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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6259 matches for " Mary Beth Mudgett "
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AvrBsT Acetylates Arabidopsis ACIP1, a Protein that Associates with Microtubules and Is Required for Immunity
Mi Sun Cheong,Angela Kirik,Jung-Gun Kim,Kenneth Frame,Viktor Kirik,Mary Beth Mudgett
PLOS Pathogens , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003952
Abstract: Bacterial pathogens of plant and animals share a homologous group of virulence factors, referred to as the YopJ effector family, which are translocated by the type III secretion (T3S) system into host cells during infection. Recent work indicates that some of these effectors encode acetyltransferases that suppress host immunity. The YopJ-like protein AvrBsT is known to activate effector-triggered immunity (ETI) in Arabidopsis thaliana Pi-0 plants; however, the nature of its enzymatic activity and host target(s) has remained elusive. Here we report that AvrBsT possesses acetyltransferase activity and acetylates ACIP1 (for ACETYLATED INTERACTING PROTEIN1), an unknown protein from Arabidopsis. Genetic studies revealed that Arabidopsis ACIP family members are required for both pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity and AvrBsT-triggered ETI during Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) infection. Microscopy studies revealed that ACIP1 is associated with punctae on the cell cortex and some of these punctae co-localize with microtubules. These structures were dramatically altered during infection. Pst DC3000 or Pst DC3000 AvrRpt2 infection triggered the formation of numerous, small ACIP1 punctae and rods. By contrast, Pst DC3000 AvrBsT infection primarily triggered the formation of large GFP-ACIP1 aggregates, in an acetyltransferase-dependent manner. Our data reveal that members of the ACIP family are new components of the defense machinery required for anti-bacterial immunity. They also suggest that AvrBsT-dependent acetylation in planta alters ACIP1's defense function, which is linked to the activation of ETI.
Tomato TFT1 Is Required for PAMP-Triggered Immunity and Mutations that Prevent T3S Effector XopN from Binding to TFT1 Attenuate Xanthomonas Virulence
Kyle W. Taylor equal contributor,Jung-Gun Kim equal contributor,Xue B. Su,Chris D. Aakre,Julie A. Roden,Christopher M. Adams,Mary Beth Mudgett
PLOS Pathogens , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002768
Abstract: XopN is a type III effector protein from Xanthomonas campestris pathovar vesicatoria that suppresses PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) in tomato. Previous work reported that XopN interacts with the tomato 14-3-3 isoform TFT1; however, TFT1's role in PTI and/or XopN virulence was not determined. Here we show that TFT1 functions in PTI and is a XopN virulence target. Virus-induced gene silencing of TFT1 mRNA in tomato leaves resulted in increased growth of Xcv ΔxopN and Xcv ΔhrpF demonstrating that TFT1 is required to inhibit Xcv multiplication. TFT1 expression was required for Xcv-induced accumulation of PTI5, GRAS4, WRKY28, and LRR22 mRNAs, four PTI marker genes in tomato. Deletion analysis revealed that the XopN C-terminal domain (amino acids 344–733) is sufficient to bind TFT1. Removal of amino acids 605–733 disrupts XopN binding to TFT1 in plant extracts and inhibits XopN-dependent virulence in tomato, demonstrating that these residues are necessary for the XopN/TFT1 interaction. Phos-tag gel analysis and mass spectrometry showed that XopN is phosphorylated in plant extracts at serine 688 in a putative 14-3-3 recognition motif. Mutation of S688 reduced XopN's phosphorylation state but was not sufficient to inhibit binding to TFT1 or reduce XopN virulence. Mutation of S688 and two leucines (L64,L65) in XopN, however, eliminated XopN binding to TFT1 in plant extracts and XopN virulence. L64 and L65 are required for XopN to bind TARK1, a tomato atypical receptor kinase required for PTI. This suggested that TFT1 binding to XopN's C-terminal domain might be stabilized via TARK1/XopN interaction. Pull-down and BiFC analyses show that XopN promotes TARK1/TFT1 complex formation in vitro and in planta by functioning as a molecular scaffold. This is the first report showing that a type III effector targets a host 14-3-3 involved in PTI to promote bacterial pathogenesis.
