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Diagnóstico y epidemiología de enfermedades rickettsiales en Colombia
Marylin Hidalgo
Revista MVZ Córdoba , 2010,
Abstract: Las proteobacterias del orden Rickettsiales están divididas en las familias Rickettsiaceae, Ehrlichiaceae y “Holosporaceae”. Las enfermedades ocasionadas por rickettsias y ehrlichias son clínicamente similares, pero epidemiológica y etiológicamente diferentes; son zoonosis transmitidas por artrópodos incluyendo garrapatas, pulgas y piojos (1-4). Las rickettsiosis comprenden enfermedades como las fiebres manchadas (exantemáticas o petequiales) y el tifo (epidémico y murino). Estos son síndromes febriles agudos que pueden ser llegar a ser fatales si no hay un tratamiento antibiótico oportuno y adecuado(4-6).
Evaluación de varias técnicas de extracción de ADN de Cryptococcus spp. a partir de muestras ambientales
Casta?eda,Alexandra; McEwen,Juan; Hidalgo,Marylin; Casta?eda,Elizabeth;
Biomédica , 2004,
Abstract: the genus cryptococcus encompasses 38 species, but only 3 are associated with disease in humans and animals, cryptococcus laurentii, cryptococcus albidus and cryptococcus neoformans. the last one is the most frequently reported. the disease is acquired by the inhalation of infectious propagules present in the environment. the habitat has been established using extraction techniques with buffer supplemented with antibiotics and plating in selective media. the aim of this work was to evaluate several dna extraction techniques for cryptocococus spp . from environmental samples. the control isolates were c. neoformans, c. albidus, c. laurentii and paracoccidiodes brasiliensis. we also used vermiculita and soil samples contaminated with different yeast concentrations (10 to 10 6 cells/g) and samples naturally contaminated with c. neoformans. dna was extracted with physical and chemical methods and with a commercial kit, and the dna was purified with agarose blocks and silica columns. for the pcr amplification we used the cn4-cn5 primers, which are specific for c. neoformans. only the commercial kit allowed dna extraction and amplification from contaminated soil samples up to a concentration of 10 cells/g and from one sample naturally colonized. with this work we extracted and amplified dna from cryptococcus spp. from environmental samples with appropriate pcr specificity, it will be a tool to establish the ecological areas of c. neoformans in our country.
Increase in erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Colombia, 1994-2008 Incremento de la resistencia a eritromicina de Streptococcus pneumoniae, Colombia, 1994-2008
Marylin Hidalgo,Claudia Santos,Carolina Duarte,Elizabeth Casta?eda
Biomédica , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a commonly implicated agent in invasive disease. For infections of S. pneumoniae resistant to β-lactam, macrolides are an alternative treatment. However, resistance to macrolides has increased worldwide as well. Objective. The frequency of resistance to erythromycin was determined for S. pneumoniae over a 15-year surveillance period, and the resistant isolates were characterized phenotypically and genotypically. Materials and methods. Demographic data of the patients, antimicrobial susceptibility and serotypes were analyzed for 3,241 S. pneumoniae isolates recovered between 1994 and 2008. The phenotypes were determined by the double-disc technique and genotypes by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and PFGE (pulsed field gel electrophoresis). Isolates were recovered from invasive diseases and were provided by national public health laboratories. Results. Of the 3,241 isolates, 136 were resistant to erythromycin. In the 12-year period between 1994-1996 and 2006-2008, resistance in each 2-year sampling had increased from 2.4% to 6.9% in children under 6 years and from 3.3% to 5.7% in adults. The most common serotypes were 6B (36.8%), 14 (16.9%) and 6A (17.6%). Constitutive phenotype cMLSB was determined in 87 isolates; 82 of these expressed the ermB gene. Phenotype M was determined in 46 isolates; 45 had the mefA gene. An additional three isolates expressed the inducible phenotype (iMLSB), and one expressed the ermB gene. By PFGE, 50 of the isolates were found to be related to international clones--58% were Spain6B-ST90, 26% Spain9V-ST156, 8% Colombia23F-ST338 and 8% Spain23F-ST81. Conclusion. The