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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1850 matches for " Masahiro Ikoma "
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Critical Core Masses for Gas Giant Formation with Grain-Free Envelopes
Yasunori Hori,Masahiro Ikoma
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/714/2/1343
Abstract: We investigate the critical core mass and the envelope growth timescale, assuming grain-free envelopes, to examine how small cores are allowed to form gas giants in the framework of the core accretion model. This is motivated by a theoretical dilemma concerning Jupiter formation: Modelings of Jupiter's interior suggest that it contains a small core of < 10 Earth mass, while many core accretion models of Jupiter formation require a large core of > 10 Earth mass to finish its formation by the time of disk dissipation. Reduction of opacity in the accreting envelope is known to hasten gas giant formation. Almost all the previous studies assumed grain-dominated opacity in the envelope. Instead, we examine cases of grain-free envelopes in this study. Our numerical simulations show that an isolated core of as small as 1.7 Earth mass is able to capture disk gas to form a gas giant on a timescale of million years, if the accreting envelope is grain-free; that value decreases to 0.75 Earth mass, if the envelope is metal-free, namely, composed purely of hydrogen and helium. It is also shown that alkali atoms, which are known to be one of the dominant opacity sources near 1500 K in the atmospheres of hot Jupiters, have little contribution to determine the critical core mass. Our results confirm that sedimentation and coagulation of grains in the accreting envelope is a key to resolve the dilemma about Jupiter formation.
Gas Giant Formation with Small Cores Triggered by Envelope Pollution by Icy Planetesimals
Yasunori Hori,Masahiro Ikoma
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19140.x
Abstract: We have investigated how envelope pollution by icy planetesimals affects the critical core mass for gas giant formation and the gas accretion time-scales. In the core-accretion model, runaway gas accretion is triggered after a core reaches a critical core mass. All the previous studies on the core-accretion model assumed that the envelope has the solar composition uniformly. In fact, the envelope is likely polluted by evaporated materials of icy planetesimals because icy planetesimals going through the envelope experience mass loss via strong ablation and most of their masses are deposited in the deep envelope. In this paper, we have demonstrated that envelope pollution in general lowers the critical core masses and hastens gas accretion on to the protoplanet because of the increase in the molecular weight and reduction of adiabatic temperature gradient. Widely- and highly-polluted envelopes allow smaller cores to form massive envelopes before disc dissipation. Our results suggest that envelope pollution in the course of planetary accretion has the potential to trigger gas giant formation with small cores. We propose that it is necessary to take into account envelope pollution by icy planetesimals when we discuss gas giant formation based on the core-accretion model.
In-situ Accretion of Hydrogen-Rich Atmospheres on Short-Period Super-Earths: Implications for the Kepler-11 Planets
Masahiro Ikoma,Yasunori Hori
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/753/1/66
Abstract: Motivated by recent discoveries of low-density super-Earths with short orbital periods, we have investigated in-situ accretion of H-He atmospheres on rocky bodies embedded in dissipating warm disks, by simulating quasi-static evolution of atmospheres that connect to the ambient disk. We have found that the atmospheric evolution has two distinctly different outcomes, depending on the rocky body's mass: While the atmospheres on massive rocky bodies undergo runaway disk-gas accretion, those on light rocky bodies undergo significant erosion during disk dispersal. In the atmospheric erosion, the heat content of the rocky body that was previously neglected plays an important role. We have also realized that the atmospheric mass is rather sensitive to disk temperature in the mass range of interest in this study. Our theory is applied to recently-detected super-Earths orbiting Kepler-11 to examine the possibility that the planets are rock-dominated ones with relatively thick H-He atmospheres. The application suggests that the in-situ formation of the relatively thick H-He atmospheres inferred by structure modeling is possible only under restricted conditions; namely, relatively slow disk dissipation and/or cool environments. This study demonstrates that low-density super-Earths provide important clues to understanding of planetary accretion and disk evolution.
Origin of the Ocean on the Earth: Early Evolution of Water D/H in a Hydrogen-rich Atmosphere
Hidenori Genda,Masahiro Ikoma
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2007.09.007
Abstract: The origin of the Earth's ocean has been discussed on the basis of deuterium/hydrogen ratios (D/H) of several sources of water in the solar system. The average D/H of carbonaceous chondrites (CC's) is known to be close to the current D/H of the Earth's ocean, while those of comets and the solar nebula are larger by about a factor of two and smaller by about a factor of seven, respectively, than that of the Earth's ocean. Thus, the main source of the Earth's ocean has been thought to be CC's or adequate mixing of comets and the solar nebula. However, those conclusions are correct only if D/H of water on the Earth has remained unchanged for the past 4.5 Gyr. In this paper, we investigate evolution of D/H in the ocean in the case that the early Earth had a hydrogen-rich atmosphere, the existence of which is predicted by recent theories of planet formation no matter whether the nebula remains or not. Then we show that D/H in the ocean increases by a factor of 2-9, which is caused by the mass fractionation during atmospheric hydrogen loss, followed by deuterium exchange between hydrogen gas and water vapor during ocean formation. This result suggests that the apparent similarity in D/H of water between CC's and the current Earth's ocean does not necessarily support the CC's origin of water and that the apparent discrepancy in D/H is not a good reason for excluding the nebular origin of water.
