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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1857 matches for " Masahiro Ohga "
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Effects of hot-water extract of Paecilomyces hepiali on hypertension parameters in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  [PDF]
Alfred Chioza, Shoji Ohga
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.48048

In this study, effects of hot water extract of Paecilomyces hepiali mycelia on hypertension parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were investigated. The tested parameters included blood pressure, blood and urine biochemical composition, renin and angiotensin II levels in the blood. Prior to these tests, the extract was examined for toxicity. The fungus was cultivated in a solid medium composed of 40 g brown rice, 0.32 g glucose, 0.65 g sucrose, 2 g peptone and 65 ml corn steep liquor. No abnormality or harmful effects were observed in the toxicity test. Administration of a continuous-dose, once daily, to SHR for 27 weeks (from 13 weeks of age) decreased the systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly. Levels of blood urea nitrogen, β-lipoprotein lipid peroxides and low density lipoprotein were significantly lower in the treated groups when compared to the control group. Urinary protein was significantly reduced in the middle and high dose groups. In comparison with the control group (0 mg/kg/10ml/day), significantly higher values were obtained for total cholesterol in groups that were given middle (170 mg/kg/10ml/day) and high (250 mg/kg/10ml/day) dosages. In all dosages (low, middle and high) the values for triglyceride were significantly higher than value found in the control group. In terms of angiotensin II levels, the value in the control group was markedly higher than values in the other groups. The results suggest that oral administration of hot water extract of P. hepiali mycelia has ability to control hypertension in rats.

Cultivated Mushrooms in Malawi: A Look at the Present Situation  [PDF]
Alfred Chioza, Shoji Ohga
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.41002

This paper presents the status of mushroom cultivation in Malawi. This is a developing country located in southeastern Africa between latitudes 9°25' South and 17°08' South and longitudes 33° East and 36°East. Almost all the mushroom cultivators in the country are growing Pleurotus ostreatus. This species is most preferred because of its easiness to cultivate using the low-cost cultivation method being practiced in the country. On average, the annual P. ostreatus production is estimated at 240 kg per grower. Mushroom cultivators are selling their produce at prices ranging from MK800 (USD2.04) to MK2000 (USD5.10) per kg. At present, there are four institutions that are producing spawn namely Bunda College (Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural resources), Bvumbwe Agricultural Research Station, Natural Resources College and the Biology Department at Chancellor College, University of Malawi. Currently, a total of about 1307 bottles (330 ml each) of P. ostreatus spawn are sold by these four spawn producers per month. Mushroom cultivation is not that popular in Malawi. This may be, partly, attributed to lack of know-how and awareness on the economic, nutritive and medicinal benefits of cultivated mushrooms. Some of the major supermarkets do sell Agaricus bisporus mushrooms which are imported from the Republic of South Africa. They also sell Pleurotus ostreatus

