Abstract:
This is an expanded version of the short report arXiv:1401.0539, where we stud- ied the (Renyi) entanglement entropies for the excited state defined by acting a given local operator on the ground state. We introduced the (Renyi) entanglement entropies of given local operators which measure the degrees of freedom of local operators and characterize them in conformal field theories from the viewpoint of quantum entanglement. In present paper, we explain how to compute them in free massless scalar field theories and we also investigate their time evolution. The results are interpreted in terms of relativistic propagation of an entangled pair. The main new results which we acquire in the present paper are as follows. Firstly, we provide an explanation which shows that the (Renyi) entanglement entropies of a specific operator are given by (Renyi) entanglement entropies of binomial distribution by the replica method. That operator is constructed of only scalar field. Secondly, we found the sum rule which (Renyi) entanglement entropies of those local operators obey. Those local operators are located separately. Moreover we argue that (Renyi) entanglement entropies of specific operators in conformal field theories are given by (Renyi) entanglement entropies of binomial distribution. These specific operators are constructed of single-species operator. We also argue that general operators obey the sum rule which we mentioned above.

Abstract:
In this paper, we study the logarithmic terms in the partition functions of CFTs with boundaries (BCFTs). In three dimensions, their coefficients give the boundary central charges, which are conjectured to be monotonically decreasing functions under the RG flows. We present a few supporting evidences from field theory calculations. In two dimensions, we give a holographic construction (AdS/BCFT) for an arbitrary shape of boundary and calculate its logarithmic term as well as boundary energy momentum tensors, confirming its consistency with the Weyl anomaly. Moreover, we give perturbative solutions of gravity duals for the three dimensional BCFTs with any shapes of boundaries. We find that the standard Fefferman-Graham expansion breaks down for generic choices of BCFT boundaries.

Abstract:
We propose a free falling particle in an AdS space as a holographic model of local quench. Local quenches are triggered by local excitations in a given quantum system. We calculate the time-evolution of holographic entanglement entropy. We confirm a logarithmic time-evolution, which is known to be typical in two dimensional local quenches. To study the structure of quantum entanglement in general quantum systems, we introduce a new quantity which we call entanglement density and apply this analysis to quantum quenches. We show that this quantity is directly related to the energy density in a small size limit. Moreover, we find a simple relationship between the amount of quantum information possessed by a massive object and its total energy based on the AdS/CFT.

Abstract:
We introduce a series of quantities which characterizes a given local operator in conformal field theories from the viewpoint of quantum entanglement. It is defined by the increased amount of (Renyi) entanglement entropy at late time for an excited state defined by acting the local operator on the vacuum. We consider a conformal field theory on an infinite space and take the subsystem in the definition of the entanglement entropy to be its half. We calculate these quantities for a free massless scalar field theory in 2, 4 and 6 dimensions. We find that these results are interpreted in terms of quantum entanglement of finite number states, including EPR states. They agree with a heuristic picture of propagations of entangled particles.

Abstract:
We study Renyi and von-Neumann entanglement entropy of excited states created by local operators in large N (or large central charge) CFTs. First we point that a naive large N expansion can break down for the von-Neumann entanglement entropy, while it does not for the Renyi entanglement entropy. This happens even for the excited states in free Yang-Mills theories. Next, we analyze strongly coupled large N CFTs from both field theoretic and holographic viewpoints. We find that the Renyi entanglement entropy of the excited state produced by a local operator, grows logarithmically under its time evolution and its coefficient is proportional to the conformal dimension of the local operator.

Abstract:
In this work we consider the time evolution of charged Renyi entanglement entropies after exciting the vacuum with local fermionic operators. In order to explore the infor- mation contained in charged Renyi entropies, we perform computations of their excess due to the operator excitation in 2d CFT, free fermionic field theories in various di- mensions as well as holographically. In the analysis we focus on the dependence on the entanglement charge, the chemical potential and the spacetime dimension. We find that excesses of charged (Renyi) entanglement entropy can be interpreted in terms of charged quasiparticles. Moreover, we show that by appropriately tuning the chemical potential charged Renyi entropies can be used to extract entanglement in a certain charge sector of the excited state.

Abstract:
We study a conjectured connection between the AdS/CFT and a real-space quantum renormalization group scheme, the multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA). By making a close contact with the holographic formula of the entanglement entropy, we propose a general definition of the metric in the MERA in the extra holographic direction, which is formulated purely in terms of quantum field theoretical data. Using the continuum version of the MERA (cMERA), we calculate this emergent holographic metric explicitly for free scalar boson and free fermions theories, and check that the metric so computed has the properties expected from AdS/CFT. We also discuss the cMERA in a time-dependent background induced by quantum quench and estimate its corresponding metric.

Abstract:
We argue that the entanglement entropy for a very small subsystem obeys a property which is analogous to the first law of thermodynamics when we excite the system. In relativistic setups, its effective temperature is proportional to the inverse of the subsystem size. This provides a universal relationship between the energy and the amount of quantum information. We derive the results using holography and confirm them in two dimensional field theories. We will also comment on an example with negative specific heat and suggest a connection between the second law of thermodynamics and the strong subadditivity of entanglement entropy.

Abstract:
We study the time evolution of cMERA (continuous MERA) under quantum quenches in free field theories. We calculate the corresponding holographic metric using the proposal of arXiv:1208.3469 and confirm that it qualitatively agrees with its gravity dual given by a half of the AdS black hole spacetime, argued by Hartman and Maldacena in arXiv:1303.1080. By doubling the cMERA for the quantum quench, we give an explicit construction of finite temperature cMERA. We also study cMERA in the presence of chemical potential and show that there is an enhancement of metric in the infrared region corresponding to the Fermi energy.

Abstract:
We study the dynamics of entanglement entropy for weakly excited states in conformal field theories by using the AdS/CFT. This is aimed at a first step to find a counterpart of Einstein equation in the CFT language. In particular, we point out that the entanglement entropy satisfies differential equations which directly correspond to the Einstein equation in several setups of AdS/CFT. We also define a quantity called entanglement density in higher dimensional field theories and study its dynamical property for weakly excited states in conformal field theories.