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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 154 matches for " Masayo Uji "
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Sex Work, Motivations for Entry, and the Combined Impact of Both on Mental Health: A Case Report of Japanese Female Patients within Therapeutic Relationships  [PDF]
Masayo Uji
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2015.52026
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the motivations for entry into the sex industry. The narratives of four Japanese female psychiatric patients with a past experience of sex work were used for analysis. I identified not only practical factors such as financial difficulties or lack of job skills, but also various psycho-social factors, namely: weak emotional ties with their mothers since infancy, their mothers’ tendency to prioritize sons over daughters, unremitting needs for maternal care, fear of rejection and object-seeking behavior, desire to control others, envy and aggressive self-destructive behavior, difficulties in establishing female peer relationships during adolescence, proneness to dependency on male objects through sexual relationships, past histories of crime and delinquency, weak internal motivation, frequent acting out, and addictive behaviors. In this article I discussed whether their mental maladjustment was purely the product of their past experiences as sex workers, or whether in fact both the maladjustment and the motivations for entry were derived from personality characteristics developed since infancy. Although not applicable to every Japanese sex worker, this article presents a preliminary hypothesis regarding the contribution of the above multi-dimensional factors to the motivations for entry, and the following mental maladjustment.
Case Reports of Two Japanese Female Patients’ Reintegration into Society: Discussing the Interactions between a Patient’s Personality and Group Mentality  [PDF]
Masayo Uji
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.615198
Abstract: Based on the experiences of psychiatric patients who were in the process of rehabilitation after a significant period of rest and recuperation, the author aimed at analyzing the phenomena that facilitate as well as hinder patient maladjustment, in order to identify ways for clinical psychiatry to support patients’ rehabilitation processes. Two female patients with pathological personality traits who were in the process of rehabilitation were chosen. One attended a community center that offers employment for people with mental disorders, followed by a vocational rehabilitation center for the unemployed; the other returned to an ordinary job for which she was qualified. The author first investigated the interactions between their personalities and the group mentalities in their workplaces, and then analyzed these interactions using psychodynamic theories. The dynamic interactions between these patients’ personality pathologies and the group mentalities of the workplaces they chose for their rehabilitation seemed to play a crucial role in determining whether they experienced maladjustment or not. Various phenomena experienced by an individual in a community setting should not be ascribed solely to either the person’s personality or the community group mentality, but rather to the interaction between the two. Community centers for people with mental disorders must provide support that facilitates the accomplishment of the original purposes of the group, but also helps each group member improve their self-esteem. At the end of this article, the author argues that the narcissistic need for approval cannot be dismissed simply as pathological, but should be seen as a ubiquitous phenomenon in the contemporary Japanese ethos.
Presenteeism among Japanese IT Employees: Personality, Temperament and Character, Job Strain and Workplace Support, and Mental Disturbance  [PDF]
Yuko Kono, Masayo Uji, Eisuke Matsushima
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.615195
Abstract: To study correlates of presenteeism among Japanese IT employees, a cross-sectional study in 440 employees of four IT companies were studied with a net-based questionnaire survey. A structural regression analysis revealed that presenteeism was directly associated with common mental symptoms and job strain, common mental symptoms mediated the effects of job strain and poor workplace social support as well as high Harm Avoidance and low Self-directedness and Cooperativeness upon presenteeism. IT company workers presenteeism may be a result of complicated effects of common mental symptoms, job strain and poor workplace social support, and personality traits.
