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Search Results: 1 - 9 of 9 matches for " Mashudu Davhana- Maselesele "
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Teenagers’ experiences of sexual health dialogue in the rural villages of the Vhembe District, Limpopo Province
Lebese R. Tsakani,Mashudu Davhana- Maselesele,Larry C. Obi
Health SA Gesondheid , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/hsag.v16i1.502
Abstract: Dialogue with teenagers about sexual health is of global concern, as it is found mostly to be minimal, if not absent. This limitation is influenced by the cultural values, beliefs and norms of teenagers. To a great extent, culture influences which and how sexual health issues can be discussed between teenagers and adults. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe teenagers’ experiences of sexual health dialogue in the rural areas of the Vhembe district in Limpopo province, South Africa. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research approach was used. Data were collected by means of in-depth, individual interviews and focus-group discussions. A purposive sampling method was used to select the 57 participating teenagers, based on criteria that were set. The findings of the study indicated that there was minimal dialogue between adults and teenagers about sexual health. Most teenagers reported that they learned about issues related to sexual health from friends, the media, initiation schools and relatives who, most often, were aunts. It was also noted with concern that the teenagers always equated sexual health to the act of intercourse and that no attention was paid to other aspects of sexual health. Recommendations to improve the current situation were made. Opsomming Dialoog met tienerjariges rakende seksuele gesondheid is ’n wêreldwye probleem omdat daar gevind is dat dit meestal minimaal is of glad nie plaasvind nie. Hierdie beperking word be nvloed deur die tienerjariges se kulturele waardes, oortuigings en norme. Kultuur be nvloed in ’n groot mate watter seksuele gesondheidsake tussen tienerjariges en volwassenes bespreek kan word, en hoe dit gedoen kan word. Die doel van hierdie studie was om tienerjariges se ondervindings van seksuele gesondheidsdialoog in die landelike gebiede van die Vhembedistrik in die Limpopo-provinsie van Suid-Afrika te ondersoek en te bespreek. ’n Kwalitatiewe,ondersoekende, beskrywende en kontekstuele navorsingsbenadering is gevolg.Data is versamel deur middel van grondige individuele onderhoude en fokusgroep-besprekings.’n Doelbewuste steekproefmetode is gebruik om die 57 deelnemende tienerjariges op grond van bepaalde kriteria te selekteer.Die bevindings van die studie het aangedui dat daar minimale dialoog oor seksuele gesondheid tussen tienerjariges en volwassenes is. Die meeste tienerjariges het gerapporteer dat hulle by vriende, die media, inisiasieskole en familielede, meestal ’n tante, van seksuele gesondheid geleer het. Daar is met kommer opgemerk dat tienerjariges seksuele gesondheid
Teenagers’ experiences of sexual health dialogue in the rural villages of the Vhembe District, Limpopo Province
LR Tsakani, M Davhana- Maselesele, LC Obi
Health SA Gesondheid , 2011,
Abstract: Dialogue with teenagers about sexual health is of global concern, as it is found mostly to be minimal, if not absent. This limitation is influenced by the cultural values, beliefs and norms of teenagers. To a great extent, culture influences which and how sexual health issues can be discussed between teenagers and adults. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe teenagers’ experiences of sexual health dialogue in the rural areas of the Vhembe district in Limpopo province, South Africa. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research approach was used. Data were collected by means of in-depth, individual interviews and focus-group discussions. A purposive sampling method was used to select the 57 participating teenagers, based on criteria that were set. The findings of the study indicated that there was minimal dialogue between adults and teenagers about sexual health. Most teenagers reported that they learned about issues related to sexual health from friends, the media, initiation schools and relatives who, most often, were aunts. It was also noted with concern that the teenagers always equated sexual health to the act of intercourse and that no attention was paid to other aspects of sexual health. Recommendations to improve the current situation were made. Dialoog met tienerjariges rakende seksuele gesondheid is ’n wêreldwye probleem omdat daar gevind is dat dit meestal minimaal is of glad nie plaasvind nie. Hierdie beperking word be nvloed deur die tienerjariges se kulturele waardes, oortuigings en norme. Kultuur be nvloed in ’n groot mate watter seksuele gesondheidsake tussen tienerjariges en volwassenes bespreek kan word, en hoe dit gedoen kan word. Die doel van hierdie studie was om tienerjariges se ondervindings van seksuele gesondheidsdialoog in die landelike gebiede van die Vhembedistrik in die Limpopo-provinsie van Suid-Afrika te ondersoek en te bespreek. ’n Kwalitatiewe, ondersoekende, beskrywende en kontekstuele navorsingsbenadering is gevolg. Data is versamel deur middel van grondige individuele onderhoude en fokusgroep-besprekings. ’n Doelbewuste steekproefmetode is gebruik om die 57 deelnemende tienerjariges op grond van bepaalde kriteria te selekteer. Die bevindings van die studie het aangedui dat daar minimale dialoog oor seksuele gesondheid tussen tienerjariges en volwassenes is. Die meeste tienerjariges het gerapporteer dat hulle by vriende, die media, inisiasieskole en familielede, meestal ’n tante, van seksuele gesondheid geleer het. Daar is met kommer opgemerk dat tienerjariges seksuele gesondheid aan die daad van omgang gelykstel en dat geen aandag aan ander aspekte van seksuele gesondheid geskenk is nie. Aanbevelings ter verbetering van die situasie is gemaak.
