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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 508 matches for " Masakazu Moriyama "
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Study on Surface Heat Budget of Various Pavements for Urban Heat Island Mitigation
Hideki Takebayashi,Masakazu Moriyama
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/523051
Abstract: The surface heat budgets of various pavement surfaces are studied with the aim of mitigating the urban heat island effect. In this study, the thermal characteristics of pavements are examined using data from observations. The net radiation, surface temperature, temperature under the surface, conduction heat flux, and core weight for each experimental surface are recorded, together with the weather conditions at the time of observation. The latent heat flux is estimated from the observed weight of the cores. The surface heat budget under the same weather conditions is examined, and the sensible heat flux from each target surface is calculated. The parameters that influence the surface heat budget, for example, solar reflectance (albedo), evaporative efficiency, heat conductivity, and heat capacity, are examined. On a typical summer day, the maximum reduction in the sensible heat flux from that on a normal asphalt surface is about 150?W/m2 for an asphalt surface with water-retaining material and about 100?W/m2 for a cement concrete surface with water-retaining material, depending on the albedo of each surface. 1. Introduction The purpose of this study is to investigate the urban heat island mitigation effect achieved by conversion from an asphalt pavement surface to another pavement surface for ground surface improvement, which is an established urban heat island mitigation technique. Various kinds of pavements were constructed experimentally for the purpose of investigating their effect on urban heat island mitigation by analyzing the surface heat budget. The urban heat island mitigation effect is discussed from the viewpoint of the sensible heat flux reduction for each pavement. Urban heat island mitigation technologies focus on the improvement of urban surface materials on roads, roofs, and walls. For example, roads and roofs coated with high-reflectance paint are called cool roofs and cool pavements by Akbari et al. [1]. According to their estimates, the annual balances in the saving in cooling cost and the increase in heating cost obtained by introducing cool roofs are $35 million in Los Angeles, $16 million in New York, and $10 million in Chicago. However, fewer studies have been carried out on roads as compared to those on green roofs [2–7], green parks [8–12], and green plantings [13–15]. In Japan, several studies have been carried out to evaluate the performance of pavements designed to have a beneficial environmental impact [16–20]. However, those studies have evaluated each technology separately and discussed only the reduction in surface
36-Month Follow-Up Study of Post-Intervention Chronic Heart Failure Patients  [PDF]
Haruka Otsu, Michiko Moriyama
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.67075
Abstract: Aim: Although numerous studies of disease management and case management of chronic heart failure (CHF) have been carried out, length of effectiveness after program commencement has not been examined, so we examined a follow-up study at 36 months after program commencement. Methods: Participants went for follow-up visits to one Japanese clinic which specializes in internal cardiovascular medicine and they were given diagnoses of CHF. 104 outpatients participated in this study and randomized control trial was implemented. An educational program was implemented for 6 months. The data were collected at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12 months from both intervention and control groups and at 24 and 36 months from the intervention group. Results: There was significant improvement in New York Heart Association (NYHA) in the intervention group between baseline and 36 months. Improvement in weight monitoring and activities or exercise in the intervention group continued up to 36 months. Meanwhile, sodium restricted diets and quitting smoking and/or drinking depended on individual preference and it was difficult to make improvements in these areas. Conclusions: The educational program showed promise in preventing CHF outpatients from deteriorating significantly on a long-term basis as self-monitoring of activity and weight continued significantly and there were no participants with CHF who deteriorated in the intervention group at 36 months after program commencement, although the program aimed only to provide illness and self-management knowledge. On the other hand, future work will need to compare participants in this program to a control group over an extended period of time with consideration for relieving the burden of the control group.