Interpersonal Dependency Inventory: Its Construct Validity and Prediction of Dysphoric Mood and Life Functioning via Negative Life Events  [PDF]
Masayo Uji, Yukihiro Takagishi, Keiichiro Adachi, Toshinori Kitamura
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.412134
Abstract:

Previous Dependency Inventory (JIDI) as well demonstrates how the interpersonal attitudes assessed by the JIDI generate interpersonal negative life events (NLEs) and therefore results in dysphoric moods and poor life functioning. The subjects of this study were 467 Japanese university students. The JIDI was administered at Time 1, and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) was administered at Time 2 for the purpose of assessing dysphoric mood and life functioning. NLEs occurring between Times 1 and 2 were evaluated. The three-factor structure of the JIDI was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. The structural equation modeling demonstrated that of the three factors, only one, “emotional reliance”, predisposed individuals to dysphoric mood and poor life functioning, both directly and indirectly, via interpersonal NLEs. Although the other two factors did not increase vulnerability to interpersonal NLEs or dysphoric mood, “lack of social self-confidence” worsened general functioning, and “assertion of autonomy” led to poor functioning in close relationships, both directly. Furthermore, “assertion of autonomy” decreased anxiety levels. As to gender differences, simultaneous analysis of multi-groups showed that female subjects were more likely to become anxious following interpersonal NLEs.

Effects of Intimate Marital Relationships Upon Self-Reported Rearing Styles Among Japanese Parents of Young Children
Xi Lu, Masayo Uji and Toshinori Kitamura
The Open Family Studies Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.2174/1874922400801010017]
Abstract: In order to examine the effects of intimate marital relationships upon self-reported rearing styles towards a young child, 118 Japanese couples with at least one child were administered a set of questionnaires. A path analysis showed that wives whose husbands treated them with an affectionate attitude were more likely to hold affectionate childrearing styles; wives whose husbands treated them with a controlling attitude were more likely to hold overprotective child-rearing styles; husbands whose wives acted in controlling ways towards them tended to exhibit less affectionate and more overprotective rearing child-rearing practices.
Dispositional Coping Styles and Childhood Abuse History Among Japanese Undergraduate Students
Noriko Shikai, Masayo Uji, Masahiro Shono, Toshiaki Nagata and Toshinori Kitamura
The Open Family Studies Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.2174/1874922400801010076]
Abstract: Dispositional coping styles in adulthood may be influenced by one’s experiences as a child. Japanese university students were examined in terms of their coping styles and child abuse history. Regression analyses revealed that an emotion- oriented coping style was predicted by neglect and emotional abuse during childhood.
Effects of Temperament and Character Profiles on State and Trait Depression and Anxiety: A Prospective Study of a Japanese Youth Population
Xi Lu,Zi Chen,Xiaoyi Cui,Masayo Uji,Wataru Miyazaki,Masako Oda,Toshiaki Nagata,Toshinori Kitamura,Takahiko Katoh
Depression Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/604684
Abstract: Objective. To examine the effects of temperament and character profiles on state and trait depression and anxiety in a Japanese youth population. Method. Japanese university students were solicited for participation in a two-wave study, with assessments performed at Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2), separated by a five-month interval. A total of 184 students completed the Japanese version of the temperament and character inventory (TCI) at T1 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at T1 and T2. We posited two latent variables, trait depression and anxiety, composed of the T1 and T2 HADS depression and anxiety scores, respectively. We also posited that temperament domain traits would predict character domain traits, and that all the personality traits would be linked to trait depression and anxiety and also predict T2 depression and anxiety. Results. Structural regression modeling showed that (1) only high Novelty Seeking predicted T2 Anxiety score, (2) trait depression and anxiety were linked to high harm avoidance and low self-directedness, and (3) trait depression was linked to high self-transcendence whereas trait anxiety was linked to low reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness. Conclusion. The characteristic associations between TCI subscales and depression and anxiety were limited to the trait rather than state aspects of depression and anxiety. 1. Introduction 1.1. Depression and Temperament and Character Domains Since the introduction of the seven-factor model of personality [1] and the temperament and character inventory (TCI) [2], many investigations have examined the links between temperament and character traits of depression and anxiety. Most of these have demonstrated that individuals with depression score higher in harm avoidance (HA) and lower in self-directedness (SD) than those without depression. However, the majority of these reports used a cross-sectional research design [3–17]. Such studies are not free from state effects of depression on the self-report of the TCI. Several studies followed patients with depression before and after they achieved remission. Various investigations have reported increased postremission SD [18, 19], reduced HA [20], or both [21–24]. While in remission, however, patients with depression still showed higher HA [19, 20, 22, 25], lower SD [26, 27], or both [23, 24, 28–30] as compared with normal controls. Changes in HA and SD scores before and after remission suggest that these TCI subscale scores can be influenced by the mood of the subject when filling in the questionnaire. However,