Sexual health dialogue between parents and teenagers: An imperative in the HIV/AIDS era
R. T. Lebese,M. DavhanaMaselesele,C. L. Obi
Curationis , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/curationis.v33i3.5
Abstract: Societies are reluctant to openly confront issues of sexuality, and this reluctance forms a barrier of communication between parents and teenagers and even between sexual partners (Wulf, 2004:2). This reluctance promotes the presence of misconceptions about sexual health, sexual risks and its consequences. Poor dialogue about sexual health between parents and teenagers is one of the contributory factors of high teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates including HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe how dialogue about sexual health between teenagers and parents is conducted and to use the information gathered as a basis for making recommendations for improvement. A qualitative study of an explorative, descriptive and contextual nature was used. The researcher used the main question as a point of departure and more questions emanated from the discussions. There were 42 informants involved in the study, of which 4 were males and 38 were females. A purposive sampling method was used to collect data through in depth individual interviews and focus group discussions. The researcher strived to adhere to the principle of trustworthiness by adopting Guba’s model (in Krefting, 1991: 217). Tech’s method (Creswell, 1994: 154-55) was used to analyse the data and an independent coder was used. The results indicate that there is minimal if not absent dialogue about sexual health between teenagers and parents. Culture was identified as a major challenge to sexual health dialogue between teenagers and parents. Recommendations to enhance dialogue were made.
Identity and culture in Mi S'dumo Hlatshwayo's worker poetry
Mashudu C Mashige
Tydskrif vir letterkunde , 2006,
Abstract: Through an examination of selected poems from Mi S'dumo Hlatshwayo's oeuvre, this article examines the role of worker poetry in the construction and articulation of a “worker identity”. The article furthermore examines the worker movement's attempt, through this poetry, to present alternative symbols through an oppositional culture and confrontational performance. Drawing from a wealth of rural and urban poetic traditions, worker poets also redefine the power dynamics characterised by the relationship between the oppressor and the oppressed, the powerful and the powerless, typified in the employer-employee relationship to articulate their identity in their own terms. .
POST-COLD WAR MILITARY INTERVENTION IN AFRICA
Mashudu Godfrey Ramuhala
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.5787/39-1-101
Abstract: Military intervention remains controversial both when it happens and when it fails to happen. Since the end of the Cold War, military intervention has attracted much scholarly interest, and it was demonstrated that several instances of the use of force or the threat to use force without Security Council endorsement were acceptable and necessary. Matters of national sovereignty remain the fundamental principle on which the international order was founded since the Treaty of Westphalia. Territorial integrity of states and non-interference in their domestic affair, continue to be the foundation of international law, codified by the United Nations Charter, and one of the international community s decisive factors in choosing between intervention and non-intervention. Nevertheless, since the end of the Cold War, matters of sovereignty and non-interference have been challenged by the emergent human rights discourse amidst genocide and war crimes. The aim of this article is to explain the extent to which military intervention in Africa has evolved since the end of the Cold War in terms of theory, practice and the way military intervention unfolded upon the African continent. This will be achieved by focusing on both successful and unsuccessful cases of military intervention in Africa. The unsuccessful cases include Somalia in 1992, Rwanda in 1994 and Darfur in 2003 on the one hand, and the successful cases being Sierra Leone in 2000 and the Comoros in 2008 on the other. While the unsuccessful cases attracted much scholarly attention and controversy, given their prolonged nature and difficulty in terms of conclusion, successful cases were short in terms of time and attracted little scholarly attention and controversy.