increase in erythromycin resistance was primarily related to the mechanism of ribosomal methylation. More than half the cases were congeneric with the clone Spain6B-ST90 that has been circulating in Colombia since 1994. Introducción. Streptococcus pneumoniae es un agente comúnmente implicado en enfermedad invasora. Los macrólidos constituyen un tratamiento alternativo para las infecciones por S. pneumoniae resistente a los β-lactámicos. Sin embargo, la resistencia a macrólidos se ha incrementado a nivel mundial. Objetivo. Determinar la frecuencia de la resistencia a la eritromicina de S. pneumoniae en 15 a os de vigilancia y caracterizar fenotípica y genotípicamente los aislamientos resistentes. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron los datos demográficos de los pacientes, la sensibilidad antimicrobiana y los serotipos de los aislamientos resistentes a la eritromicina, recuperados entre 1994 y 2008. Se determinaron los fenotip
Incremento de la resistencia a eritromicina de Streptococcus pneumoniae, Colombia, 1994-2008
Hidalgo,Marylin; Santos,Claudia; Duarte,Carolina; Casta?eda,Elizabeth; Agudelo,Clara Inés;
Biomédica , 2011,
Abstract: introduction. streptococcus pneumoniae is a commonly implicated agent in invasive disease. for infections of s. pneumoniae resistant to b-lactam, macrolides are an alternative treatment. however, resistance to macrolides has increased worldwide as well. objective. the frequency of resistance to erythromycin was determined for s. pneumoniae over a 15-year surveillance period, and the resistant isolates were characterized phenotypically and genotypically. materials and methods. demographic data of the patients, antimicrobial susceptibility and serotypes were analyzed for 3,241 s. pneumoniae isolates recovered between 1994 and 2008. the phenotypes were determined by the double-disc technique and genotypes by pcr (polymerase chain reaction) and pfge (pulsed field gel electrophoresis). isolates were recovered from invasive diseases and were provided by national public health laboratories. results. of the 3,241 isolates, 136 were resistant to erythromycin. in the 12-year period between 1994-1996 and 2006-2008, resistance in each 2-year sampling had increased from 2.4% to 6.9% in children under 6 years and from 3.3% to 5.7% in adults. the most common serotypes were 6b (36.8%), 14 (16.9%) and 6a (17.6%). constitutive phenotype cmlsb was determined in 87 isolates; 82 of these expressed the ermb gene. phenotype m was determined in 46 isolates; 45 had the mefa gene. an additional three isolates expressed the inducible phenotype (imlsb), and one expressed the ermb gene. by pfge, 50 of the isolates were found to be related to international clones--58% were spain6b-st90, 26% spain9v-st156, 8% colombia23f-st338 and 8% spain23f-st81. conclusion. the increase in erythromycin resistance was primarily related to the mechanism of ribosomal methylation. more than half the cases were congeneric with the clone spain6b-st90 that has been circulating in colombia since 1994.
Rickettsiosis, una enfermedad letal emergente y re-emergente en Colombia
Quintero Vélez,Juan Carlos; Marylin,Hidalgo; Rodas González,Juan David;
Universitas Scientiarum , 2012,
Abstract: rickettsiosis was first described in colombia in 1937 by dr luis pati?o during an outbreak of a disease with unspecific signs. rickettsia is a genus of gram-negative intracellular obligatory bacteria having caused several epidemics around the world, and are transmitted mainly by ticks, fleas, lice and mites. the most fatal within this group of diseases is known as rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf), which is caused by rickettsia rickettsia. there is also the endemic typhus caused by rickettsia typhi and epidemic typhus caused by rickettsia prowazekii. in colombia, several outbreaks of rmsf have occurred during the last decade. the best known among those have hit the municipalities of necoclí and turbo, in antioquia in 2006 and 2008 respectively, and los cordobas in the department of cordoba in 2007. the goal of this review is to describe the state of the art of rickettsiosis, a forgotten lethal disease that has re-emerged in our country, and leave some questions as an inspiration for future research that will hopefully lead scientists to a better understanding of this entity potentially endemic in some areas of colombia.
