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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14645 matches for " Mary Ann Johnson "
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Exploring Positive and Negative Affect as Key Indicators of Life Satisfaction among Centenarians: Does Cognitive Performance Matter?
Alex J. Bishop,Peter Martin,Leonard Poon,Mary Ann Johnson
Journal of Aging Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/953031
Abstract: The aim of this investigation was to determine how cognitive performance was associated with positive and negative affect and life satisfaction over time. This study involved a secondary longitudinal analysis of cross-section data collected at Phase I (1988–1992) and during an 18-month longitudinal followup at Phase II (1992–1998) of the Georgia Centenarian Study. Participants included centenarians at Time 1 and survivors at Time 2. Significant stability in cognitive impairment existed at Time 1 and Time 2 for positive ( ) and negative affect ( ) models. Negative affect at Time 1 was associated with lower life satisfaction at Time 1 ( ). In addition, cognitive impairment at Time 2 was associated with decreased positive emotionality at Time 2 ( , ). Furthermore, greater positive affect at Time 2 was associated with greater satisfaction with life at Time 2 ( ). It appears that positive emotionality contemporaneously influences the association between cognitive impairment and life satisfaction among centenarians. Implications relative to improving life satisfaction among centenarians are discussed. 1. Introduction Late adulthood represents a developmental period of contentment in life. Persons surviving to advanced old age are reported to be happier and more satisfied with life than any other age group [1]. This may be due to the fact that old-old adults are effective at diminishing negative affective conditions but optimizing emotionally meaningful life situations [2]. Long-lived persons who have achieved a greater sense of happiness and satisfaction in living have done so precisely for the reason that they have developed the necessary emotional resources to counteract most negative age-associated stressors that may occur near the end of life [3]. For example, old-old adults who have maintained a sense of security in life possessed emotionally gratifying social relations and preserved a favorable view of health positively appraise life [2, 3]. Yet cognitive functioning remains an essential determinant of subjective well-being among persons living 100 years and longer [4–7]. Investigators have acknowledged that normative age-graded cognitive decline suppresses key markers of biopsychosocial well-being including individual autonomy, social involvement, and functional capacity among very old adults [8–11]. This suggests that poor cognitive performance may alter how exceptionally long-lived persons appraise life. However, the extent to which cognitive functioning and emotional affect work in tandem and are associated with life satisfaction among centenarians
Leaving Home? Global Education Strategies  [PDF]
Mary Ann Tétreault
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.62010
Abstract: College in much of the West is the formal site of higher education but what is expected from college is education more broadly conceived. The university is a place where students come to learn but it also is a collection of spaces where informal learning builds their capacities to create and perform on a larger stage than family and neighborhood. The public sphere constituted by the university is sheltered, but students are still exposed to individuals from different backgrounds and encouraged to expand their horizons to embrace concerns that lie outside the interests and competence of their families and neighborhoods. The adults and peers who surround them make demands that each student must either accommodate or resist. How to make these choices is an important element of both “global education” and the transition to adulthood. Some of this informal learning is accomplished through leaving home to join a university community. Here I examine the structures and practices that influence informal student learning where the relative impact of the home and the university differ. I also look at three study-abroad programs, arguing that the spaces and places of education in a foreign country remain influenced by the cultural values of home and home institutions. My purpose is to evaluate the extent to which these universities and programs prepare graduates for life in a globalized world, and to determine some of the reasons lying behind the differences.
Mbopo Institution and Music in the Cultivation of Moral Values in Ibibio Society, Nigeria  [PDF]
Johnson Akpakpan, Mary Johnson Akpakpan
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.65004
Abstract: In the traditional African society, morality was one of the guiding elements that engineered the social, political and economic spectrums of the people. Music, as well as other traditional institutions, was used in achieving these goals. Mbobo was one of such institutions in Ibibio land. The naturalistic research method was used in this study. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of music in cultivating or promoting moral values in Ibibio society, using Mbopo institution as a case study. In treating this topic, an in-depth assessment of the various activities of the institution was carried out, such as the reasons girls are fattened, the payment of bride price or dowry, functions of the institution, activities carried out in the fattening room. The outing ceremony, the role of music, as well as its instrumental resources will also be looked into. The study examined Mbopo traditional institution from its historical, social and cultural contexts. The study revealed that Mbopo institution was and remains a veritable medium for maintaining morality among young women in the society.
