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Early Atherosclerosis in HIV Infected Subjects on Suppressive Antiretroviral Treatment: Role of Osteoprotegerin
Alessandra D’Abramo,Claudia D’Agostino,Alessandra Oliva,Marco Iannetta,Gabriella D’Ettorre,Francesco Vullo,Massimo Mancone,Maria Rosa Ciardi,Claudio Maria Mastroianni,Vincenzo Vullo
ISRN AIDS , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/737083
Abstract: Cardiovascular disease is increased in HIV-infected patients. Cytokines such as osteoprotegerin are implicated in atherosclerosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of osteoprotegerin in the development and progression of atherosclerosis in HIV infected subjects on suppressive antiretroviral treatment. We enrolled 76 patients; 35 HIV infected men on suppressive Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy with Framingham score <10%; 21 HIV negative individuals matched for age, gender, and Framingham score, and 20 subjects with Framingham score >10% as control groups. HIV positive subjects underwent echocardiography, electrocardiography, and heart multidetector computed tomography, whereas in HIV negative subjects, tomography was only performed in case of any abnormalities either in echocardiography or electrocardiography. In HIV positive patients, computed tomography showed stenosis in 51.4% of the subjects. Osteoprotegerin plasma levels were higher in HIV-infected patients than those in healthy controls but lower than in HIV negative subjects with Framingham score >10%. Higher osteoprotegerin plasma levels were found in HIV positive patients with grade I stenosis than in patients with grade II/III stenosis. In conclusion, in HIV infected subjects with Framingham score <10%, osteoprotegerin plasma concentrations are associated with atherosclerosis, in particular at the early stage of the process. 1. Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an emerging and significant cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients [1]. HIV itself and antiretroviral drugs may contribute to the increased risk of CVD. In addition to traditional risk factors (age, smoking, dyslipidemia, and diabetes), chronic viral infection, immune activation, and inflammation play a central role in vascular damage and endothelial dysfunction [2]. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1 are associated with development and progression of atherosclerosis [3–7]; furthermore, new soluble markers including osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been shown to be involved in this process. The OPG/RANK (receptor activator of NF-kappaB)/RANKL (receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand), member of TNF superfamily, is a key regulatory system in bone remodelling by regulating development and activation of osteoclasts [8–11]. Recent studies showed the implication of the OPG/RANKL system in vascular disease, especially in vascular calcification, atherosclerosis and plaque formation [12–15]. There are few data about the relationship between OPG and cardiovascular disease in HIV
EzGal: A Flexible Interface for Stellar Population Synthesis Models
Conor Mancone,Anthony Gonzalez
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1086/666502
Abstract: We present EzGal, a flexible python program designed to easily generate observable parameters (magnitudes, colors, mass-to-light ratios) for any stellar population synthesis (SPS) model. As has been demonstrated by various authors, the choice of input SPS models can be a significant source of systematic uncertainty. A key strength of EzGal is that it enables simple, direct comparison of different models sets. EzGal is also capable of generating composite stellar population models (CSPs) and can interpolate between metallicities for a given model set. We have created a web interface to run EzGal and generate observables for a variety of star formation histories and model sets. We make many commonly used SPS models available from this interface; the BC03 models, an updated version of these models, the Maraston models, the BaSTI models, and finally the FSPS models. We use EzGal to compare magnitude predictions for the model sets as a function of wavelength, age, metallicity, and star formation history. We recover the well-known result that the models agree best in the optical for old, solar metallicity models, with differences at the ~0.1 magnitude level. The most problematic regime for SPS modeling is for young ages (<2 Gyrs) and long wavelengths (lambda >7500 Angstroms) where scatter between models can vary from 0.3 mags (Sloan i) to 0.7 mags (Ks). We find that these differences are best understood as general uncertainties in SPS modeling. Finally we explore a more physically motivated example by generating CSPs with a star formation history matching the global star formation history of the universe. We demonstrate that the wavelength and age dependence of SPS model uncertainty translates into a redshift dependent model uncertainty, highlighting the importance of a quantitative understanding of model differences when comparing observations to models as a function of redshift.
Psychiatry: Looking to the Future  [PDF]
Massimo Cocchi
Open Journal of Depression (OJD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojd.2015.44007
Abstract: The aim of this letter is to stimulate the psychiatrists to a greater awareness on the biomolecular aspects of the psychopathology. The letter highlights the inconsistencies of the DSM-V, where, and once again, it ignores the biological consistency of the “psychopathological” phenomenon. It is also underlined that the diagnostic error, in course of the first manifestation of a mood disorder, is extremely high, with all the risk that this error involves, as a result of an incorrect medication therapy.
A Comparison between Abraham and Minkowski Momenta  [PDF]
Massimo Testa
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.73032
Abstract: In this paper I compare the Abraham and the Minkowski forms for the momentum pertaining to an electromagnetic wave inside a dielectric or a magnetic material. The discussion is based on a careful treatment of the surface charges and currents and of the forces acting on them. While in the dielectric case the Abraham momentum is certainly more appealing from the physical point of view, for a magnetic material it suggests an interpretation in terms of magnetic charges and related magnetic currents. The Minkowski momentum for magnetic non conducting materials, on the contrary, has a natural interpretation in terms of an amperian model, in which the dynamics is determined by the Lorentz force acting on bulk and surface electric currents.
Superluminality and Entanglement in an Electromagnetic Quantum-Relativistic Theory  [PDF]
Massimo Auci
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2018.912139
Abstract: An electromagnetic theory that links quantum and relativistic phenomena in a single context is built. Wave-particle duality is the experimental proof of their common origin. In this context, Quantum Mechanics and Special Relativity are two compatible synergistic theories. The developed theory shows the existence of superluminal effects that suggest an explanation to the entanglement between pairs of particles and photons.
The Combined Approach When Assessing and Mapping Groundwater Vulnerability to Contamination  [PDF]
Massimo V. CIVITA
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.21003
Abstract: In early 1980’s, the Italian scientific community, together with a number of institutional decision-makers, realized how urgent it was to protect natural and environmental resources. They agreed that an adequate level of scientifically organized knowledge allows the accurate planning and development of environment systems through the management and direction of the effective development process, but without stopping it. Since the special VAZAR1 project was first set up in 1984, as part of the GNDCI-CNR2 scientific context it has been the cardinal center point of Research National Program “Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment”. The problem of groundwater contamination was examined in this program for the very first time in Italy in an organic and extensive manner as a key for forecasting and prevention purposes. The Italian approaches to assessing and mapping groundwater vulnerability to contamination are essentially based on two main methodologies: 1) the GNDCI Basic Method [1,2] a HCS type approach that can be used for any type of Italian hydrogeologic situation, even where there is a limited number of data. A unified legend and symbols are also defined for each hydrogeologic level. 2) The SINTACS method [2,3], a PCSM developed for use prevalently in areas with a good data base coverage. The methodological approaches described in this paper now make up the Italian standard which has been dealt with in the recent very important Italian Law (152/993) and which are now ratified in the national guidelines [4] produced by ANPA, the Italian National Agency for Environment Protection. The methods, besides Italy [5] have been applied in several other Countries [6–10] and others.
Use of ICT in Teaching Cinema: Elements of Reflection and Practice in Higher Education  [PDF]
Ornella Castiglione, Massimo Zucchetti
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.326115
Abstract: This paper aims to introduce utilities and dangers using ICT in teaching cinema. As digital convergence offered new opportunities in many fields, it stressed the needs to make some reflections and consequently to acquire the appropriate skills. We will discuss how cinema and ICT are related in educational contexts especially when cinema is not the specific topic. Cinema and audiovisual media are always more necessarily invited guests into lessons of various subjects and courses in order to convey messages to the students through images. As required by the dynamics of the contemporary. Then the essay introduces a practical case in which movie has contributed to develop a theme and has helped students to better understand far phenomena from them.
Advancements in Sound Reflection and Airborne Sound Insulation Measurement on Noise Barriers  [PDF]
Paolo Guidorzi, Massimo Garai
Open Journal of Acoustics (OJA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oja.2013.32A004
Abstract: The in-situ measurement of sound reflection and airborne sound insulation characteristics of a noise barrier in Europe are currently performed following the CEN/TS 1793-5 European standard guidelines (last revision published in 2003 [1]). After some years a large number of barriers measured, the original method has been significantly enhanced and validated in the frame of the EU funded QUIESST project, WP3 [2]. The sound reflection measurement method has been improved using a square 9-microphone grid not rigidly connected to the loudspeaker, an optimized alignment algorithm of free-field and reflected impulse responses, including fractional step shifts and least squares estimation of the best relative position, and a correction for geometrical divergence and sound source directivity. Each single measurement is then validated by means of the Reduction Factor calculation. The airborne sound insulation measurement method has not been markedly changed since 2003, because the procedure is robust and easily applicable as it is, but some problems may still be encountered when measuring highly insulating noise barriers, due to a poor signal to noise ratio of the transmitted impulse response. In those cases it is difficult to realize just after the measurement whether the obtained data are valid or not. A method, applicable on site, to overcome this problem is described here. It is based on the Signal to Noise Ratio estimation of critical parts of the acquired impulse responses and gives a strong validation criterion.