Regulation of Cell Wall-Bound Invertase in Pepper Leaves by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Type Three Effectors
Sophia Sonnewald, Johannes P. R. Priller, Julia Schuster, Eric Glickmann, Mohammed-Reza Hajirezaei, Stefan Siebig, Mary Beth Mudgett, Uwe Sonnewald
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051763
Abstract: Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) possess a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into its Solanaceous host plants. These proteins are involved in suppression of plant defense and in reprogramming of plant metabolism to favour bacterial propagation. There is increasing evidence that hexoses contribute to defense responses. They act as substrates for metabolic processes and as metabolic semaphores to regulate gene expression. Especially an increase in the apoplastic hexose-to-sucrose ratio has been suggested to strengthen plant defense. This shift is brought about by the activity of cell wall-bound invertase (cw-Inv). We examined the possibility that Xcv may employ type 3 effector (T3E) proteins to suppress cw-Inv activity during infection. Indeed, pepper leaves infected with a T3SS-deficient Xcv strain showed a higher level of cw-Inv mRNA and enzyme activity relative to Xcv wild type infected leaves. Higher cw-Inv activity was paralleled by an increase in hexoses and mRNA abundance for the pathogenesis-related gene PRQ. These results suggest that Xcv suppresses cw-Inv activity in a T3SS-dependent manner, most likely to prevent sugar-mediated defense signals. To identify Xcv T3Es that regulate cw-Inv activity, a screen was performed with eighteen Xcv strains, each deficient in an individual T3E. Seven Xcv T3E deletion strains caused a significant change in cw-Inv activity compared to Xcv wild type. Among them, Xcv lacking the xopB gene (Xcv ΔxopB) caused the most prominent increase in cw-Inv activity. Deletion of xopB increased the mRNA abundance of PRQ in Xcv ΔxopB-infected pepper leaves, but not of Pti5 and Acre31, two PAMP-triggered immunity markers. Inducible expression of XopB in transgenic tobacco inhibited Xcv-mediated induction of cw-Inv activity observed in wild type plants and resulted in severe developmental phenotypes. Together, these data suggest that XopB interferes with cw-Inv activity in planta to suppress sugar-enhanced defense responses during Xcv infection.
Methodological challenges in carbohydrate analyses
Hall, Mary Beth;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982007001000032
Abstract: carbohydrates can provide up to 80% of the dry matter in animal diets, yet their specific evaluation for research and diet formulation is only now becoming a focus in the animal sciences. partitioning of dietary carbohydrates for nutritional purposes should reflect differences in digestion and fermentation characteristics and effects on animal performance. key challenges to designating nutritionally important carbohydrate fractions include classifying the carbohydrates in terms of nutritional characteristics, and selecting analytical methods that describe the desired fraction. the relative lack of information on digestion characteristics of various carbohydrates and their interactions with other fractions in diets means that fractions will not soon be perfectly established. developing a system of carbohydrate analysis that could be used across animal species could enhance the utility of analyses and amount of data we can obtain on dietary effects of carbohydrates. based on quantities present in diets and apparent effects on animal performance, some nutritionally important classes of carbohydrates that may be valuable to measure include sugars, starch, fructans, insoluble fiber, and soluble fiber. essential to selection of methods for these fractions is agreement on precisely what carbohydrates should be included in each. each of these fractions has analyses that could potentially be used to measure them, but most of the available methods have weaknesses that must be evaluated to see if they are fatal and the assay is unusable, or if the assay still may be made workable. factors we must consider as we seek to analyze carbohydrates to describe diets: does the assay accurately measure the desired fraction? is the assay for research, regulatory, or field use (affects considerations of acceptable costs and throughput)? what are acceptable accuracy and variability of measures? is the assay robust (enhances accuracy of values)? for some carbohydrates, we may have to accept
Some Open Problems in Quantum Information Theory
Mary Beth Ruskai
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: Some open questions in quantum information theory (QIT) are described. Most of them were presented in Banff during the BIRS workshop on Operator Structures in QIT 11-16 February 2007. New material has been added in view of the recent counter-examples to p-norm multiplicativity.
Qubit Entanglement Breaking Channels
Mary Beth Ruskai
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1142/S0129055X03001710
Abstract: This paper continues the study of stochastic maps, or channels, which break entanglement. We give a detailed description of entanglement-breaking qubit channels, and show that such maps are precisely the convex hull of those known as classical-quantum channels. We also review the complete positivity conditions in a canonical parameterization and show how they lead to entanglement-breaking conditions.
Some Bipartite States do not Arise from Channels
Mary Beth Ruskai
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: It is well-known that the action of a quantum channel on a state can be represented, using an auxiliary space, as the partial trace of an associated bipartite state. Recently, it was observed that for the bipartite state associated with the optimal average input of the channel, the entanglement of formation is simply the entropy of the reduced density matrix minus the Holevo capacity. It is natural to ask if every bipartite state can be associated with some channel in this way. We show that the answer is negative.
Another Short and Elementary Proof of Strong Subadditivity of Quantum Entropy
Mary Beth Ruskai
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1016/S0034-4877(07)00019-5
Abstract: A short and elementary proof of the joint convexity of relative entropy is presented, using nothing beyond linear algebra. The key ingredients are an easily verified integral representation and the strategy used to prove the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality in elementary courses. Several consequences are proved in a way which allow an elementary proof of strong subadditivity in a few more lines. Some expository material on Schwarz inequalities for operators and the Holevo bound for partial measurements is also included.
Pauli Exchange Errors in Quantum Computation
Mary Beth Ruskai
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.194
Abstract: In many physically realistic models of quantum computation, Pauli exchange interactions cause a subset of two-qubit errors to occur as a first order effect of couplings within the computer, even in the absence of interactions with the computer's environment. We give an explicit 9-qubit code that corrects both Pauli exchange errors and all one-qubit errors.
Connecting N-representability to Weyl's problem: The one particle density matrix for N = 3 and R = 6
Mary Beth Ruskai
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1088/1751-8113/40/45/F01
Abstract: An analytic proof is given of the necessity of the Borland-Dennis conditions for 3-representability of a one particle density matrix with rank 6. This may shed some light on Klyachko's recent use of Schubert calculus to find general conditions for N-representability.
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