A Comparative Study on Chemical Composition and Pharmacological Effects of Paecilomyces hepiali and Wild Ophiocordyceps sinensis  [PDF]
Alfred Chioza, Shoji Ohga
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.412093
Abstract: This study looked at comparison of chemical components and pharmacological activity between wild Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Paecilomyces hepiali. The chemical components investigated included amino acids, vitamins, dietary elements, protein, lipid, ash, carbohydrates, crude fibre, ergosterol and mannitol. Studies on pharmacological activity included anti-platelet aggregation, inhibitory effect on IL-8 gene expression, anti-mutagenic activity, skin whitening effect and impro- vement activity on human skin texture. The results show that P. hepiali has a larger total content of seven essential amino acids (leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine and valine) than O. sinensis, 8580 mg/100g and 6180 mg/100g respectively. The total content of dietary elements analysed (potassium, magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese and selenium) was also higher in P. hepiali (3135 mg/100g) than that in O. sinensis (2445 mg/100g). The total content of four vitamins (B1, B2, B6 and E) was almost equal for both fungi. Paecilomyces hepiali had more content of protein, lipid, ash, carbohydrate, ergosterol and mannitol than O. sinensis. However, the contents of lipid and ash were not significantly different between
Mycelial Growth of Paecilomyces hepiali in Various Agar Media and Yield of Fruit Bodies in Rice Based Media  [PDF]
Alfred Chioza, Shoji Ohga
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2013.37071
Abstract: Growth of?Paecilomyces hepiali?in various agar media and yield of fruit bodies in rice based media were?studied. The best growth in agar media was obtained at 25?(61.86 mm colony diameter in 14 days). The initial agar media pH range?from?6 to 8 was found to be?the?most favourable for mycelial growth. This study found that agars made with powders of cereal grains alone do not support good mycelial growth of?P. hepiali. Addition of peptone improved mycelial growth significantly. The most favourable carbon sources were Mannose, Fructose and Glucose. Organic nitrogen sources were found to be?the?most preferred. The results demonstrated that brown rice is better than polished rice in yield of fruit bodies. Addition of peptone was found to be quite significant in enhancing yield of fruit bodies. Peptone, as a supplement, gave a better yield than addition of egg yolk, albumen and a mixture of the two. The medium with?40 g brown rice, 0.325 g glucose, 0.65 g sucrose, 2 g peptone and 65 ml corn steep liquor was found to be?the?most favourable and it yielded 19.3 g of fresh fruit bodies.
Effects of Hypobaric and Hyperbaric Pressures on Mycelial Growth of Isolated Strain of Wild Ophiocordyceps sinensis  [PDF]
Sanath Gamage, Shoji Ohga
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2017.77045
Abstract: The exploration of the effects of pressure leads to new insights into the mycelial growth of Paecilomyces hepiali fungal strain. This strain has been generally accepted as true anamorph of wild Ophiocordyceps sinensis. It is only found at high altitude area like Himalayan plateau where atmospheric pressure is very low. Most of researches about P. hepiali and artificial mycelial cultivation have been done around mean sea level pressure. Then new experimental set up was developed and described. The apparatus permitted growth of mycelia under different pressure levels while other micro environmental conditions were carefully controlled. Potato dextrose broth was used as liquid media. As solid and semi solid media, sorghum base media and potato dextrose agar were prepared. Results of mycelial growth under hypobaric pressures and hyperbaric pressure were compared with mycelial growth of atmospheric pressure and hence growth influence has been shown. Specially, -100 mmHg treated sample showed significantly highest growth in both solid media and semi solid media. In semi solid media, -100 mmHg was not significant with other reduced pressure treatments. Meanwhile, -150 mmHg treated samples showed significantly highest mycelial growth of liquid media and -150 mmHg of pressure adversely affected on water contents of solid growing media. This may be an effect of pressure on enzymatic activities, protein and fatty acid of plasma membrane. As well as, pressure changes equilibrium of biochemical reactions, bond of some molecules and partial pressure of air molecules. Further molecular and biochemical researches are required to evaluate the possible stimulation of mycelial growth through hypobaric and hyperbaric treatments.
Utilization of Ceramic Beads for Edible Mushrooms Cultivation  [PDF]
Poyu Huang, Shoji Ohga
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2017.712065
Abstract: This study examined ceramic beads as a reusable material for cultivation of edible mushrooms. There are 20 species of popular edible mushrooms in Japan all of which were tested. Within the cultivation vessels, 70% were ceramic beads (diameter 1 cm) and 30% of the nutrient solution. Moreover, the control groups used several types of sawdust, wheat bran, and rice bran with the ratio of 8:1:1 as the substrate. Two sets of substrates were evaluated with the fruit bodies yield. The result indicated that there were 11 species that responded well with the ceramic bead substrate when compared to the traditional sawdust substrate with Agrocybe cylindrica and Pleurotus ostreatus performed the best adding 70 g more of the fruit bodies. Conversely, nine species responded poorly with the ceramic beads substrate with Auricularia polytricha performed the worst losing 120 g. Ceramic beads as a reusable material for substrates not only provide a clean and controllable environment for mycelium to colonize but also deliver more aeration and water availability inside the cultivation vessels. The application of the ceramic bead cultivation can be viewed as an alternative solution for producing Ophiocordyceps sinensis on the industrial level.
A Comparative Study of Technological Impact on Mushroom Industry in Sri Lanka: A Review  [PDF]
Sanath Gamage, Shoji Ohga
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.88045
Abstract: The present status of technological implementation for mushroom industry in Sri Lanka is expressed along this paper. It has been comparatively discussed with entire Japanese mushroom industry. Sri Lanka is a developing country located in south Asia. Almost all the mushroom cultivators in the country are growing Pleurotus ostreatus, Calocybe indica and Volvariella volvacea. These species are most preferred because they are not difficult to cultivate using the low cost cultivation method being practiced in the country. Mushroom cultivators are selling their product at prices ranging from LKR 240 (1.47) to LKR 430 (USD 2.63) per kg in 2017. Mushroom cultivation is not that popular in Sri Lanka. This may be, partly, attributed to lack of know-how, technological barrier and awareness on the economic, nutritive and medicinal benefits of cultivated mushrooms. Some of the major supermarkets do sell locally cultivated P. ostreatus and, Agaricus bisporus and Lentinula edodes mushrooms which are imported from the Republic of China and Thailand. At present, there are few private and government institutions which produce spawn and offer knowledge to the farmers. Their programs have been mainly focused on mushroom cultivation as a woman’s household business; but the industry should be developed towards large scale commercial mushroom cultivation as well. This study is focused on main steps of mushroom production with some discussion and suggestion for increase production efficiency through technological advancement.
Nutritional Requirements for Mycelial Growth of Ophiocordyceps sinensis on Agar Media  [PDF]
Poyu Huang, Shoji Ohga
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.811054
Abstract: Ophiocordyceps sinensis has been used as one of the most valuable traditional Chinese Medication. This fungus parasitizes larva of Hepialus armoricanus, and converts each larva into a sclerotium form, in which the fruit body grows. Due to the geographical limitation, where O. sinensis can only be found in Himalayas region, the natural resources are limited and very expensive. This research aims to compare the growth-rate of O. sinensis mycelia with different ingredients mix with agar media using one-factor-at-a-time method. This research demonstrated the mycelial growth-rate with different carbon sources, including monosaccharide (Fructose, Glucose), disaccharide (Maltose, Sucrose), and polysaccharide (Dextrin, Malt extract), complex organic nitrogen sources, including beef extract, yeast extract, whey protein, and soy protein, and eight different carbon to nitrogen ratios. The objective of this research is to find out the suitable carbon and organic complex nitrogen sources and ratio for the O. sinensis solid cultivation. As results, O. sinensis grew best with disaccharides comparing to the other types of carbon sources. Furthermore, O. sinensis preferred whey protein in contrast to other organic complex nitrogen sources. As for the carbon to nitrogen ratios, an optimal ratio of 18:1 was observed. Based on those experiments, carbon source shows a greater influence for the mycelial growth. Hence many different types of grains and cereals would be great candidates as the main ingredients for the O. sinensis solid cultivation.
Study on the Cultivation of Agaricus blazei (Almond Mushroom) Grown on Compost Mixed with Selected Agro-Residues  [PDF]
Tun Tun Win, Shoji Ohga
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.810051
Abstract: The Agaricus blazei strain (KUMB 1221) from Forest Production Control Laboratory, Kyushu University was grown on the basal media of compost mixed with selected agro-residues (sawdust, woodchips and corncob) in the ratio of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (by weight). The data was collected on the colony diameter of mycelial growth, days required for spawn run (colonization), days required for primordial formation, whiteness measurement, days required for fruit body formation, number, size and fresh weight of mushrooms, biological efficiency (BE) and mushroom production (MP). It was observed that the mycelial growth showed two types of mycelia according the level of mycelial density; compact (C) and somewhat compact (SC). The fastest spawn run (17 days) was found in woodchips (50%) among all the different treatments while the least spawn run took 26 days in corncob (75%). Sawdust substrates promoted longer days for primordial formation and fruit body development, if compared with woodchips substrates and corncob substrates. With regard to yield, 100%, 75% and 50% mixture with compost were superior to 25% mixture with compost in each group of selected agro-residues and it indicated that adding more compost gave the increased yield. Interestingly, it was noted that mushroom size on compost (100%) was double to the mushroom size of other treatments. In conclusion, it was clearly showed that compost (100%), woodchips (25%) and corncob (25%) could produce better yields among all treatments, and it was also possible to obtain acceptable yields of good quality almond mushroom using main substrates of compost mixed with different agro-residues at various concentrations.
Vegetative Development of Sparassis crispa in Various Growth Conditions and Effect of Electric Pulse Simulation on Its Fruit Body Production  [PDF]
Muhammad Umar Farooq, Alfred Chioza, Shoji Ohga
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.45033

