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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 149887 matches for " Mary B. Burns "
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State of Content: Healthcare Executive’s Role in Information Technology Adoption  [PDF]
Mary B. Burns, Snehamay Banerjee, Neset Hikmet
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2012.52016
Abstract: Over the past 30 years, researchers have demonstrated that health care information technology (HIT) can improve patient safety and quality of care. More recently, attention has turned increasingly to the role of information and communication technology as a means to improve clinical decision-making as well as organizational efficiency and effective- ness. Despite these streams of research, there is a lack of investigation that look at why and how health care executives leverage HIT. In this paper, the researchers investigate factors that may have an impact on health care executives’ intentions to further adopt HIT in their workplace. The analysis of collected data suggests that these factors play a significant role in increased HIT adoption in the future.
Success, Failure or “No Significant Difference”? The Arguments For and Against Technology as a Learning Tool
Mary Burns
International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET) , 2013, DOI: 10.3991/ijet.v8i1.2376
Abstract: The question of whether computers have positively or negatively impacted student learning is still hotly contested in educational technology circles, particularly in the area of international development, by proponents and critics of technology in education. Overall, research still provides conflicting answers to this question. Nonetheless, the abundant research on effective school change and innovation implementation points to practices which those who promote technology in schools should tap. This paper outlines the long-term structural conditions that can lead to the deep change technology initiatives seek to promote.
NOT TOO DISTANT: A Survey of Strategies for Teacher Support In Distance Education Programs
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2010,
Abstract: Distance learning can be a “very lonely” experience (Brown & Early, cited by Prescott & Robinson, 1993). This isolation exacerbates all of the many issues that can occur when learners are separated from their instructor and other learners via distance. Difficulties understanding content, computer problems, uncertainty about how to employ a strategy, and disappointment when a new pedagogical approach fails are all magnified when teachers confront these issues alone. High rates of attrition in distance-based teacher training courses are in large measure due to these feelings of isolation and “anonymity” (Potashnik & Capper, 1998; Hope, 2006). Indeed, without “support, contact and confidence,” distance learning is not considered by learners to be “valuable” (Brown & Early, 1990; Prescott & Robinson, 1993, p. 306). This paper presents a recent historical and global overview of the types of supports provided to distance education programs across the globe. Because of the diversity of distance-education programs, the paper includes a range of such modalities (print-based instruction, radio, television, and online learning).
Frequency of Blood Cultures Performed in a Community Hospital  [PDF]
Jaslyn M. Maurer, Janice M. Burns, Mary R. Godfrey, Carl M. Urban, Sorana Segal-Maurer
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2013.32019
Abstract: Background: Blood cultures (BCs) are obtained to identify etiologic organisms, demonstrate antibiotic efficacy, determine duration of treatment, and/or suggest further interventions. Published guidelines do not clearly state indications and timing for obtaining BCs. As a result, clinicians may obtain too many BCs, increasing cost and patient discomfort. Objective: To determine frequency of BCs performed at our hospital as part of a quality improvement project. Design: Retrospective review of all BCs submitted during a randomly selected month. Setting: A New York City 535-bed, university-affiliated community hospital. Measurements: Patient demographics and BC data were obtained from medical and laboratory records. Results: During the selected month, 2280 BCs were performed for 379 patients. Negative BCs were seen in 221 patients (58%) with one-half having multiple BCs performed within 48 hours of admission and prior to obtaining results of initial BCs. Repeat BCs frequently did not reveal further pathogens among patients with either negative or positive initial BCs. Conclusions: Two-thirds of BCs were obtained from less than one-half of patients without added clinical utility. Often, BCs were repeated prior to results of initial BCs or repeated in patients receiving antibiotics in spite of known low yield following antibiotic initiation. Clinical assessment and review of initial BCs prior to obtaining further BCs is necessary. Staff education regarding appropriate clinical setting for BCs and indications for repeat BCs is required to maximize utilization of resources, improve diagnostic yield, and limit patient discomfort.
