Abstract:
Last year, in 2008, I gave a talk titled {\it Quantum Calisthenics}. This year I am going to tell you about how the work I described then has spun off into a most unlikely direction. What I am going to talk about is how one maps the problem of finding clusters in a given data set into a problem in quantum mechanics. I will then use the tricks I described to let quantum evolution lets the clusters come together on their own.

Abstract:
It is apparent to anyone who thinks about it that, to a large degree, the basic concepts of Newtonian physics are quite intuitive, but quantum mechanics is not. My purpose in this talk is to introduce you to a new, much more intuitive way to understand how quantum mechanics works. I refer to this method as a guided numerical approximation scheme and it is based upon a new look at what the path integral tells us about states in Hilbert space. I begin with simple exactly solvable models and show how to handle problems which cannot be dealt with analytically, this includes the treatment of the evolution of a Gaussian wave-packet in an anharmonic potential as well tunneling problems (i.e., instanton effects)

Abstract:
The COntractor REnormalization group method (CORE), originally developed for application to lattice gauge theories, is very well adapted the study of spin systems and systems with fermions. As an warmup exercise for studying Hubbard models this method is applied to spin-1/2 and spin-1 anti-ferromagnets in one space dimension in order to see if it is able to explain the physics of the Haldane conjecture. The method not only provides support for Haldane's conjecture but provides insight into the physics of a more general class of spin-1 systems with Hamiltonians of the form $H= \sum_j \vec{s}(j)\cdot\vec{s}(j+1) - \beta (\vec{s}(j)\cdot\vec{s}(j+1))^2$ about which, until now, little was known.

Abstract:
Adaptive perturbation is a new method for perturbatively computing the eigenvalues and eigenstates of quantum mechanical Hamiltonians that heretofore were not believed to be obtainable by such methods. The novel feature of adaptive perturbation theory is that it decomposes a given Hamiltonian, $H$, into an unperturbed part and a perturbation in a way which extracts the leading non-perturbative behavior of the problem exactly. This paper introduces the method in the context of the pure anharmonic oscillator and then goes on to apply it to the case of tunneling between both symmetric and asymmetric minima. It concludes with an introduction to the extension of these methods to the discussion of a quantum field theory. A more complete discussion of this issue will be given in the second paper in this series. This paper will show how to use the method of adaptive perturbation theory to non-perturbatively extract the structure of mass, wavefunction and coupling constant renormalization.

Abstract:
Adaptive perturbation is a new method for perturbatively computing the eigenvalues and eigenstates of quantum mechanical Hamiltonians that are widely believed not to be solvable by such methods. The novel feature of adaptive perturbation theory is that it decomposes a given Hamiltonian, $H$, into an unperturbed part and a perturbation in a way which extracts the leading non-perturbative behavior of the problem exactly. In this talk I will introduce the method in the context of the pure anharmonic oscillator and then apply it to the case of tunneling between symmetric minima. After that, I will show how this method can be applied to field theory. In that discussion I will show how one can non-perturbatively extract the structure of mass, wavefunction and coupling constant

Abstract:
This talk is about results obtained by Kirill Melnikov and myself pertaining to the canonical quantization of a massless scalar field in the presence of a Schwarzschild black hole. After a brief summary of what we did and how we reproduce the familiar Hawking temperature and energy flux, I focus attention on how our discussion differs from other treatments. In particular I show that we can define a system which fakes an equilibrium thermodynamic object whose entropy is given by the $A/4$ (where $A$ is the area of the black hole horizon), but for which the assignment of a classical entropy to the system is incorrect. Finally I briefly discuss a discretized version of the theory which seems to indicate that things work in a surprising way near $r=0$.

Abstract:
The Contractor Renormalization Group method (CORE) is used to establish the equivalence of various Hamiltonian free fermion theories and a class of generalized frustrated antiferromagnets. In particular, after a detailed discussion of a simple example, it is argued that a generalized frustrated SU(3) antiferromagnet whose single-site states have the quantum numbers of mesons and baryons is equivalent to a theory of free massless quarks. Furthermore, it is argued that for slight modification of the couplings which define the frustrated antiferromagnet Hamiltonian, the theory becomes a theory of quarks interacting with color gauge-fields.

Abstract:
The Contractor Renormalization group formalism (CORE) is a real-space renormalization group method which is the Hamiltonian analogue of the Wilson exact renormalization group equations. In an earlier paper\cite{QGAF} I showed that the Contractor Renormalization group (CORE) method could be used to map a theory of free quarks, and quarks interacting with gluons, into a generalized frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnet (HAF) and proposed using CORE methods to study these theories. Since generalizations of HAF's exhibit all sorts of subtle behavior which, from a continuum point of view, are related to topological properties of the theory, it is important to know that CORE can be used to extract this physics. In this paper I show that despite the folklore which asserts that all real-space renormalization group schemes are necessarily inaccurate, simple Contractor Renormalization group (CORE) computations can give highly accurate results even if one only keeps a small number of states per block and a few terms in the cluster expansion. In addition I argue that even very simple CORE computations give a much better qualitative understanding of the physics than naive renormalization group methods. In particular I show that the simplest CORE computation yields a first principles understanding of how the famous Haldane conjecture works for the case of the spin-1/2 and spin-1 HAF.

Abstract:
In this talk I show how to canonically quantize a massless scalar field in the background of a Schwarzschild black hole in Lema\^itre coordinates and then present a simplified derivation of Hawking radiation based upon this procedure. The key result of quantization procedure is that the Hamiltonian of the system is explicitly time dependent and so problem is intrinsically non-static. From this it follows that, although a unitary time-development operator exists, it is not useful to talk about vacuum states; rather, one should focus attention on steady state phenomena such as the Hawking radiation. In order to clarify the approximations used to study this problem I begin by discussing the related problem of the massless scalar field theory calculated in the presence of a moving mirror.

Abstract:
This paper makes the simple observation that a fundamental length, or cutoff, in the context of Friedmann-Lema\^itre-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology implies very different things than for a static universe. It is argued that it is reasonable to assume that this cutoff is implemented by fixing the number of quantum degrees of freedom per co-moving volume (as opposed to a Planck volume) and the relationship of the vacuum-energy of all of the fields in the theory to the cosmological constant (or dark energy) is re-examined. The restrictions that need to be satisfied by a generic theory to avoid conflicts with current experiments are discussed, and it is shown that in any theory satisfying these constraints knowing the difference between $w$ and minus one allows one to predict $\dot{w}$. It is argued that this is a robust result and if this prediction fails the idea of a fundamental cutoff of the type being discussed can be ruled out. Finally, it is observed that, within the context of a specific theory, a co-moving cutoff implies a predictable time variation of fundamental constants. This is accompanied by a general discussion of why this is so, what are the strongest phenomenological limits upon this predicted variation, and which limits are in tension with the idea of a co-moving cutoff. It is pointed out, however, that a careful comparison of the predicted time variation of fundamental constants is not possible without restricting to a particular model field-theory and that is not done in this paper.