Abstract:
Angular momentum transport and particle acceleration during the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a collisionless accretion disk are investigated using three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. We show that the kinetic MRI can provide not only high energy particle acceleration but also enhancement of angular momentum transport. We find that the plasma pressure anisotropy inside the channel flow with $p_{\|} > p_{\perp}$ induced by active magnetic reconnection suppresses the onset of subsequent reconnection, which in turn leads to high magnetic field saturation and enhancement of Maxwell stress tensor of angular momentum transport. Meanwhile, during the quiescent stage of reconnection the plasma isotropization progresses in the channel flow, and the anisotropic plasma with $p_{\perp} > p_{\|}$ due to the dynamo action of MRI outside the channel flow contributes to rapid reconnection and strong particle acceleration. This efficient particle acceleration and enhanced angular momentum transport in a collisionless accretion disk may explain the origin of high energy particles observed around massive black holes.

Abstract:
Particle acceleration during the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a collisionless accretion disk was investigated by using a particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. We discuss the important role that magnetic reconnection plays not only on the saturation of MRI but also on the relativistic particle generation. The plasma pressure anisotropy of $p_{\perp} > p_{\para}$ induced by the action of MRI dynamo leads to rapid growth in magnetic reconnection, resulting in the fast generation of nonthermal particles with a hard power-law spectrum. This efficient particle acceleration mechanism involved in a collisionless accretion disk may be a possible model to explain the origin of high energy particles observed around massive black holes.

Abstract:
A nonthermal particle acceleration mechanism involving the interaction of a charged particle with multiple magnetic islands is proposed. The original Fermi acceleration model, which assumes randomly distributed magnetic clouds moving at random velocity $V_c$ in the interstellar medium, is known to be of second-order acceleration of $O(V_c/c)^2$ owing to the combination of head-on and head-tail collisions. In this letter, we reconsider the original Fermi model by introducing multiple magnetic islands during reconnect ion instead of magnetic clouds. We discuss that the energetic particles have a tendency to be distributed outside the magnetic islands, and they mainly interact with reconnection outflow jets. As a result, the acceleration efficiency becomes first-order of $O(V_A/c)$, where $V_A$ and $c$ are the Alfv\'en velocity and the speed of light, respectively.

Abstract:
The magnetohydrodynamic linear stability with the localized bulk flow oriented parallel to the neutral sheet is investigated, by including the Hall effect and the guide magnetic field. We observe three different unstable modes: a "streaming tearing" mode at a slow flow speed, a "streaming sausage" mode at a medium flow speed, and a "streaming kink" mode at a fast flow speed. The streaming tearing and sausage modes have a standard tearing mode-like structure with symmetric density fluctuations in the neutral sheet, while the kink mode has an asymmetric fluctuation. The growth rate of the streaming tearing mode decreases with increasing magnetic Reynolds number, while the growth rates of the sausage and kink modes do not depend strongly on the Reynolds number. The sausage and kink modes can be unstable for not only super-Alfv\'enic flow but also sub-Alfv\'enic flow when the lobe density is low. The wavelengths of these unstable modes are of the same order of magnitude as the thickness of the plasma sheet. Their maximum growth rates are higher than that of a standard tearing mode, and under a strong guide magnetic field, the growth rates of the sausage and kink modes are enhanced, while under a weak guide magnetic field, they are suppressed. For a thin plasma sheet with the Hall effect, the fluctuations of the streaming modes can exist over the plasma sheet. These unstable modes may be regarded as being one of the processes generating Alfv\'enic turbulence in the plasma sheet during magnetic reconnection.

Abstract:
Electron acceleration in collisionless shocks with arbitrary magnetic field orientations is discussed. It is shown that the injection of thermal electrons into diffusive shock acceleration process is achieved by an electron beam with a loss-cone in velocity space that is reflected back upstream from the shock through shock drift acceleration mechanism. The electron beam is able to excite whistler waves which can scatter the energetic electrons themselves when the Alfven Mach number of the shock is sufficiently high. A critical Mach number for the electron injection is obtained as a function of upstream parameters. The application to supernova remnant shocks is discussed.

