation is neither about the existence nor about the nature of these mechanisms (land appropriation, land consolidation, land use change, real estate development), but relates to the modalities of their implementation and the role of public authorities. In addition, permanence is also clear with regard to the marginalisation of the interests of residents and users of these working-class neighborhoods.
Gentrification as policy – empirical frontiers La gentrification comme objectif politique – pistes de recherche empirique
Mathieu Van Criekingen
Belgeo : Revue Belge de Géographie , 2012,
Abstract: This paper essentially argues that contemporary gentrification ought to be conceived of as a prevailing, though place-specific policy strategy. What is at stake is to move beyond common but limited representations of gentrification as a mere process of neighbourhood change through which urban space is dedicated to progressively more affluent users, and to specifically acknowledge the role of state actors in fostering this socio-spatial transformation. The paper mainly builds on findings brought out by selected – and still quite rare – works seeking to empirically document and make sense of the emergence or consolidation of a pro-gentrification coherence across changes in diverse policy fields (e.g. housing, tourism, culture, infrastructures, etc.). Findings brought out of analyses conducted in Paris, Roubaix and Antwerp are particularly scrutinized. They transversally suggest that following a pro-gentrification policy agenda practically means combining actions on demand and supply of gentrifying spaces together with the production of legitimating representations ; moreover, they stress that the arrangement of a pro-gentrification policy agenda is a social construct built on strategic (re-)organisation of urban governance structures. These findings suggest that reinforcing the empirical bases of the multifaceted and place-specific ties between gentrification and urban policy ought to be considered as a priority task for researchers seeking to make sense of contemporary urban change, while sustaining the critical essence of the gentrification concept and further developing its capacity to mobilise around issues of social justice and class domination in cities. L’argument central de cet article est qu’il importe d’envisager la gentrification contemporaine comme une stratégie de politique urbaine, multiforme et de grande ampleur. L’enjeu est ici de dépasser les représentations usuelles de la gentrification ne reconnaissant à celle-ci qu’une qualité de processus de transformation urbaine, par lequel un quartier est progressivement dédié à des habitants et utilisateurs plus aisés. Il s’agit de mettre spécifiquement en lumière le r le joué par les acteurs publics dans l’accompagnement ou l’encouragement des processus de gentrification. L’article propose une lecture transversale des principaux points mis en évidence dans les travaux, encore fort rares, ayant cherché à documenter empiriquement l’émergence d’agendas politiques hissant la gentrification au rang d’objectif plus ou moins assumé et décliné à travers différents domaines d’action publique (politiques du
Fordist Housing Behaviour in a Post-Fordist Context
Katrien SLEGERS,Christian KESELOOT,Mathieu Van CRIEKINGEN,Jean-Michel DECROLY
Journal of Settlements and Spatial Planning , 2012,
Abstract: As recent socio-demographic, economic and cultural changes affected and complicated the transition phase of youngsters to adulthood, it is particularly interesting to investigate in what way this affected their housing trajectories and changes the socio-spatial structure of cities. In the literature, two of such changes, gentrification and suburbanisation, are usually analysed separately. In this paper however, we explore these changes as alternatives for young adults and explain on what criteria youngsters may choose for one or the other in the case of the Brussels metropolitan area. The paper first details the spatial distribution of young adults and the households they live in. We then focus on the motivations and strategies young adults set up to approach their preferred place of living, taking the changing macro-social context into account. Our findings are young adults housing preferences didn’t change that much compared to those of their parents and their place of living during their youth. Nevertheless, the changed context brought up new restrictions and difficulties, forcing specific groups of young adults to look for alternatives to their preferred place of living. Five new strategies emerge from this and explain the coexistence of gentrification and suburbanisation: suburbanization in itself, living on a higher distance of the city centre, second-class (sub)urbanization, delay of independent living and postponement of ownership.
Fixed-charge transportation problems on trees
Gustavo Angulo,Mathieu Van Vyve
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We consider a class of fixed-charge transportation problems over graphs. We show that this problem is strongly NP-hard, but solvable in pseudo-polynomial time over trees using dynamic programming. We also show that the LP formulation associated to the dynamic program can be obtained from extended formulations of single-node flow polytopes. Given these results, we present a unary expansion-based formulation for general graphs that is computationally advantageous when compared to a standard formulation, even if its LP relaxation is not stronger.