Amiodarone-induced bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia in patient following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty  [PDF]
Massimo Bolognesi, Diletta Bolognesi
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2013.29136

Background: Many patients are affected by idiopathicbronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP). There are several known causes of BOOP, and several systemic disorders have BOOP as an associated primary pulmonary lesion. Numerous agents including cytotoxic and noncytotoxic drugs have the potential to cause pulmonary toxicity. Descriptions of amiodarone-related BOOP continue to be reported throughout the world. Case Report: We reported a patient with original clinical presentation who developed recurrent sustained ventricular tachycardia (SVT) despite the presence of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), hypoxaemia and interstitial pneumonitis in both lung bases. After percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, he developed bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP). Conclusions: To our knowledge, such complications after percutaneous coronary procedure in patients with amiodarone therapy for arrhythmia prophylaxis, are not very frequent in literature.


Misdiagnosis of Angina Pectoris Due to Severe Coronary Artery Disease: An Anecdotal Case  [PDF]
Massimo Bolognesi, Diletta Bolognesi
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2014.36073

Background: Misdiagnosis of angina pectoris is not uncommon in athletes. Physicians can fail to make a correct clinical diagnosis if they don’t have the skills and experience needed to recognize this disease. Case Report: This case report describes an exertional angina misdiagnosis due to a severe coronary artery disease in a 50-year-old male athlete initially examined by both a general practitioner and a cardiologist. The athlete subsequently underwent physical examination in a sports cardiology medicine center where diagnosis of angina pectoris caused by severe mono-vessel coronary artery disease was made, requiring an angioplasty with stenting. Conclusions: Although most of the severe symptoms in a heart attack are hard to miss, sometimes in athletes angina pectoris is not readily recognized. However, this is dangerous and can lead to the sudden death of the athlete. Diagnosis must be timely and accurate, in order for the patient to receive the best prognosis.

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