Electricity Generation System with Piezoelectric Element Using Acoustic Radiation Energy  [PDF]
Hiroyuki Moriyama, Yuta Yamamura
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2018.610001
Abstract: In this study, a circular plate that is installing a piezoelectric element at its center is adopted as energy-harvesting system and is subjected to a harmonic point force. Because this system cannot avoid the influence of its acoustic radiation, the influence is considered theoretically using the equation of plate motion taking into account its radiation impedance and is estimated by the electricity generation efficiency, which is derived from the ratio of the electric power in the electricity generation and the mechanical power supplied to the plate. As a result, the efficiency is suppressed by the acoustic radiation from the plate, so that the efficiencies are so different in whether to take into consideration the radiation impedance or not. Because those results are verified by the electricity generation experiment and radiation acoustic energy has a hopeful prospect for improving the performance of this system, mechanical-acoustic coupling is used to make the most of the acoustic energy. Therefore, a cylinder that has the above plates at both ends is also adopted as the electricity generation system and mechanical-acoustic coupling is caused between the plate vibrations and an internal sound field into the cylindrical enclosure by subjecting one side of each plate to a harmonic point force. Then, the effect of coupling is evaluated by comparing with the efficiencies in the electricity generation system of only plate. Specifically, because the radiation impedance increases with the plate thickness, i.e., with the natural frequency of the plate, it is demonstrated that the effect of coupling becomes remarkable with increasing the thickness on the electricity generation efficiency.
A Comprehensive Genomic Analysis Reveals the Genetic Landscape of Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex Deficiencies
Masakazu Kohda?,Yoshimi Tokuzawa?,Yoshihito Kishita?,Hiromi Nyuzuki?,Yohsuke Moriyama,Yosuke Mizuno?,Tomoko Hirata?,Yukiko Yatsuka?,Yzumi Yamashita-Sugahara?,Yutaka Nakachi
PLOS Genetics , 2016, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005679
Abstract: Mitochondrial disorders have the highest incidence among congenital metabolic disorders characterized by biochemical respiratory chain complex deficiencies. It occurs at a rate of 1 in 5,000 births, and has phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. Mutations in about 1,500 nuclear encoded mitochondrial proteins may cause mitochondrial dysfunction of energy production and mitochondrial disorders. More than 250 genes that cause mitochondrial disorders have been reported to date. However exact genetic diagnosis for patients still remained largely unknown. To reveal this heterogeneity, we performed comprehensive genomic analyses for 142 patients with childhood-onset mitochondrial respiratory chain complex deficiencies. The approach includes whole mtDNA and exome analyses using high-throughput sequencing, and chromosomal aberration analyses using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. We identified 37 novel mutations in known mitochondrial disease genes and 3 mitochondria-related genes (MRPS23, QRSL1, and PNPLA4) as novel causative genes. We also identified 2 genes known to cause monogenic diseases (MECP2 and TNNI3) and 3 chromosomal aberrations (6q24.3-q25.1, 17p12, and 22q11.21) as causes in this cohort. Our approaches enhance the ability to identify pathogenic gene mutations in patients with biochemically defined mitochondrial respiratory chain complex deficiencies in clinical settings. They also underscore clinical and genetic heterogeneity and will improve patient care of this complex disorder.
The Validity of the Reduction of Disposable Plastic Checkout Bags in Japan  [PDF]
Masakazu Yamashita, Daichi Toyofuku
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.39118
Abstract: This study examined the effect of reducing disposable plastic checkout bags used in supermarkets, convenience stores, and so on in Japan. Considering that even when these checkout bags are abolished, alternative waste bags should be newly produced, because these checkout bags have been reused as household waste bags so far, and the corresponding amount of oil is still necessary to produce them, the amount of oil saved by this bag reduction was found to be 0.2 L/person/year at most. Further, it was demonstrated that the necessity to purchase substitute bags may increase the household and financial burden on consumers.
Possibility of the Benzoic Acids Formation by Oxidation of Benzyl Chlorides in the Sand  [PDF]
Masakazu Yamashita, Masato Hata
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.41014