Local problems; local solutions: an innovative approach to investigating and addressing causes of maternal deaths in Zambia's Copperbelt
Mary B Hadley, Mary Tuba
Reproductive Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4755-8-17
Abstract: A pilot was conducted in one district of Zambia. Maternal deaths occurring over a period of twelve months were identified and investigated. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with family, focus group discussions and hospital records. The information was summarized and presented at eleven data sharing meetings to key decision makers, during which recommendations for action were drawn up. An output indicator to monitor progress was included in the routine performance assessment tool. High impact interventions were identified using frequency analysis.A total of 56 maternal deaths were investigated. Poor communication, existing risk factors, a lack of resources and case management issues were the broad categories under which contributing factors were assigned. Sixty three recommendations were drawn up by key decision-makers of which two thirds were implemented by the end of the pilot period. Potential high impact actions were related to management of AIDS and pregnancy, human resources, referral mechanisms, birth planning at household level and availability of safe blood.In resource constrained settings the IMDA approach promotes the use of existing systems to reduce maternal mortality. In turn the capacity of local health officers to use data to determine, plan and implement relevant interventions that address the local factors contributing to maternal deaths is strengthened. Monitoring actions taken against the defined recommendations within the routine performance assessment ensures sustainability. Suggestions for further research are provided.Women's health is closely linked to a country's economic productivity and growth [1]. In recognition of this association, reproductive health objectives and initiatives are included in the poverty reduction strategies in developing countries (for example: Mkuza -II, Zanzibar, 2010; Zambian Poverty Reduction Strategy, 2004; Rwandan Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy, 2008). In addition, investment in
A multi-parameter hydrochemical characterization of proglacial runoff, Cordillera Blanca, Peru
P. Burns,B. Mark,J. McKenzie
The Cryosphere Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/tcd-5-2483-2011
Abstract: The Cordillera Blanca, located in the central Peruvian Andes, is the most glacierized mountain range in the tropics. The study objective is to determine the spatial and topographic controls on geochemical and isotopic parameters in the Quilcayhuanca drainage basin. During the dry season of July 2009, surface water and groundwater samples were collected from the proglacial zone of the 90 km2 Quilcayhuanca basin which is 20% glacierized. The basin water samples (n = 25) were analyzed for pH, conductivity, major cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe(II)), major anions (F, Cl, SO4), nutrients (total N, total P, and Si), and stable isotopes of water (δ18O, δ2H). The valley's surface water is acidic (pH 3–4) and is dominated by Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO42 , the last of which is likely due to pyrite oxidation. Total P and total N show no trend with elevation down valley, while Si generally increases with decreasing elevation. Groundwater samples are differentiated from surface water samples by lower pH, specific conductance, and total P and higher Na+, K+, HCO3 , Si, and δ18O. A two-component mixing model indicates that discharge from the watershed is approximately two-thirds surface water (mostly glacier melt) and one-third groundwater. The results were compared to data from the Rio Santa and indicate that this trend may persist at the regional scale.
Chondrogenesis, joint formation, and cartilage metabolism
Mary B Goldring
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/ar3712
Mary Jane B Rodriguez
Social Science Diliman , 2010,
Abstract: Ethnography, as a scientific method of describing people, played a significant role in the policy of integration undertaken by the newly established American colonial government as regards the non-Christian population of the Philippines in the early 1900s. Such an assertion requires an interrogation of the colonial institution, the Bureau of Non-Christian Tribes, which was tasked, among other things, to conduct “special investigation” of the different ethnic groups (“pagans” and “Mohammedans”) living in the far-flung areas of the archipelago. This paper underscores the politics of ethnological research of the Bureau, and critiques its methodology using David Prescott Barrows’ guidelines for fieldworkers as a lens through which to examine the conduct of research. It analyzes the implications of the racialized methodology for the colonial policy of the United States towards the Philippines, and attempts to explore how such investigation, with the colonial knowledge that it produced, was translated into the native discourse.In its dual capacity as an agent of science and advocate of change, the Bureau of Non-Christian Tribes stands in history as the precursor of the Philippine government agencies that established a highly contested policy of integration of the so-called “ethnic minorities” into the main body politic. The ‘expert knowledge’ that it produced was deemed instrumental in the material and moral uplift of colonial subjects, particularly the non-Christians. The “scientific expeditions” of the bureau generated data which eventually formed the corpus of knowledge for state legislation concerning the newly colonized peoples. However, the bureau advanced notions of racial typologies derived from the assumption of Western civilization as a standard for cultural evolution. Far from its professed agenda, the bureau also created artificial and heightened ethnic differences among Filipinos that easily translated into institutionalized dichotomies.
