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Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Spreading Depolarizations and Impaired Neurovascular Coupling
Masayo Koide,Inna Sukhotinsky,Cenk Ayata,George C. Wellman
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/819340
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Spreading Depolarizations and Impaired Neurovascular Coupling
Masayo Koide,Inna Sukhotinsky,Cenk Ayata,George C. Wellman
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/819340
Abstract: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has devastating consequences on brain function including profound effects on communication between neurons and the vasculature leading to cerebral ischemia. Physiologically, neurovascular coupling represents a focal increase in cerebral blood flow to meet increased metabolic demand of neurons within active regions of the brain. Neurovascular coupling is an ongoing process involving coordinated activity of the neurovascular unit—neurons, astrocytes, and parenchymal arterioles. Neuronal activity can also influence cerebral blood flow on a larger scale. Spreading depolarizations (SD) are self-propagating waves of neuronal depolarization and are observed during migraine, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. Typically, SD is associated with increased cerebral blood flow. Emerging evidence indicates that SAH causes inversion of neurovascular communication on both the local and global level. In contrast to other events causing SD, SAH-induced SD decreases rather than increases cerebral blood flow. Further, at the level of the neurovascular unit, SAH causes an inversion of neurovascular coupling from vasodilation to vasoconstriction. Global ischemia can also adversely affect the neurovascular response. Here, we summarize current knowledge regarding the impact of SAH and global ischemia on neurovascular communication. A mechanistic understanding of these events should provide novel strategies to treat these neurovascular disorders. 1. Pathophysiology of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with high morbidity and mortality with limited therapeutic options [1]. The major contributor to poor outcome of patients surviving the initial surge in intracranial pressure is delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) manifesting 4–10 days after aneurysm rupture as new and otherwise unexplained neurological deficits and/or ischemic lesions within the brain [2]. Despite decades of study, mechanisms contributing to SAH-induced DCI remain controversial. For many years, a delayed and prolonged vasospasm of large conduit arteries was thought to be the major contributor to DCI and the ensuing death and disability observed in SAH patients [3, 4]. Recent data, however, challenge this view [5–7] and strongly suggest that additional mechanisms contribute to poor outcomes after SAH, including early brain injury suffered at the time of bleed [6, 8–10], blood-brain barrier disruption [11, 12], inflammation [13–15], and impaired microcirculatory function [16–19]. Evidence suggests that a pathological inversion of
Sex Work, Motivations for Entry, and the Combined Impact of Both on Mental Health: A Case Report of Japanese Female Patients within Therapeutic Relationships  [PDF]
Masayo Uji
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2015.52026
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the motivations for entry into the sex industry. The narratives of four Japanese female psychiatric patients with a past experience of sex work were used for analysis. I identified not only practical factors such as financial difficulties or lack of job skills, but also various psycho-social factors, namely: weak emotional ties with their mothers since infancy, their mothers’ tendency to prioritize sons over daughters, unremitting needs for maternal care, fear of rejection and object-seeking behavior, desire to control others, envy and aggressive self-destructive behavior, difficulties in establishing female peer relationships during adolescence, proneness to dependency on male objects through sexual relationships, past histories of crime and delinquency, weak internal motivation, frequent acting out, and addictive behaviors. In this article I discussed whether their mental maladjustment was purely the product of their past experiences as sex workers, or whether in fact both the maladjustment and the motivations for entry were derived from personality characteristics developed since infancy. Although not applicable to every Japanese sex worker, this article presents a preliminary hypothesis regarding the contribution of the above multi-dimensional factors to the motivations for entry, and the following mental maladjustment.
Case Reports of Two Japanese Female Patients’ Reintegration into Society: Discussing the Interactions between a Patient’s Personality and Group Mentality  [PDF]
Masayo Uji
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.615198
Abstract: Based on the experiences of psychiatric patients who were in the process of rehabilitation after a significant period of rest and recuperation, the author aimed at analyzing the phenomena that facilitate as well as hinder patient maladjustment, in order to identify ways for clinical psychiatry to support patients’ rehabilitation processes. Two female patients with pathological personality traits who were in the process of rehabilitation were chosen. One attended a community center that offers employment for people with mental disorders, followed by a vocational rehabilitation center for the unemployed; the other returned to an ordinary job for which she was qualified. The author first investigated the interactions between their personalities and the group mentalities in their workplaces, and then analyzed these interactions using psychodynamic theories. The dynamic interactions between these patients’ personality pathologies and the group mentalities of the workplaces they chose for their rehabilitation seemed to play a crucial role in determining whether they experienced maladjustment or not. Various phenomena experienced by an individual in a community setting should not be ascribed solely to either the person’s personality or the community group mentality, but rather to the interaction between the two. Community centers for people with mental disorders must provide support that facilitates the accomplishment of the original purposes of the group, but also helps each group member improve their self-esteem. At the end of this article, the author argues that the narcissistic need for approval cannot be dismissed simply as pathological, but should be seen as a ubiquitous phenomenon in the contemporary Japanese ethos.
Effects of Milling and Cooking Processes on the Deoxynivalenol Content in Wheat
Masayo Kushiro
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/ijms9112127
Abstract: Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a natural-occuring mycotoxin mainly produced by Fusarium graminearum, a food-borne fungi widely distributed in crops and it is one of the most important mycotoxins in wheat and wheat-based foods and feeds. DON affects animal and human health causing diarrhea, vomiting, gastro-intestinal inflammation, and immunomodulation. Since the rate of the occurrence of DON in wheat is high, effective procedures to remove or eliminate DON from food products is essential to minimize exposures in those who consume large amounts of wheat. Cleaning prior to milling reduced to some extent the concentration of DON in final products. Since DON is distributed throughout the kernels, with higher content in the outer skin, milling is also effective in reducing the DON levels of wheat-based foods if bran and shorts are removed before thermal cooking. DON is water-soluble and cooking with larger amounts of water lowers DON content in products such as spaghetti and noodles. During baking or heating, DON is partially degraded to DON-related chemicals, whose toxicological effects are not studied well. This paper reviews the researches on the effects of milling and cooking on the DON level and discusses the perspectives of further studies.