Seeking the possibility of the formation of benzoic acids from benzyl halides in natural soil, a model oxidation reaction of the halides was carried out in the presence of water and soil in an open air under UV light irradiation. Addition of TiO2 to soil raised the yield of the acid, implying such a metal oxide plays a real catalytic role in this oxidation. By these supplementary experiments, one of the possibilities for the formation of benzoic acids in natural soil from benzyl chlorides was supported.

Dust Resulting from Tire Wear and the Risk of Health Hazards  [PDF]
Masakazu Yamashita, Shohei Yamanaka
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.46059

The present study examined the effects of air pollutants on people’s health, focusing on dust produced from automobile tires while cars drive on roads. The annual volume of dust resulting from tire wear, calculated based on the number of automobiles registered in Japan, was 1747245.4 m3. To put it simply, this translates to approximately 1.4 times the volume of the Tokyo Dome, a famous Japanese baseball stadium. Particulate substances are categorized into three groups depending on their size, and dust resulting from tire wear is classified into the coarse particle mode along with mold spores, pollen, and dust produced from brake pads. This study examined whether or not tire dust causes health damage similarly to pollen, a particulate substance in the same group. There were 38/cm2 dust particles resulting from tire wear on a busy road in Osaka Prefecture, and this number was larger than that of cedar pollen/cm2 (35), a cause of hay fever, identified in Hokkaido. The results suggest that tire dust may also adversely affect the health of people if any of its constituents has a toxicity or causes allergies.

Effects of Heavy Metal Pollution of Apple Orchard Surface Soils Associated with Past Use of Metal-Based Pesticides on Soil Microbial Biomass and Microbial Communities  [PDF]
Masakazu Aoyama, Ryo Tanaka
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.44A005

Apple orchard surface soils in Japan are polluted with copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) due to long-term use of metal-based pesticides. We investigated the effects of heavy metals accumulated in the surface soils in apple orchards on the microbial biomass and the microbial communities. Soil samples were taken from a chestnut orchard (unpolluted control) and five apple orchards with different degrees of heavy metal pollution. Total concentrations of Cu, Pb, and As in soil ranged from 29 to 931 mg/kg, 35 to 771 mg/kg, and 11 to 198 mg/kg, respectively. The amount of microbial biomass carbon expressed on a soil organic carbon basis decreased with increasing concentrations of heavy metals. Thus, the heavy metals that accumulated in apple orchard surface soils had adverse effects on the soil microbial biomass. The analysis of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition indicated that the microbial community structure had changed because of the pesticide-derived heavy metals in soil. The relative abundance of gram-positive bacterial marker PLFAs increased and that of fungal marker PLFA decreased with increasing concentrations of heavy metals in soil. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoreses targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of bacteria and the 18S ribosomal RNA gene of fungi also showed shifts in the composition of bacterial and fungal communities induced by soil pollution with heavy metals. However, the diversity of microbial communities was not significantly affected by the heavy metal pollution. This was attributable to the adaptation of the microbial communities in apple orchard surface soils to heavy metals derived from previously used pesticides.

Re-Formulation of Mean King’s Problem Using Shannon’s Entropy  [PDF]
Masakazu Yoshida, Hideki Imai
Journal of Quantum Information Science (JQIS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jqis.2013.31002

Mean King’s problem is formulated as a retrodiction problem among noncommutative observables. In this paper, we reformulate Mean King’s problem using Shannon’s entropy as a first step of introducing quantum uncertainty relation with delayed classical information. As a result, we give informational and statistical meanings to the estimation on Mean King problem. As its application, we give an alternative proof of nonexistence of solutions of Mean King’s problem for qubit system without using entanglement.

An Environmental Risk Evaluation Method Employing Atmospheric Dispersion Models and GIS  [PDF]
Masakazu Ishii, Kayoko Yamamoto
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.412160

This study aims to develop a method for evaluating the environmental risk of harmful chemical substances released from specific sources, using two atmospheric dispersion models and GIS (Geographic Information Systems). In the first stage of evaluation, ADMER was used to conduct a wide-area evaluation which covered the entire area of the evaluation target region. In the second stage, METI-LIS was used to conduct a detailed limited-area evaluation which targeted the vicinity of sources. In this study, incinerators were selected as sources and dioxins were selected as harmful chemical substances. The area selected for evaluation was the Tokyo Metropolis in Japan, and the evaluation method proposed in this study was used to evaluate environmental risk. Through the use of atmospheric dispersion models and GIS, the behavior of dioxins emitted into the atmosphere from incinerators was estimated. By superimposing atmospheric levels and population data, the amounts of dioxins that humans exposed to were found. Additionally, by superimposing deposition amounts and land use data, the amounts of dioxins accumulated in each land environment were found. Conducting these steps enabled the impact of dioxins on humans and the environment to be grasped quantitatively and visually, and the risk that dioxins emitted from incinerators pose to the environment to be evaluated.

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