A MIP framework for non-convex uniform price day-ahead electricity auctions
Mehdi Madani,Mathieu Van Vyve
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: It is well-known that a market equilibrium with uniform prices often does not exist in non-convex day-ahead electricity auctions. We consider the case of the non-convex, uniform-price Pan-European day-ahead electricity market "PCR" (Price Coupling of Regions), with non-convexities arising from so-called complex and block orders. Extending previous results, we propose a new primal-dual framework for these auctions, which has applications in both economic analysis and algorithm design. The contribution here is threefold. First, from the algorithmic point of view, we give a non-trivial exact (i.e. not approximate) linearization of a non-convex 'minimum income condition' that must hold for complex orders arising from the Spanish market, avoiding the introduction of any auxiliary variables, and allowing us to solve market clearing instances involving most of the bidding products proposed in PCR using off-the-shelf MIP solvers. Second, from the economic analysis point of view, we give the first MILP formulations of optimization problems such as the maximization of the traded volume, or the minimization of opportunity costs of paradoxically rejected block bids. We first show on a toy example that these two objectives are distinct from maximizing welfare. We also recover directly a previously noted property of an alternative market model. Third, we provide numerical experiments on realistic large-scale instances. They illustrate the efficiency of the approach, as well as the economics trade-offs that may occur in practice.
Revisiting minimum profit conditions in uniform price day-ahead electricity auctions
Mehdi Madani,Mathieu Van Vyve
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We examine the specific problem of clearing day-ahead electricity market auctions where each bidder, whether a producer or consumer, can specify a minimum profit or maximum payment condition constraining the acceptance of a set of bid curves spanning multiple time periods in locations connected through a transmission network with linear constraints. This helps describing e.g. the recovery of start-up costs of a power plant, or analogously for a large consumer, utility reduced by a constant term. We propose here a new market model with a corresponding MILP formulation for uniform locational price day-ahead auctions, handling bids with a minimum profit or maximum payment condition, which we call MP bids, in a uniform and computationally-efficient way. We also propose an exact decomposition procedure with sparse strengthened Benders cuts derived from the MILP formulation. Both the MILP formulation and the exact decomposition procedure are similar to computationally-efficient approaches previously proposed to handle indivisible bids (so-called block bids) according to European market rules, though the clearing conditions could appear different at first sight. Indeed, the approach and the cuts proposed are also valid to deal with both kinds of bids simultaneously, as block bids with a minimum acceptance ratio, which generalize regular (fully indivisible) block bids, turn out to be a special case of the MP bids introduced here which include minimum power output level information. We compare these MP bids to previous models for minimum profit conditions proposed in the academic literature, and to the model for minimum income conditions used by the Spanish power exchange OMIE, now integrated to the pan-European PCR market.
Decrease of miR-146b-5p in Monocytes during Obesity Is Associated with Loss of the Anti-Inflammatory but Not Insulin Signaling Action of Adiponectin
Maarten Hulsmans, Els Van Dooren, Chantal Mathieu, Paul Holvoet
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032794
Abstract: Background Low adiponectin, a well-recognized antidiabetic adipokine, has been associated with obesity-related inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Globular adiponectin is an important regulator of the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)/NFκB pathway in monocytes of obese subjects. It protects against inflammation and oxidative stress by inducing IRAK3. microRNA (miR)-146b-5p inhibits NFκB-mediated inflammation by targeted repression of IRAK1 and TNF receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF6). Therefore, we measured the expression of miR-146b-5p in monocytes of obese subjects. Because it was low we determined the involvement of this miR in the anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and insulin signaling action of globular adiponectin. Methods miR-146b-5p expression in monocytes of obese subjects was determined by qRT-PCR. The effect of miR-146b-5p silencing on molecular markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin signaling and the association with globular adiponectin was assessed in human THP-1 monocytes. Results miR-146b-5p was downregulated in monocytes of obese persons. Low globular adiponectin decreased miR-146b-5p and IRAK3 in THP-1 monocytes, associated with increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Intracellular ROS and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) protein were unchanged. Silencing of miR-146b-5p with an antisense inhibitor resulted in increased expression of IRAK1 and TRAF6 leading to more NFκB p65 DNA binding activity and TNFα. As a response IRAK3 and IRS1 protein increased. Mitochondrial and intracellular ROS production did not increase despite more inflammation. In addition, exposure of miR-146b-5p-depleted THP-1 monocytes to high levels of globular adiponectin resulted in an increased production of TNFα and intracellular ROS. Still, they did not lose their potential to increase IRAK3 and IRS1 protein and to decrease mitochondrial ROS. Conclusion miR-146b-5p, decreased in monocytes during obesity, is a major mediator of the anti-inflammatory action of globular adiponectin. It appears not to be involved in insulin signaling possibly by protective response of IRAK3 and lack of mitochondrial ROS production.