Age Differences and Changes in Resources Essential to Aging Well: A Comparison of Sexagenarians, Octogenarians, and Centenarians
G. Kevin Randall,Peter Martin,Alex J. Bishop,Leonard W. Poon,Mary Ann Johnson
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/357896
Abstract: This study examined change over time in five resources assessed by the Duke OARS Multidisciplinary Functional Assessment Questionnaire: social, economic, mental, physical, and functional resources. Two hundred and one participants in the Georgia Centenarian Study provided data for this longitudinal study: 70 sexagenarians, 63 octogenarians, and 68 centenarians. Those in their 60s and 80s were followed up within 60 months; due to mortality attrition, centenarians were followed up within 20 months. Centenarians experienced the lowest levels of resources relative to those in their 80s and 60s. Over time they primarily experienced loss in activities of daily living, highlighting that the ability to maximize gains and mitigate losses over time for older adults is highly associated with various resources essential to well-being. Findings suggest that older adults'—especially the very old—resources should be concurrently assessed in a multidimensional analysis by researchers and practitioners who work with older adults in various settings. 1. Introduction Multiple, coexisting physical and psychiatric diseases are prevalent among “expert survivors” or centenarians [1, 2]. Yet, not all older adults change in similar fashion. Andersen-Ranberg et al. [3] maintained that “although healthy centenarians do not exist, autonomous ones do” (page 906). In keeping with such heterogeneity in the well-being of older adults, calls for renewed attention to multidimensional assessments of resources essential for aging well have surfaced in the literature. Especially critical is the fact that differences may exist in adaptation to aging among the young-old, old-old, and oldest-old. Thus, this study examined change over time in key resources essential to positive adaptation with age—social, economic, mental, physical, and functional resources—among older adults in their 60s, 80s, and 100s. Krach and colleagues [4] examined six domains of functioning in 50 adults over the age of 85: physical, mental, social, spiritual, economic resources, and activities of daily living and concluded that “… multidimensional assessment is necessary to identify nursing interventions that will regain, maintain or enhance functioning among oldest-old people” (page 456). Also, Blazer [5] wrote “I propose that psychiatrists who treat the oldest old rejoin our colleagues in geriatric medicine by emphasizing health-related quality of life (specifically functional status) and a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach to assessment and management of psychiatric disorders” (page 1915). He summarized the
Body Mass Index Is Associated with Dietary Patterns and Health Conditions in Georgia Centenarians
Dorothy B. Hausman,Mary Ann Johnson,Adam Davey,Leonard W. Poon
Journal of Aging Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/138015
Abstract: Associations between body mass index (BMI) and dietary patterns and health conditions were explored in a population-based multiethnic sample of centenarians from northern Georgia. BMI ≤20 and ≥25 was prevalent in 30.9% and 25.3% of study participants, respectively. In a series of logistic regression analyses controlled for gender and place of residence, the probability of having BMI ≥25 was increased by being black versus white and having a low citrus fruit, noncitrus fruit, orange/yellow vegetable or total fruit and vegetable intake. The probability of having BMI ≤20 was not associated with dietary intake. When controlled for race, gender, residence, and total fruit and vegetable intake, BMI ≥25 was an independent risk factor for diabetes or having a systolic blood pressure ≥140?mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90?mmHg, whereas BMI ≤20 was a risk factor for anemia. Given the many potential adverse consequences of under- and overweight, efforts are needed to maintain a healthy weight, even in the oldest old. 1. Introduction Body mass index is a simple index of weight for height that is frequently used in the assessment of nutritional status. A low BMI, or underweight status, is often associated with an increased risk of mortality in seriously ill or hospitalized older adults [1, 2]. Conversely, a high BMI, indicative of overweight or obesity, is associated with an exacerbation in age-related physical and cognitive decline [3, 4] and with an increased prevalence or risk of many chronic health conditions common in older adults such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease [3–5]. Such associations are typically determined across the entire spectrum of older adults (aged 60+), with no further demarcation within this age classification. Our finding of a much higher