This study was carried out to detect the favorable mycelial growth conditions and effect of electric pulse stimulation on fruit body production of SC-1 strain of Sparassis crispa. The optimum growth in PDA was found at 25°C (67 mm colony diameter in 28 days) followed by 20°C (63 mm colony diameter in 28 days). There was no mycelial growth at 35°C. The most favourable initial media pH range was found to be 5 - 7 and colony diameter measurements were not statistically different among these pH values (p > 0.05). However, the highest growth was obtained at pH 6 (57 mm colony diameter in 28 days). A basal medium composed of 0.05 g MgSO4, 0.46 g KH2PO4, 1.0 g K2HPO4, 120 μg thiamine-HCl, 20 g agar and 1000 ml of distilled water was used to investigate growth response of S. crispato different carbon and nitrogen sources. In 28 days, fructose and glucose exhibited best growth (49.4 mm and 31.6 mm colony diameters respectively) and there was no growth on the basal medium supplemented with galactose. Basal medium supplemented with glycine and alanine as nitrogen sources resulted in best growth, 54.4 mm and 50.5 mm colony diameters respectively. There was no mycelial growth in culture medium supplemented with ammonium acetate, ammonium phosphate, arginine and histidine. Electric pulse stimulation improved the fruiting body production. The yields obtained from all bottles in which electric pulse was applied were significantly higher than the yields from the bottles in which electric pulse was not applied. The percent increases of fresh weight yield from control on 100, 120, 130, and 170 kilovolts were 36%, 44%, 75% and 81% respectively. As regard to dry weight yield, the percent increases from control on 100, 120, 130, and 170 kilovolts were 27%, 54%, 63% and 67% respectively.

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