A Note on the Drivers of R&D Intensity
Azèle Mathieu,Bruno van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie
Research in World Economy , 2010, DOI: 10.5430/rwe.v1n1p56
Abstract: This research note evaluates the extent to which national industrial structure affects country rankings based on aggregate R&D intensity. The econometric analysis performed on a cross-country cross-industry panel dataset (21 industrial sectors, 18 countries, and 5 years) suggests that accounting for industrial structure substantially affects the traditional country rankings. Sweden, the USA, France and Japan have an ‘above-than-average’ R&D intensity in most industries, whereas the high level of aggregate R&D intensity in South Korea and Finland, for instance, is essentially due to the importance of R&D-intensive industries in their economy (telecom and computers), and not to a macroeconomic environment particularly favourable to R&D. The US, Japanese and Swedish ‘exceptions’ might result from higher ‘expected’ returns to R&D in these countries.
Vitamin D supplementation during rehabilitation in COPD: a secondary analysis of a randomized trial
Hornikx Miek,Van Remoortel Hans,Lehouck An,Mathieu Chantal
Respiratory Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-13-84
Abstract: Rationale Pulmonary rehabilitation is an important treatment for patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, who are often vitamin D deficient. As vitamin D status is linked to skeletal muscle function, we aimed to explore if high dose vitamin D supplementation can improve the outcomes of rehabilitation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Material and methods This study is a post-hoc subgroup analysis of a larger randomized trial comparing a monthly dose of 100.000 IU of vitamin D with placebo to reduce exacerbations. 50 Subjects who followed a rehabilitation program during the trial are included in this analysis. We report changes from baseline in muscle strength and exercise performance between both study arms after 3 months of rehabilitation. Results Vitamin D intervention resulted in significantly higher median vitamin D levels compared to placebo (51 [44-62] ng/ml vs 15 [13-30] ng/ml; p < 0.001). Patients receiving vitamin D had significantly larger improvements in inspiratory muscle strength (-11±12 cmH2O vs 0±14 cmH2O; p = 0.004) and maximal oxygen uptake (110±211 ml/min vs -20±187 ml/min; p = 0.029). Improvements in quadriceps strength (15±16 Nm) or six minutes walking distance (40±55 meter) were not significantly different from the effects in the placebo group (7±19 Nm and 11±74 meter; p>0.050). Conclusion High dose vitamin D supplementation during rehabilitation may have mild additional benefits to training.
Feasibility of transapical aortic valve replacement through a left ventricular apical diverticulum
Ferrari Enrico,Van Steenberghe Mathieu,Namasivayam Jegaruban,Berdajs Denis
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1749-8090-8-3
Abstract: Transapical aortic valve replacement is an established technique performed in high-risk patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis and vascular disease contraindicating trans-vascular and trans-aortic procedures. The presence of a left ventricular apical diverticulum is a rare event and the treatment depends on dimensions and estimated risk of embolisation, rupture, or onset of ventricular arrhythmias. The diagnosis is based on standard cardiac imaging and symptoms are very rare. In this case report we illustrate our experience with a 81 years old female patient suffering from symptomatic aortic valve stenosis, respiratory disease, chronic renal failure and severe peripheral vascular disease (logistic euroscore: 42%), who successfully underwent a transapical 23 mm balloon-expandable stent-valve implantation through an apical diverticulum of the left ventricle. Intra-luminal thrombi were absent and during the same procedure were able to treat the valve disease and to successfully exclude the apical diverticulum without complications and through a mini thoracotomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a transapical procedure is successfully performed through an apical diverticulum.
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