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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1136 matches for " Masashi Fujihara "
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Chronic Cigarette Smoke Causes Oxidative Damage and Apoptosis to Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cells in Mice
Masashi Fujihara, Norihiro Nagai, Thomas E. Sussan, Shyam Biswal, James T. Handa
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003119
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether mice exposed to chronic cigarette smoke develop features of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Two month old C57Bl6 mice were exposed to either filtered air or cigarette smoke in a smoking chamber for 5 h/day, 5 days/week for 6 months. Eyes were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde/2% paraformaldehyde and examined for ultrastructural changes by transmission electron microscopy. The contralateral eye was fixed in 2% paraformaldehyde and examined for oxidative injury to the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) by 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) immunolabeling and apoptosis by TUNEL labeling. Mice exposed to cigarette smoke had immunolabeling for 8-OHdG in 85±3.7% of RPE cells counted compared to 9.5±3.9% in controls (p<0.00001). Bruch membrane was thicker in mice exposed to smoke (1086±332 nm) than those raised in air (543±132 nm; p = 0.0069). The two most pronounced ultrastructural changes (severity grading scale from 0–3) seen were a loss of basal infoldings (mean difference in grade = 1.98; p<0.0001), and an increase in intracellular vacuoles (mean difference in grade = 1.7; p<0.0001). Ultrastructural changes to Bruch membrane in cigarette-smoke exposed mice were smaller in magnitude but consistently demonstrated significantly higher grade injury in cigarette-exposed mice, including basal laminar deposits (mean difference in grade = 0.54; p<0.0001), increased outer collagenous layer deposits (mean difference in grade = 0.59; p = 0.002), and increased basal laminar deposit continuity (mean difference in grade = 0.4; p<0.0001). TUNEL assay showed a higher percentage of apoptotic RPE from mice exposed to cigarette smoke (average 8.0±1.1%) than room air (average 0±0%; p = 0.043). Mice exposed to chronic cigarette smoke develop evidence of oxidative damage with ultrastructural degeneration to the RPE and Bruch membrane, and RPE cell apoptosis. This model could be useful for studying the mechanism of smoke induced changes during early AMD.
Distribution of Deviation Distance to Alternative Fuel Stations  [PDF]
Masashi Miyagawa
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2013.33033
Abstract: This paper derives the distribution of the deviation distance to visit an alternative fuel station. Distance is measured as the Euclidean distance on a continuous plane. The distribution explicitly considers the vehicle range and whether the round trip between origin and destination can be made. Three cases are examined: fuel is available at both origin and destination, fuel is available at either origin or destination, and fuel is available at neither origin nor destination. The analytical expressions for the distribution demonstrate how the vehicle range, the shortest distance, and the refueling availability at origin and destination affect the deviation distance. The distribution will thus be useful to estimate the number of vehicles refueled at a station.

Weak Values Influenced by Environment  [PDF]
Masashi Ban
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.411A1001

A weak value of an observable is studied for a quantum system which is placed under the influence of an environment, where a quantum system irreversibly evolves from a pre-selected state to a post-selected state. A general expression for a weak value influenced by an environment is provided. For a Markovian environment, the weak value is calculated in terms of the predictive and retrodictive density matrices, or by means of the quantum regression theorem. For a non-Markovian environment, a weak value is examined by making use of exactly solvable models. It is found that although the anomalous property is significantly suppressed by a Markovian environment, it can survive a non-Markovian environment.