Abstract:
An evolution of a magnetic reconnection in a collisionless accretion disk is investigated using a 2.5 dimensional hybrid code simulation. In astrophysical disks, magnetorotational instability (MRI) is considered to play an important role by generating turbulence in the disk and contributes to an effective angular momentum transport through a turbulent viscosity. Magnetic reconnection, on the other hand, also plays an important role on the evolution of the disk through a dissipation of a magnetic field enhanced by a dynamo effect of MRI. In this study, we developed a hybrid code to calculate an evolution of a differentially rotating system. With this code, we first confirmed a linear growth of MRI. We also investigated a behavior of a particular structure of a current sheet, which would exist in the turbulence in the disk. From the calculation of the magnetic reconnection, we found an asymmetric structure in the out-of-plane magnetic field during the evolution of reconnection, which can be understood by a coupling of the Hall effect and the differential rotation. We also found a migration of X-point whose direction is determined only by an initial sign of J_0 \times \Omega_0, where J_0 is the initial current density in the neutral sheet and \Omega_0 is the rotational vector of the background Keplerian rotation. Associated with the migration of X-point, we also found a significant enhancement of the perpendicular magnetic field compared to an ordinary MRI. MRI-Magnetic reconnection coupling and the resulting magnetic field enhancement can be an effective process to sustain a strong turbulence in the accretion disk and to a transport of angular momentum.

Abstract:
Roles of turbulence in the context of magnetic reconnection are investigated with special emphasis on the mutual interaction between flow (large-scale inhomogeneous structure) and turbulence. In order to evaluate the effective transport due to turbulence, in addition to the {\it intensity} information of turbulence represented by the turbulent energy, the {\it structure} information represented by pseudoscalar statistical quantities (helicities) is important. On the basis of the evolution equation, mechanisms that provide turbulence with cross helicity are presented. Magnetic-flux freezing in highly turbulent media is considered with special emphasis on the spatial distribution of the turbulent cross helicity. The cross-helicity effects in the context of magnetic reconnection are also investigated. It is shown that the large-scale flow and magnetic-field configurations favorable for the cross-helicity generation is compatible with the fast reconnection. In this sense, turbulence and large-scale structures promote magnetic reconnection mediated by the turbulent cross helicity.

Abstract:
We perform a two-dimensional simulation by using an electromagnetic hybrid code to study the formation of slow-mode shocks in collisionless magnetic reconnection in low beta plasmas, and we focus on the relation between the formation of slow shocks and the ion temperature anisotropy enhanced at the shock downstream region. It is known that as magnetic reconnection develops, the parallel temperature along the magnetic field becomes large in association with the anisotropic PSBL (plasma sheet boundary layer) ion beams, and this temperature anisotropy has a tendency to suppress the formation of slow shocks. Based on our simulation result, we found that the slow shock formation is suppressed due to the large temperature anisotropy near the X-type region, but the ion temperature anisotropy relaxes with increasing the distance from the magnetic neutral point. As a result, two pairs of current structures, which are the strong evidence of dissipation of magnetic field in slow shocks, are formed at the distance x > 115 ion inertial lengths from the neutral point.

Abstract:
A new rapid energization process within a supernova shock transition region (STR) is reported by utilizing numerical simulation. Although the scale of a STR as a main dissipation region is only several hundreds of thousands km, several interesting structures are found relating to generation of a root of the energetic particles. The nonlinear evolution of plasma instabilities lead to a dynamical change in the ion phase space distribution which associates with change of the field properties. As a result, different types of large-amplitude field structures appear. One is the leading wave packet and another is a series of magnetic solitary humps. Each field structure has a microscopic scale (~ the ion inertia length). Through the multiple nonlinear scattering between these large-amplitude field structures, electrons are accelerated directly. Within a STR, quick thermalization realizes energy equipartition between the ion and electron, hot electrons play an important role in keeping these large-amplitude field structures on the ion-acoustic mode. The hot electron shows non-Maxwellian distribution and could be the seed of further non-thermal population. The "shock system", where fresh incoming and reflected ions are supplied constantly, play an essential role in our result. With a perpendicular shock geometry, the maximum energy of the electron is estimated by equating a width of the STR to a length of the Larmor radius of the energetic electron. Under some realistic condition of M_A = 170 and \omega_{pe}/\Omega_{ce} = 120, maximum energy is estimated to ~ 10 MeV at an instant only within the STR.

Abstract:
Electron accelerations at high Mach number collision-less shocks are investigated by means of two-dimensional electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell simulations with various Alfven Mach numbers, ion-to-electron mass ratios, and the upstream electron beta_e (the ratio of the thermal pressure to the magnetic pressure). We found electrons are effectively accelerated at a super-high Mach number shock (MA~30) with a mass ratio of M/m=100 and beta_e=0.5. The electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for accelerating the particles toward the relativistic regime even in two dimensions with the large mass ratio. Buneman instability excited at the leading edge of the foot in the super-high Mach number shock results in a coherent electrostatic potential structure. While multi-dimensionality allows the electrons to escape from the trapping region, they can interact with the strong electrostatic field several times. Simulation runs in various parameter regimes indicate that the electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for producing relativistic particles in extremely-high Mach number shocks in supernova remnants, provided that the upstream electron temperature is reasonably low.