Alexithymia as a prognostic risk factor for health problems: a brief review of epidemiological studies
Kojima Masayo
BioPsychoSocial Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0759-6-21
Abstract: The number of articles on alexithymia has been steadily increasing since the word “alexithymia” was coined in the 1970s to denote a common characteristic that is observed among classic psychosomatic patients in whom therapy was unsuccessful. Alexithymia, a disorder of affect regulation, has been suggested to be broadly associated with various mental and physical health problems. However, most available evidence is based on anecdotal reports or cross-sectional observations. To clarify the predictive value of alexithymia for health problems, a systematic review of prospective studies was conducted. A search of the PubMed database identified 1,507 articles on “alexithymia” that were published by July 31, 2011. Among them, only 7 studies examined the developmental risks of alexithymia for health problems among nonclinical populations and 38 studies examined the prognostic value of alexithymia among clinical populations. Approximately half of the studies reported statistically significant adverse effects, while 5 studies demonstrated favorable effects of alexithymia on health outcomes; four of them were associated with surgical interventions and two involved cancer patients. The studies that showed insignificant results tended to have a small sample size. In conclusion, epidemiological evidence regarding alexithymia as a prognostic risk factor for health problems remains un-established. Even though alexithymia is considered to be an unfavorable characteristic for disease control and health promotion overall, some beneficial aspects are suggested. More prospective studies with sufficient sample sizes and follow-up period, especially those involving life course analyses, are needed to confirm the contribution of alexithymia to health problems.
Discourse Coherence and Shifting Centers in Japanese Texts
Masayo Iida
Computer Science , 1996,
Abstract: In languages such as Japanese, the use of {\it zeros}, unexpressed arguments of the verb, in utterances that shift the topic involves a risk that the meaning intended by the speaker may not be transparent to the hearer. However, this potentially undesirable conversational strategy often occurs in the course of naturally-occurring discourse. In this chapter, I report on an empirical study of 250 utterances with {\it zeros} in 20 Japanese newspaper articles. Each utterance is analyzed in terms of centering transitions and the form in which centers are realized by referring expressions. I also examine lexical subcategorization information, and tense and aspect in order to test the hypothesis that the speaker expects the hearer to use this information in determining global discourse structure. I explain the occurrence of {\it zeros} in {\sc retain} and {\sc rough-shift} centering transitions, by claiming that a {\it zero} can only be used in these cases when the shift of centers is supported by contextual information such as lexical semantics, tense and aspect, and agreement features. I then propose an algorithm by which centering can incorporate these observations to integrate centering with global discourse structure, and thus enhance its ability for non-local pronoun resolution.
Presenteeism among Japanese IT Employees: Personality, Temperament and Character, Job Strain and Workplace Support, and Mental Disturbance  [PDF]
Yuko Kono, Masayo Uji, Eisuke Matsushima
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.615195
Abstract: To study correlates of presenteeism among Japanese IT employees, a cross-sectional study in 440 employees of four IT companies were studied with a net-based questionnaire survey. A structural regression analysis revealed that presenteeism was directly associated with common mental symptoms and job strain, common mental symptoms mediated the effects of job strain and poor workplace social support as well as high Harm Avoidance and low Self-directedness and Cooperativeness upon presenteeism. IT company workers presenteeism may be a result of complicated effects of common mental symptoms, job strain and poor workplace social support, and personality traits.
S_4 Flavor Symmetry Embedded into SU(3) and Lepton Masses and Mixing
Koide, Yoshio
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007, DOI: 10.1088/1126-6708/2007/08/086
Abstract: Based on an assumption that an S_4 flavor symmetry is embedded into SU(3), a lepton mass matrix model is investigated. A Frogatt-Nielsen type model is assumed, and the flavor structures of the masses and mixing are caused by VEVs of SU(2)_L-singlet scalars \phi_u and \phi_d which are nonets (8+1) of the SU(3) flavor symmetry, and which are broken into 2+3+3' and 1 of S_4. If we require the invariance under the transformation (\phi^{(8)},\phi^{(1)}) \to (-\phi^{(8)},+\phi^{(1)}) for the superpotential of the nonet field \phi^{(8+1)}, the model leads to a beautiful relation for the charged lepton masses. The observed tribimaximal neutrino mixing is understood by assuming two SU(3) singlet right-handed neutrinos \nu_R^{(\pm)} and an SU(3) triplet scalar \chi.
Broken SU(3) Flavor Symmetry and Tribimaximal Neutrino Mixing
Koide, Yoshio
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007,
Abstract: Recent work on a lepton mass matrix model based on an SU(3) flavor symmetry which is broken into S_4 is reviewed. The flavor structures of the masses and mixing are caused by VEVs of SU(2)_L-singlet scalars \phi which are nonets ({\bf 8}+{\bf 1}) of the SU(3) flavor symmetry, and which are broken into {\bf 2}+{\bf 3}+{\bf 3}' and {\bf 1} of S_4. If we require the invariance under the transformation (\phi^{(8)},\phi^{(1)}) \to (-\phi^{(8)},+\phi^{(1)}) for the superpotential of the nonet field \phi^{(8+1)}, the model leads to a beautiful relation for the charged lepton masses. The observed tribimaximal neutrino mixing is understood by assuming two SU(3) singlet right-handed neutrinos \nu_R^{(\pm)} and an SU(3) triplet scalar \chi.
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