Visceral Ischemia Caused by Extra-Anatomical Bypass for Coral Reef Aorta  [PDF]
Masashi Kawabori
World Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery (WJCS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjcs.2015.57012
Abstract: A 72-year-old woman was presented with intermittent claudication of bilateral lower extremities, refractory hypertension, and mild renal impairment. Computed tomographic angiography showed severe aortic stenosis caused by calcifications protruding into the aortic lumen proximal and distal to the visceral and renal branches, so-called coral reef aorta. An axillo-iliac bypass was performed. Postoperatively, the patient developed ileus and acute renal failure, presumably caused by a steal phenomenon to the lower extremities. Endovascular stenting of the aorta increased forward blood flow and dramatically improved the patient’s condition. This case study illustrates potential hemodynamic complications after extra-anatomical axillo-iliac bypass for coral reef aorta.
Aortic Valve Replacement in Bicuspid Aortic Valve with a Single Coronary Artery  [PDF]
Masashi Kawabori
World Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery (WJCS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjcs.2015.512020
Abstract: Coronary artery anomalies combined with bicuspid aortic valve are rare but cause perioperative complications if not detected on time. Because anomalous coronary arteries vary with respect to the ostium’s origin and transverse route, the precise anatomy should be identified preoperatively and the procedure modified. We describe a severely stenotic bicuspid aortic valve and anomalous coronary artery corrected successfully with a modified valve replacement procedure, illustrating the importance of analyzing coronary anatomy preoperatively, regardless of age, to avoid occluding an anomalous artery’s ostium and to address the anomalies. We describe our modified procedure based on the artery’s location for a safe operation.
Effective Sol-Gel Nanocoatings on ZnO Electrodes for Suppressing Recombination in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Shintaro Ueno,Shinobu Fujihara
International Journal of Photoenergy , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/268173
Abstract: Attempts have been made to improve the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by forming metal-oxide nanocoating layers on ZnO electrodes by a sol-gel transformation. SiO2, Nb2O5, TiO2, or ZrO2 nanocoating layers could be formed by dipping ZnO films into metal alkoxide solutions of low concentrations and subsequent heat treatments. The performance of DSSCs using the coated ZnO electrodes depends strongly on the structure of coating layers such as the thickness and the surface coverage, which are significantly influenced by the coating conditions. In particular, SiO2 and Nb2O5 coating layers are effective to suppress the recombination by constructing the energy barrier at the ZnO/electrolyte interface and enhance energy conversion efficiency. It is found that the coating layers also hinder the grain growth of ZnO, contributing to the enhanced cell performance as well.
Atypical presentations of neuromyelitis optica
Sato, Douglas;Fujihara, Kazuo;
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-282X2011000600019
Abstract: neuromyelitis optica (nmo) is an inflammatory disease of central nervous system classically characterized by acute, severe episodes of optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, usually with a relapsing course. the identification of an autoantibody exclusively detected in nmo patients against aquaporin-4 (aqp-4) has allowed identification of cases beyond the classical phenotype. brain lesions, once thought as infrequent, can be observed in nmo patients, but lesions have different characteristics from the ones seen in multiple sclerosis. additionally, some aqp-4 antibody positive patients may present with a variety of symptoms not being restricted to optic neuritis and acute myelitis during the first attack or in a relapse. examples are not limited to, but may include patients only with brain and/or brainstem lesions, narcolepsy with hypothalamic lesions or patients with intractable hiccups, nausea and vomiting. the prompt identification of nmo patients with atypical presentations may benefit these patients with institution of early treatment to reduce disability and prevent further attacks.
trans-(Pyrimidine-2-thiolato-κ2N,S)[tris(2-aminoethyl)amine-κ4N,N′,N′′,N′′′]cobalt(III) chloride hexafluoridophosphate
Keisuke Fujihara,Toshiaki Yonemura
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2009, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536809032395
Abstract: In the title compound, [Co(C4H3N2S)(C6H18N4)](Cl)PF6, the CoIII ion is coordinated by a tripod-like tetradentate ligand and a monoanionic N,S-bidentate ligand in an approximately octahedral CoN4OS geometry. The anionic S atom of the pyrimidine-2-thiolate (pymt) ligand is coordinated in the trans position to the primary amine N atom (Nprim) of the tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (tren) ligand. The crystal structure exhibits short intermolecular N—H...N hydrogen bonds (N...N <3.2 ), and intermolecular N—H...Cl and C—H...F contacts, leading to the formation of an infinite two-dimensional network.
Homesick Lévy walk: A mobility model having Ichi-go Ichi-e and scale-free properties of human encounters
Akihiro Fujihara,Hiroyoshi Miwa
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.1109/COMPSAC.2014.81
Abstract: In recent years, mobility models have been reconsidered based on findings by analyzing some big datasets collected by GPS sensors, cellphone call records, and Geotagging. To understand the fundamental statistical properties of the frequency of serendipitous human encounters, we conducted experiments to collect long-term data on human contact using short-range wireless communication devices which many people frequently carry in daily life. By analyzing the data we showed that the majority of human encounters occur once-in-an-experimental-period: they are Ichi-go Ichi-e. We also found that the remaining more frequent encounters obey a power-law distribution: they are scale-free. To theoretically find the origin of these properties, we introduced as a minimal human mobility model, Homesick L\'evy walk, where the walker stochastically selects moving long distances as well as L\'evy walk or returning back home. Using numerical simulations and a simple mean-field theory, we offer a theoretical explanation for the properties to validate the mobility model. The proposed model is helpful for evaluating long-term performance of routing protocols in delay tolerant networks and mobile opportunistic networks better since some utility-based protocols select nodes with frequent encounters for message transfer.
Discharge Simulation in a Data-Scarce Basin Using Reanalysis and Global Precipitation Data: A Case Study of the White Volta Basin  [PDF]
Yoichi Fujihara, Yukiyo Yamamoto, Yasuhiro Tsujimoto, Jun-Ichi Sakagami
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.614121
Abstract: Basins in many parts of the world are ungauged or poorly gauged, and in some cases existing measurement networks are declining. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of reanalysis and global precipitation datasets in the river discharge simulation for a data-scarce basin. The White Volta basin of Ghana which is one of international rivers was selected as a study basin. NCEP1, NCEP2, ERA-Interim, and GPCP datasets were compared with corresponding observed precipitation data. Annual variations were not reproduced in NCEP1, NCEP2, and ERA-Interim. However, GPCP data, which is based on satellite and observed data, had good seasonal accuracy and reproduced annual variations well. Moreover, five datasets were used as input data to a hydrologic model with HYMOD, which is a water balance model, and with WTM, which is a river model; thereafter, the hydrologic model was calibrated for each datum set by a global optimization method, and river discharge were simulated. The results were evaluated by the root mean square error, relative error, and water balance error. As a result, the combination of GPCP precipitation and ERA-Interim evaporation data was the best in terms of most evaluations. The relative errors in the calibration and validation periods were 43.1% and 46.6%, respectively. Moreover, the results for the GPCP precipitation and ERA-Interim evaporation were better than those for the combination of observed precipitation and ERA-Interim evaporation. In conclusion, GPCP precipitation data and ERA-Interim evaporation data are very useful in a data-scarce basin water balance analysis.
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