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Seeking the possibility of the formation of benzoic acids from benzyl halides in natural soil, a model oxidation reaction of
the halides was carried out in the presence of water and soil in an open air
under UV light irradiation. Addition of TiO2 to soil raised the yield of the acid,
implying such a metal oxide plays a real catalytic role in this oxidation. By
these supplementary experiments, one of the possibilities for the formation of
benzoic acids in natural soil from benzyl chlorides was supported.
We fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells with non-cross-linked fluorinated gel electrolyte. The application of fluorinated gel to electrolyte is a challenging issue at present. The gelation of the electrolyte is of importance in order to solve the problem in the durability of the cell. We investigated, in this article, the effect of Pt deposition on the anode of the cell. The Pt was deposited by means of a DC sputtering technique. The studies showed that the deposition time strongly affected both open voltage and short-circuit current of the cell. The adaptive thickness of the Pt layer was determined to be 10 nm for the non-cross-linked fluorinated gel electrolyte cells.
We fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells including fluorinated gel electrolyte and studied about the relationship between the performance of the solar cells and the aggregation state of TiO2 nano-particles on electrodes. As for the performance of the cell, the I-V characteristics were measured under irradiation. The combination of TiO2 nanoparticles with different size plays an important role in bringing unevenness to realize a large surface area, which is critical for the high performance of the cells.
Fluorinated oligomer gel is suitable to the electrolyte of dye-sensitized solar cell for low cost production. In this article, addition of pyridine was investigated for the purpose of enhancing the short current density. Two kinds of ionic liquids were tested: imidazolium and pyrazolium systems. The two different stages of adding pyridine to the electrolyte were considered and the amount of pyridine was studied. It was found that the electrolyte including pyrazolium ionic liquids to which pyridine was added before the mixing with fluorinated oligomer showed the highest electric conductivity, short current density and open voltage. This resulted in the highest conversion efficiency of 4%. As the amount of pyridine increased, the fill factor and the open voltage were improved at first, and then the short current density increased. If the pyridine was added more, the short current density conversely decreased.