prevalence of several nutritional deficiencies in centenarians as compared with octogenarians [6, 7], suggests that there is considerable heterogeneity in nutrient status in the “older adult” age group. Likewise, there may also be considerable heterogeneity within the older adult age group with regard to chronic health conditions. Thus, it is not known whether the associations between underweight or overweight/obesity and chronic health conditions as observed in previous studies of older adults extend to the very old. Dietary intake patterns featuring a high intake of nutrient-dense foods such as cereals, fruits, vegetables, and low-fat meat and dairy products have been associated with a number of favorable health outcomes in adults including a decreased prevalence of obesity [8, 9],
Successful Aging: A Psychosocial Resources Model for Very Old Adults
G. Kevin Randall,Peter Martin,Mary Ann Johnson,Leonard W. Poon
Journal of Aging Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/934649
Abstract: Objectives. Using data from the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian Study, we proposed a latent factor structure for the Duke OARS domains: Economic Resources, Mental Health, Activities of Daily Living, Physical Health, and Social Resources. Methods. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on two waves of the Georgia Centenarian Study to test a latent variable measurement model of the five resources; nested model testing was employed to assess the final measurement model for equivalency of factor structure over time. Results. The specified measurement model fit the data well at Time 1. However, at Time 2, Social Resources only had one indicator load significantly and substantively. Supplemental analyses demonstrated that a model without Social Resources adequately fit the data. Factorial invariance over time was confirmed for the remaining four latent variables. Discussion. This study’s findings allow researchers and clinicians to reduce the number of OARS questions asked of participants. This has practical implications because increased difficulties with hearing, vision, and fatigue in older adults may require extended time or multiple interviewer sessions to complete the battery of OARS questions. 1. Introduction Aging is often conceptualized as a developmental challenge to maintain balance between the gains and losses of resources necessary for adaptation to age-related change, with losses increasing over the lifespan [1, 2]. Yet, Von Faber and colleagues [3] reminded us that, “Successful aging as an optimal state implicates more than physical well-being and fits the World Health Organization’s definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” These resources-material, social, or personal characteristics essential for successful aging-hold a prominent position in studies of older adults [4–6]. Consequently, the need for a valid, reliable, and efficient resource measure, designed for use in clinical and community settings with older adults, arose. In response, Fillenbaum [7] and associates developed the Multidimensional Functional Assessment of Older Adults: The Duke Older Americans Resources and Services Procedures (OARS hereafter). Since development of the OARS, advances in statistical methodology, computer technology, and software programs have made factor analytic procedures commonplace, enabling researchers to suggest less complex and shorter versions of measurement scales and to model measurement error in empirical studies. To date,
The Effects of Silvicultural Thinning and Lymantria Dispar L. Defoliation on Wood Volume Growth of Quercus spp.  [PDF]
Mary Ann Fajvan, Kurt W. Gottschalk
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.32033
Abstract: Pre- and post-defoliation radial growth rates were used to examine the effects of silvicultural thinning and two consecutive years of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) defoliation on Quercus spp. wood volume production. In the first phase of the study, tree rings from 65 dissected stems, were used to develop polynomial models to estimate annual cumulative volume (m3) increment for the entire merchantable stem, as a function of dbh (tree diameter at 1.37 m above the ground). In Phase II of the study, 81 additional trees were sampled using only increment cores. Cumulative diameter increments from the cores were used in the polynomial models to compare tree volume growth changes during and after defoliation among the thinning treatments. Even though there was no significant difference in estimated volume lost during defoliation among treatments, post-defoliation growth was enhanced by thinning. Total volume reduction from defoliation ranged from 28,049 (±17,462) cm3 to 25,993 (±16,251) cm3 per tree. The stand receiving the thinning treatment with the lowest residual stocking produced significantly more volume (P = 0.002) after defoliation than the other treatments.