Determinación de la relación clonal de los aislamientos de Salmonella typhi recuperados en el programa de vigilancia por el laboratorio de EDA en Colombia durante el período 1997-2003 mediante la electroforesis en campo pulsado
álvarez De La Hoz Adriana Liceth,Leal Aura Lucía,Hidalgo Marylin
Acta Biológica Colombiana , 2005,
Abstract: La tipificación molecular de Salmonella typhi y paratyphi es necesaria para complementar los análisis epidemiológicos de las fiebres entéricas en Colombia. El objetivo del trabajo fue establecer la relación genética de los aislamientos de Salmonella typhi y paratyphi recuperados durante el período 1997-2003, en varias regiones del país. Se utilizaron 58 aislamientos de S. typhi, tres de S. paratyphi A, dos de S. paratyphi B y 1 de S. paratyphi C, recibidos por el programa de vigilancia de EDA del Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS). Para determinar la relación genética se empleó la electroforesis en gel de campo pulsado y se calculó un dendrograma; para evaluar la asociación entre los patrones electroforéticos obtenidos y las características de los aislamientos, como datos demográficos de los pacientes, tipo de muestra, a o y procedencia, se utilizó un análisis de correspondencias. Los datos de S. typhi se analizaron en conjunto con 15 islamientos tipificados anteriormente en el INS. Se obtuvieron 36 patrones electroforéticos, 31/36 (86,1%), representados en 68/73 (93,1%) aislamientos, estuvieron relacionados genéticamente. Los patrones S.Ty0001 y S.Ty0012 predominaron en el país. En el análisis de correspondencias, no se encontró asociación entre los patrones electroforéticos y las características de los aislamientos. Los aislamientos de S. paratyphi A estuvieron relacionados genéticamente mientras que los de S. paratyphi B no guardaron relación. A pesar de la considerable heterogeneidad de los aislamientos colombianos de Salmonella typhi, definida por el número de patrones electroforéticos, la mayoría de ellos guardan una relación genética, sugiriendo un origen común de los mismos.
Perfiles de resistencia a fluoroquinolonas en aislamientos clínicos de cocos Gram positivos provenientes de hospitales colombianos, 1994-2004 Resistance profiles to fluoroquinolones in clinical isolates of Gram positive cocci
César A. Arias,Marylin Hidalgo,Jinnethe Reyes,Ana María Cárdenas
Biomédica , 2008,
Abstract: Introducción. Las fluoroquinolonas son antibióticos de amplio espectro comúnmente utilizados en el manejo de infecciones. Objetivo. Determinar los patrones de resistencia a fluoroquinolonas en aislamientos colombianos de Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, estafilococos coagulasa negativa y enterococos de centros hospitalarios colombianos, recolectados entre 1994 y 2004. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó la determinación de concentraciones inhibitorias mínimas frente a ciprofloxacino, moxifloxacino y gatifloxacino a 270 aislamientos clínicos de S. pneumoniae, 348 de S. aureus, 176 de estafilococos coagulasa negativa y 123 de enterococos. Para los aislamientos de S. aureus resistentes a la meticilina se determinó la concentración inhibitoria mínima frente a levofloxacino y para aislamientos de S. pneumoniae se realizó la prueba de difusión en agar con discos de ofloxacino y levofloxacino. Resultados. Doscientos sesenta y nueve (99,6%) aislamientos de S. pneumoniae fueron susceptibles a gatifloxacino y moxifloxacino; para levofloxacino y ofloxacino la resistencia fue del 1,5% y 8,9%, respectivamente. El 15,9% de S. pneumoniae tuvo una concentración inhibitoria mínima 3 33 334 μg/ml frente a ciprofloxacino. Las prevalencias de resistencia para ciprofloxacino, gatifloxacino y moxifloxacino en los 348 aislamientos de S. aureus fueron 55,4%, 54,9% y 52,6%, y en S. aureus resistentes a meticilina, fueron 92,3%, 91,3% y 87,5% y 91,8% para levofloxacino. En estafilococos coagulasa negativa y enterococos susceptibles a vancomicina se observaron tasas de resistencia entre 25,6% y 31,8%. Todos los aislamientos de enterococos resistente a vancomicina fueron resistentes a los compuestos evaluados. Conclusión. Los aislamientos colombianos de S. pneumoniae mantienen susceptibilidad a las fluoroquinolonas de última generación. La resistencia a fluoroquinolonas es alta en S. aureus, especialmente en aislamientos resistentes a la meticilina (cercana al 100%). Introduction. Fluoroquinolones are broad spectrum antibiotics commonly used in the treatment of infections. Objective. Resistance profiles of coccus bacteria to fluoroquinolones were evaluated in isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci and Enterococcus spp. The samples were recovered from Colombian hospitals between 1994 and 2004. Materials and methods. The minimal inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin was determined in 270 clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae, 348 of S. aureus, 176 of coagulase negative staphylococci an
Outbreak of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Córdoba, Colombia
Hidalgo, Marylin;Miranda, Jorge;Heredia, Damaris;Zambrano, Pilar;Vesga, Juan Fernando;Lizarazo, Diana;Mattar, Salim;Valbuena, Gustavo;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762011000100019
Abstract: rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf) is a tick-borne disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium rickettsia rickettsii. although rmsf was first reported in colombia in 1937, it remains a neglected disease. herein, we describe the investigation of a large cluster of cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in a new area of colombia.