Impact of photoevaporative mass loss on masses and radii of water-rich sub/super-Earths
Kenji Kurosaki,Masahiro Ikoma,Yasunori Hori
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201322258
Abstract: Recent progress in transit photometry opened a new window to the interior of super-Earths. From measured radii and masses, we can infer planetary internal compositions. It has been recently revealed that super-Earths are diverse in composition. Such a diversity is thought to arise from diversity in volatile content. The stability of the volatile components is to be examined, because hot super-Earths undergo photo-evaporative mass loss. While several studies investigated the impact of photo-evaporative mass loss on hydrogen-helium envelopes, there are few studies as to the impact on water-vapor envelopes. To obtain theoretical prediction to future observations, we also investigate the relationships among masses, radii, and semimajor axes of water-rich sub/super-Earths that have undergone photo-evaporative mass loss. We simulate the interior structure and evolution of sub/super-Earths that consist of a rocky core surrounded by a water envelope, including mass loss due to the stellar XUV-driven energy-limited hydrodynamic escape. We find that the photo-evaporative mass loss has a significant impact on the evolution of hot sub/super-Earths. We then derive the threshold planetary mass and radius below which the planet loses its water envelope completely as a function of the initial water content, and find that there are minimums of the threshold mass and radius. We constrain the domain in the parameter space of planetary mass, radius, and semimajor axis in which sub/super-Earths never retain water envelopes in 1-10 Gyr. This would provide an essential piece of information for understanding the origin of close-in low-mass planets. The current uncertainties in stellar XUV flux and its heating efficiency, however, prevent us from deriving robust conclusions. Nevertheless, it seems to be a robust conclusion that Kepler planet candidates contain a significant number of rocky sub/super-Earths.
Composition and fate of short-period super-Earths: The case of CoRoT-7b
Diana Valencia,Masahiro Ikoma,Tristan Guillot,Nadine Nettelmann
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200912839
Abstract: The discovery of CoRoT-7b, a planet of radius 1.68 +/- 0.09 R_E, mass 4.8 +/- 0.8 M_E and orbital period of 0.854 days demonstrates that small planets can orbit extremely close to their star. We use knowledge of hot Jupiters, mass loss estimates and models for the interior structure and evolution of planets to understand its composition, structure and evolution. The inferred mass and radius of CoRoT-7b are consistent with a rocky planet that would be depleted in iron relative to Earth. However, a one sigma increase in mass (5.6 M_E) and decrease in size (1.59 R_E) are compatible with an Earth-like composition (33% iron, 67% silicates). Alternatively, it is possible that CoRoT-7b contains a significant amount of volatiles. An equally good fit to the data is found for a vapor envelope equal to 3% (and up to 10%) by mass above an Earth-like nucleus. Because of its intense irradiation and small size, the planet cannot possess an envelope of H and He of more than 1/10,000 of its total mass. We show that the mass loss is significant (~ 10^11 g/s) and independent of planetary composition. This is because the hydrodynamical escape rate is independent of the atmosphere's mean molecular mass, and owing to the intense irradiation, even a bare rocky planet would possess an equilibrium vapor atmosphere thick enough to capture stellar UV photons. This escape rate rules out the possibility of a H-He envelope as it would escape in only ~1 Ma. A water vapor atmosphere would escape in ~ 1 Ga, and thus it is a plausible scenario. The origin of CoRoT-7b cannot be inferred from present observations: It may have formed rocky; or be the remnant of a Uranus-like ice giant, or a gas giant with a small core that was stripped of its gaseous envelope.
Starspots - Transit Depth Relation of the Evaporating Planet Candidate KIC 12557548b
Hajime Kawahara,Teruyuki Hirano,Kenji Kurosaki,Yuichi Ito,Masahiro Ikoma
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/776/1/L6
Abstract: Violent variation of transit depths and an ingress-egress asymmetry of the transit light curve discovered in KIC 12557548 have been interpreted as evidences of a catastrophic evaporation of atmosphere with dust (M_p gtrsim 1 M_oplus/Gyr) from a close-in small planet. To explore what drives the anomalous atmospheric escape, we perform time-series analysis of the transit depth variation of Kepler archival data for ~ 3.5 yr. We find a ~ 30% periodic variation of the transit depth with P1 = 22.83 pm 0.21 days, which is within the error of the rotation period of the host star estimated using the light curve modulation, Prot = 22.91 pm 0.24 days. We interpret the results as evidence that the atmospheric escape of KIC 12557548b correlates with stellar activity. We consider possible scenarios that account for both the mass loss rate and the correlation with stellar activity. X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV)-driven evaporation is possible if one accepts a relatively high XUV flux and a high efficiency for converting the input energy to the kinetic energy of the atmosphere. Star-planet magnetic interaction is another possible scenario though huge uncertainty remains for the mass loss rate.