Effects of Milling and Cooking Processes on the Deoxynivalenol Content in Wheat
Masayo Kushiro
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/ijms9112127
Abstract: Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a natural-occuring mycotoxin mainly produced by Fusarium graminearum, a food-borne fungi widely distributed in crops and it is one of the most important mycotoxins in wheat and wheat-based foods and feeds. DON affects animal and human health causing diarrhea, vomiting, gastro-intestinal inflammation, and immunomodulation. Since the rate of the occurrence of DON in wheat is high, effective procedures to remove or eliminate DON from food products is essential to minimize exposures in those who consume large amounts of wheat. Cleaning prior to milling reduced to some extent the concentration of DON in final products. Since DON is distributed throughout the kernels, with higher content in the outer skin, milling is also effective in reducing the DON levels of wheat-based foods if bran and shorts are removed before thermal cooking. DON is water-soluble and cooking with larger amounts of water lowers DON content in products such as spaghetti and noodles. During baking or heating, DON is partially degraded to DON-related chemicals, whose toxicological effects are not studied well. This paper reviews the researches on the effects of milling and cooking on the DON level and discusses the perspectives of further studies.
Alexithymia as a prognostic risk factor for health problems: a brief review of epidemiological studies
Kojima Masayo
BioPsychoSocial Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0759-6-21
Abstract: The number of articles on alexithymia has been steadily increasing since the word “alexithymia” was coined in the 1970s to denote a common characteristic that is observed among classic psychosomatic patients in whom therapy was unsuccessful. Alexithymia, a disorder of affect regulation, has been suggested to be broadly associated with various mental and physical health problems. However, most available evidence is based on anecdotal reports or cross-sectional observations. To clarify the predictive value of alexithymia for health problems, a systematic review of prospective studies was conducted. A search of the PubMed database identified 1,507 articles on “alexithymia” that were published by July 31, 2011. Among them, only 7 studies examined the developmental risks of alexithymia for health problems among nonclinical populations and 38 studies examined the prognostic value of alexithymia among clinical populations. Approximately half of the studies reported statistically significant adverse effects, while 5 studies demonstrated favorable effects of alexithymia on health outcomes; four of them were associated with surgical interventions and two involved cancer patients. The studies that showed insignificant results tended to have a small sample size. In conclusion, epidemiological evidence regarding alexithymia as a prognostic risk factor for health problems remains un-established. Even though alexithymia is considered to be an unfavorable characteristic for disease control and health promotion overall, some beneficial aspects are suggested. More prospective studies with sufficient sample sizes and follow-up period, especially those involving life course analyses, are needed to confirm the contribution of alexithymia to health problems.
Discourse Coherence and Shifting Centers in Japanese Texts
Masayo Iida
Computer Science , 1996,
Abstract: In languages such as Japanese, the use of {\it zeros}, unexpressed arguments of the verb, in utterances that shift the topic involves a risk that the meaning intended by the speaker may not be transparent to the hearer. However, this potentially undesirable conversational strategy often occurs in the course of naturally-occurring discourse. In this chapter, I report on an empirical study of 250 utterances with {\it zeros} in 20 Japanese newspaper articles. Each utterance is analyzed in terms of centering transitions and the form in which centers are realized by referring expressions. I also examine lexical subcategorization information, and tense and aspect in order to test the hypothesis that the speaker expects the hearer to use this information in determining global discourse structure. I explain the occurrence of {\it zeros} in {\sc retain} and {\sc rough-shift} centering transitions, by claiming that a {\it zero} can only be used in these cases when the shift of centers is supported by contextual information such as lexical semantics, tense and aspect, and agreement features. I then propose an algorithm by which centering can incorporate these observations to integrate centering with global discourse structure, and thus enhance its ability for non-local pronoun resolution.
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