Discovery of a Protective Rickettsia prowazekii Antigen Recognized by CD8+ T Cells, RP884, Using an In Vivo Screening Platform
Michal Gazi, Erika Caro-Gomez, Yenny Goez, Maria A. Cespedes, Marylin Hidalgo, Paula Correa, Gustavo Valbuena
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076253
Abstract: Rickettsia prowazekii has been tested for biological warfare due to the high mortality that it produces after aerosol transmission of very low numbers of rickettsiae. Epidemic typhus, the infection caused by these obligately intracellular bacteria, continues to be a threat because it is difficult to diagnose due to initial non-specific symptoms and the lack of commercial diagnostic tests that are sensitive and specific during the initial clinical presentation. A vaccine to prevent epidemic typhus would constitute an effective deterrent to the weaponization of R. prowazekii; however, an effective and safe vaccine is not currently available. Due to the cytoplasmic niche of Rickettsia, CD8+ T-cells are critical effectors of immunity; however, the identification of antigens recognized by these cells has not been systematically addressed. To help close this gap, we designed an antigen discovery strategy that uses cell-based vaccination with antigen presenting cells expressing microbe's proteins targeted to the MHC class I presentation pathway. We report the use of this method to discover a protective T-cell rickettsial antigen, RP884, among a test subset of rickettsial proteins.
étude des différents publics du théatre et du cinéma lors de la généralisation du parlant à Lyon (1929-1932) Study of the different audiences of the theatre and the cinema during the generalization of the talking movies in Lyon (1929-1932)
Marylin Marignan
Conserveries Mémorielles : Revue Transdisciplinaire de Jeunes Chercheurs , 2012,
Abstract: Lors de la généralisation du parlant, les rapports entre le septième art et l’art dramatique évoluent. Devant l’ampleur du succès des films sonores, le monde théatral s’inquiète. à Lyon, entre les saisons 1928-1929 et 1931-1932, les directeurs des deux théatres municipaux de la ville de Lyon : le théatre des Célestins et le Grand-Théatre dénoncent une concurrence redoutable du cinéma parlant drainant une partie de leur clientèle. Pourtant, la fréquentation des deux théatres reste stable. Les publics et leurs attitudes restent les mêmes. Les deux salles sont des lieux de sociabilité élargie où plusieurs publics coexistent. Une hiérarchie sociale s’établit reproduisant celle de la ville où chaque catégorie de spectateurs a ses propres pratiques et rituels. En ce qui concerne les exploitations cinématographiques diffusant des films sonores, plusieurs publics existent également. L’arrivée du cinéma parlant n’a pas entra né de bouleversements majeurs au sein de ces publics. On note encore une segmentation des publics en fonction de la catégorie et de la localisation de la salle. Toutefois, il faut bien reconna tre que le nombre de spectateurs augmente considérablement à cette période et que le nouvel intérêt de la presse pour le cinéma parlant permet de légitimer son r le au sein de la société. Finalement, à Lyon, que ce soit au sein des deux théatres municipaux ou pour les salles cinématographiques, on assiste, en partie, au même mouvement avec la présence de plusieurs publics et la recherche d’une distinction sociale. During the generalization of the talking movies, the relationships between the cinema and theatre evolve. In front of the success of the sound movies, the theatrical world worries. In Lyon, between the seasons 1928-1929 and 1931-1932, the directors of both municipal theatres of the city of Lyon: the Théatre des Célestins and the Grand-Théatre denounce a redoubtable competition of the talking movies stealing some of their customers. Nevertheless, the attendance of both theatres remains stable. The audience and their practices are always the same. In this two theatres, different audiences exist. A social hierarchy becomes established reproducing that of the city where every spectator category’s has its own practices and rites. For cinema with talking movies, it also exists different audiences. The apparition of the talking movies did not drive on major turnovers on those audiences. And we also note a segmentation of the public according to the category and to the location of the room. However, it is necessary to recognize that the spectator num
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