Effects of Precipitation Temperature on Nanoparticle Surface Area and Antibacterial Behaviour of Mg(OH)2 and MgO Nanoparticles  [PDF]
Banele Vatsha, Phumlani Tetyana, Poslet Morgan Shumbula, Jane Catherine Ngila, Lucky Mashudu Sikhwivhilu, Richard Motlhaletsi Moutloali
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2013.44046
Abstract:

A series of MgO nanoparticles were prepared by first precipitating and isolating Mg(OH)2 nanoparticles from Mg(NO3)2 at three different temperatures using NaOH followed by their thermal decomposition also at three temperature settings. The effects of temperature at which precipitation and thermal decomposition of the hydroxide occurred were studied to assess their influence on nanoparticle size and surface area. The synthesised nanoparticles were characterized using a suite of techniques including Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. The average diameter range of MgO nanoparticles ranged between 15 and 35 nm, while for the precursor Mg(OH)2 it varied between 28 and 45 nm. The nanoparticle surface area obtained from BET studies was found in all cases to increase from 77 to 106.4 m2/g with increasing temperature of precipitation. Antibacterial activities of the prepared Mg(OH)2 and MgO nanoparticles were evaluated against the Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, and the Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, using agar diffusion method. A correlation between surface area

Habitat-specific shaping of proliferation and neuronal differentiation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis of wild rodents
Nicole Cavegn,Mashudu Phalanndwa,Hans-Peter Lipp,Irmgard Amrein
Frontiers in Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2013.00059
Abstract: Daily life of wild mammals is characterized by a multitude of attractive and aversive stimuli. The hippocampus processes complex polymodal information associated with such stimuli and mediates adequate behavioral responses. How newly generated hippocampal neurons in wild animals contribute to hippocampal function is still a subject of debate. Here, we test the relationship between adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) and habitat types. To this end, we compare wild Muridae species of southern Africa [Namaqua rock mouse (Micaelamys namaquensis), red veld rat (Aethomys chrysophilus), highveld gerbil (Tatera brantsii), and spiny mouse (Acomys spinosissimus)] with data from wild European Muridae [long-tailed wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus), pygmy field mice (Apodemus microps), yellow-necked wood mice (Apodemus flavicollis), and house mice (Mus musculus domesticus)] from previous studies. The pattern of neurogenesis, expressed in normalized numbers of Ki67- and Doublecortin(DCX)-positive cells to total granule cells (GCs), is similar for the species from a southern African habitat. However, we found low proliferation, but high neuronal differentiation in rodents from the southern African habitat compared to rodents from the European environment. Within the African rodents, we observe additional regulatory and morphological traits in the hippocampus. Namaqua rock mice with previous pregnancies showed lower AHN compared to males and nulliparous females. The phylogenetically closely related species (Namaqua rock mouse and red veld rat) show a CA4, which is not usually observed in murine rodents. The specific features of the southern environment that may be associated with the high number of young neurons in African rodents still remain to be elucidated. This study provides the first evidence that a habitat can shape adult neurogenesis in rodents across phylogenetic groups.
Serotype Distribution and Invasive Potential of Group B Streptococcus Isolates Causing Disease in Infants and Colonizing Maternal-Newborn Dyads
Mashudu Madzivhandila,Peter V. Adrian,Clare L. Cutland,Locadiah Kuwanda,Stephanie J. Schrag,Shabir A. Madhi
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017861
Abstract: Serotype-specific polysaccharide based group B streptococcus (GBS) vaccines are being developed. An understanding of the serotype epidemiology associated with maternal colonization and invasive disease in infants is necessary to determine the potential coverage of serotype-specific GBS vaccines.
The hippocampus of the eastern rock sengi: cytoarchitecture, markers of neuronal function, principal cell numbers, and adult neurogenesis
Lutz Slomianka,Tanja Drenth,Nicole Cavegn,Dominik Menges,Stanley E. Lazic,Mashudu Phalanndwa,Christian T. Chimimba,Irmgard Amrein
Frontiers in Neuroanatomy , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnana.2013.00034
Abstract: The brains of sengis (elephant shrews, order Macroscelidae) have long been known to contain a hippocampus that in terms of allometric progression indices is larger than that of most primates and equal in size to that of humans. In this report, we provide descriptions of hippocampal cytoarchitecture in the eastern rock sengi (Elephantulus myurus), of the distributions of hippocampal calretinin, calbindin, parvalbumin, and somatostatin, of principal neuron numbers, and of cell numbers related to proliferation and neuronal differentiation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Sengi hippocampal cytoarchitecture is an amalgamation of characters that are found in CA1 of, e.g., guinea pig and rabbits and in CA3 and dentate gyrus of primates. Correspondence analysis of total cell numbers and quantitative relations between principal cell populations relate this sengi to macaque monkeys and domestic pigs, and distinguish the sengi from distinct patterns of relations found in humans, dogs, and murine rodents. Calretinin and calbindin are present in some cell populations that also express these proteins in other species, e.g., interneurons at the stratum oriens/alveus border or temporal hilar mossy cells, but neurons expressing these markers are often scarce or absent in other layers. The distributions of parvalbumin and somatostatin resemble those in other species. Normalized numbers of PCNA+ proliferating cells and doublecortin-positive (DCX+) differentiating cells of neuronal lineage fall within the overall ranges of murid rodents, but differed from three murid species captured in the same habitat in that fewer DCX+ cells relative to PCNA+ were observed. The large and well-differentiated sengi hippocampus is not accompanied by correspondingly sized cortical and subcortical limbic areas that are the main hippocampal sources of afferents and targets of efferents. This points to intrinsic hippocampal information processing as the selective advantage of the large sengi hippocampus.
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