When All Roads Lead to Rome: The Catholic Hospital Dilemma Impacts Entire US Healthcare System  [PDF]
Mary Ann Keogh Hoss, Kevin S. Decker
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2013.24017
Abstract:

With the stripping of 2 Catholic Hospitals of their status as Catholic in 2010, much information has come forward on the 72 Ethical and Religious Directives (ERDs) of the Catholic Hospital Association of the United States (CHA). With this, the authority of the bishops of the Catholic Church in relationship to delivery of health care has been called into question. The decision of the bishop in Phoenix has raised clinical, ethical and operational concerns which are explored. CHA claims that 1 in every 6 patients in the USis in a Catholic Hospital. The questions related to the public on the impact of the ERDs for their healthcare are staggering. Is one’s healthcare in the hands of a bishop should some ethical dilemma occur? These questions are explored.

Internalized HIV-Stigma, Mental Health, Coping and Perceived Social Support among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Aizawl District—A Pilot Study  [PDF]
Zoengpari Gohain, Mary Ann L. Halliday
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.515186
Abstract: AIDS is a global pandemic, and persons with HIV/AIDS are stigmatized throughout the world in varying degrees. The current study is a pilot study for a further in-depth study to understand the psychological implications of living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The study employed a quantitative approach with an aim to find out the level and prevalence of Internalized HIV Stigma (IHS) and to examine the mental health, coping strategies and perceived social support in a sample of 31 People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Two-way classification of “Gender” (male and female) and three-way classification of “Level of IHS” (High IHS, Moderate IHS and Low IHS) on the dependent variables was employed, to elucidate the relationships between Internalized Stigma, Mental Health, Coping and perceived social support. The overall analysis revealed moderate levels of IHS (64.5%), depression (35.5%), and perceived social support (54.8%), and low level of anxiety (54.8%). It was also seen that majority (54.84%) employed emotion-oriented coping strategy. No significant gender differences were found in IHS. However, significant gender differences were found in levels of depression (p < 0.05) and Emotion-oriented coping (p < 0.05). Further analysis revealed that the two subscales of the IHS measure i.e. Stereotypes of HIV and Social Relationships stigma were significantly and positively correlated with anxiety (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 respectively).
Reclaiming American Indian Women Leadership: Indigenous Pathway to Leadership  [PDF]
Margo Hill, Mary Ann Keogh Hoss
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2018.73013
Abstract: There was no identified leadership model for American Indian women leaders. Through an exhaustive review of leadership styles it was identified that the Centered Leadership approach lends itself to the culture of American Indian Women. The components of the Centered Leadership approach include: utilizing personal strengths, managing energy, positive framing, relationship building, and collaborating with others to take advantage of opportunities. Based on the review of the literature and native women’s leadership styles, the concepts of the Centered Leadership Model were utilized to develop “Native Women Leadership: Indigenous Pathway”. Prior to European contact, native women held positions of leadership, shared in decision making and owned property. Today Native women leaders and managers are reclaiming their decision making authority to improve the lives of their nations. The Native Women Indigenous Pathway has not come without barriers and discrimination. The Centered Leadership approach assists in the examination of the American Indian woman’s pathway to decision making. Native women find themselves living in two worlds and must navigate expectations and responsibilities by switching between mainstream American and tribal values. How a native woman decides to negotiate these two worldviews is part of what creates her individual identity and her leadership style. A Native American Leadership Indigenous Pathway model is proposed.
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