Theoretical Emission Spectra of Atmospheres of Hot Rocky Super-Earths
Yuichi Ito,Masahiro Ikoma,Hajime Kawahara,Hiroko Nagahara,Yui Kawashima,Taishi Nakamoto
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/801/2/144
Abstract: Motivated by recent detection of transiting high-density super-Earths, we explore the detectability of hot rocky super-Earths orbiting very close to their host stars. In the environment hot enough for their rocky surfaces to be molten, they would have the atmosphere composed of gas species from the magma oceans. In this study, we investigate the radiative properties of the atmosphere that is in the gas/melt equilibrium with the underlying magma ocean. Our equilibrium calculations yield Na, K, Fe, Si, SiO, O, and O$_2$ as the major atmospheric species. We compile the radiative-absorption line data of those species available in literature, and calculate their absorption opacities in the wavelength region of 0.1--100~$\mathrm{\mu m}$. Using them, we integrate the thermal structure of the atmosphere. Then, we find that thermal inversion occurs in the atmosphere because of the UV absorption by SiO. In addition, we calculate the ratio of the planetary to stellar emission fluxes during secondary eclipse, and find prominent emission features induced by SiO at 4~$\mathrm{\mu m}$ detectable by Spitzer, and those at 10 and 100~$\mathrm{\mu m}$ detectable by near-future space telescopes.
IRSF SIRIUS JHKs Simultaneous Transit Photometry of GJ1214b
Norio Narita,Takahiro Nagayama,Takuya Suenaga,Akihiko Fukui,Masahiro Ikoma,Yasushi Nakajima,Shogo Nishiyama,Motohide Tamura
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1093/pasj/65.2.27
Abstract: We report high precision transit photometry of GJ1214b in JHKs bands taken simultaneously with the SIRIUS camera on the IRSF 1.4m telescope at Sutherland, South Africa. Our MCMC analyses show that the observed planet-to-star radius ratios in JHKs bands are R_{\rm p}/R_{\rm s,J} = 0.11833 \pm 0.00077, R_{\rm p}/R_{\rm s,H} = 0.11522 \pm 0.00079, R_{\rm p}/R_{\rm s,Ks} = 0.11459 \pm 0.00099, respectively. The radius ratios are well consistent with the previous studies by Bean et al. (2011) within 1\sigma, while our result in Ks band is shallower than and inconsistent at 4\sigma\ level with the previous measurements in the same band by Croll et al. (2011). We have no good explanation for this discrepancy at this point. Our overall results support a flat transmission spectrum in the observed bands, which can be explained by a water-dominated atmosphere or an atmosphere with extensive high-altitude clouds or haze. To solve the discrepancy of the radius ratios and to discriminate a definitive atmosphere model for GJ1214b in the future, further transit observations around Ks band would be especially important.
Demonstrating High-precision, Multi-band Transit Photometry with MuSCAT: A Case for HAT-P-14b
Akihiko Fukui,Norio Narita,Yui Kawashima,Nobuhiko Kusakabe,Masahiro Onitsuka,Tsuguru Ryu,Masahiro Ikoma,Kenshi Yanagisawa,Hideyuki Izumiura
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The Multicolor Simultaneous Camera for studying Atmospheres of Transiting exoplanets (MuSCAT) is an optical three-band (g'_2-, r'_2-, and z_{s,2}-band) imager, recently developed for the 188cm telescope at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory with the aim of validating and characterizing transiting planets. In a pilot observation with MuSCAT, we observed a primary transit of HAT-P-14b, a high-surface gravity (g_p=38 ms^{-2}) hot Jupiter around a bright (V=10) F-type star. From a 2.9-hour observation, we achieve the 5-min binned photometric precisions of 0.028%, 0.022%, and 0.024% in the g'_2, r'_2, and z_{s,2} bands, respectively, providing the highest-quality photometric data for this planet. Combining these results with those of previous observations, we search for variations of transit timing and duration over five years, as well as variations of planet-star radius ratio (R_p/R_s) with wavelength, but find no considerable variation in any parameters. On the other hand, using the transit-subtracted light curves, we simulate achievable measurement error of R_p/R_s with MuSCAT for various planetary sizes, assuming three types of host stars, namely, HAT-P-14, the nearby K dwarf HAT-P-11, and the nearby M dwarf GJ1214. Comparing our results with the expected atmospheric scale heights of planets with the lowest surface gravity, we find that MuSCAT is capable of probing the atmospheres of planets as small as a sub-Jupiter (R_p ~6 R_Earth) around HAT-P-14 in all bands, a Neptune (~4R_Earth) around HAT-P-11 in all bands, and a super-Earth (~2.5R_Earth) around GJ1214 in r'_2 and z_{s,2} bands. These results promise that MuSCAT will produce fruitful scientific outcomes in the K2 and TESS era.
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