A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating a Manualized TeleCoaching Protocol for Improving Adherence to a Web-Based Intervention for the Treatment of Depression
David C. Mohr, Jenna Duffecy, Joyce Ho, Mary Kwasny, Xuan Cai, Michelle Nicole Burns, Mark Begale
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070086
Abstract: Background Web-based interventions for depression that are supported by coaching have generally produced larger effect-sizes, relative to standalone web-based interventions. This is likely due to the effect of coaching on adherence. We evaluated the efficacy of a manualized telephone coaching intervention (TeleCoach) aimed at improving adherence to a web-based intervention (moodManager), as well as the relationship between adherence and depressive symptom outcomes. Methods 101 patients with MDD, recruited from primary care, were randomized to 12 weeks moodManager+TeleCoach, 12 weeks of self-directed moodManager, or 6 weeks of a waitlist control (WLC). Depressive symptom severity was measured using the PHQ-9. Results TeleCoach+moodManager, compared to self-directed moodManager, resulted in significantly greater numbers of login days (p = 0.01), greater time until last use (p = 0.007), greater use of lessons (p = 0.03), greater variety of interactive tools used (p = 0.02), but total instances of tool use did not reach statistical significance. (p = 0.07). TeleCoach+moodManager produced significantly lower PHQ-9 scores relative to WLC at week 6 (p = 0.04), but there were no other significant differences in PHQ-9 scores at weeks 6 or 12 (ps>0.20) across treatment arms. Baseline PHQ-9 scores were no significantly related to adherence to moodManager. Conclusions TeleCoach produced significantly greater adherence to moodManager, relative to self-directed moodManager. TeleCoached moodManager produced greater reductions in depressive symptoms relative to WLC, however, there were no statistically significant differences relative to self-directed moodManager. While greater use was associated with better outcomes, most users in both TeleCoach and self-directed moodManager had dropped out of treatment by week 12. Even with telephone coaching, adherence to web-based interventions for depression remains a challenge. Methods of improving coaching models are discussed. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00719979
Different inflammatory responses are associated with Ureaplasma parvum-induced UTI and urolith formation
Leticia Reyes, Mary Reinhard, Mary B Brown
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-9-9
Abstract: Infected animals exhibited two distinct profiles, asymptomatic UTI and UTI complicated with struvite urolithiasis. Inoculum dose of U. parvum affected the incidence of UTI, and 50% to 57% of animals inoculated with ≥ 107 CFU of U. parvum remained infected (p < 0.04). However, inoculum dose did not influence immune response to U. parvum. Asymptomatic UTI was characterized by a minimal immune response that was predominantly monocytic and lymphocytic, with limited lesions, and elevated urinary levels of IFN-γ, IL-18 and MCP-1 (P ≤ 0.02). UTI complicated with struvite formation was characterized by an exaggerated immune response that was mostly neutrophilic (P ≤ 0.0001), with lesions that showed extensive uroepithelial hyperplasia (P ≤ 0.0001), and a predominance of IL-1α, IL-1β, and GRO/KC in the urine (P ≤ 0.02). Animals with asymptomatic UTI also had a significantly high rate of kidney infection (P ≤ 0.0005).Complications associated with U. parvum infection are primarily dependent upon host-specific factors rather than Ureaplasma microbial load. The immune response in F344 rats is similar to that which occurs in humans with ureaplasmal associated disease. Therefore, this model of infection is a useful tool for elucidating U. parvum-host interactions that confer UTI and disease.Ureaplasma species are among the most common isolates from the human urogenital tract [1,2]. Although ureaplasmas can be isolated from healthy individuals, epidemiologic studies have shown a strong association between Ureaplasmas and various diseases including non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), bacterial vaginosis, infertility, prostatitis, epididymitis, urinary tract infection (UTI), nephrolithiasis, postpartum endometritis, chorioamnionitis, spontaneous abortion, premature birth, stillbirth and neonatal pneumonia [1-4]. Animal studies have demonstrated the ability of ureaplasmas to induce pneumonia, pyelonephritis, and struvite uroliths (urinary tract stones primarily composed of magnesium, amm
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