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Induction of NAFLD with Increased Risk of Obesity and Chronic Diseases in Developed Countries  [PDF]
Ian James Martins
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases (OJEMD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojemd.2014.44011
Abstract:

The susceptibility of individuals to obesity has been reported in many developed countries with predisposition of humans to obesity associated with high calorie diets and unhealthy lifestyles. Obesity may closely be involved in cell suicide in various organ diseases with the importance of accelerated aging that requires early intervention with drug therapy to prevent diseases such as non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) that has increased in children and reached to approx. 40% of the global population. Obesity is induced by various diets and lifestyle factors such as stress, anxiety and depression which are important to consider with the global increase in obesity and are possibly linked to the rise in individuals with brain disorders that involve neurodegeneration. Xenobiotics such as the endocrine disruptor chemicals that have increased in the environment in various developed countries lead to various chronic endocrine diseases as populations divert towards unhealthy diets and lifestyles with induction of NAFLD and obesity. The amount and nature of food intake that improves and increases liver lipid and xenobiotic metabolism in obese individuals have become important to decrease the risk for increased adiposity in man. High fibre or protein diets that contain leucine may improve liver glucose, lipid and xenobiotic metabolism and require further investigation with xenobiotics such as endocrine disruptors involved in appetite dysregulation and metabolic disorders in developed countries. The use of anti-obese drugs that reduce food intake and improve hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease has been assessed in obesity with drug therapy closely involved either in the prevention or induction of NAFLD and obesity in man.

LPS Regulates Apolipoprotein E and Aβ Interactionswith Effects on Acute Phase Proteins and Amyloidosis  [PDF]
Ian James Martins
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2015.42009
Abstract: Interactions between apolipoprotein E (apo E) and amyloid beta (Aβ) are associated with the peripheral clearance of Aβ and are important to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Interests in acute phase proteins (APP) as biomarkers for the early progression of Alzheimer’s disease indicate that the peripheral Aβ metabolism is perturbed and the role of nutritional diets are important to reduce APPs to maintain peripheral Aβ clearance with relevance to hepatic cholesterol homeostasis and brain amyloidosis. The role of nutriproteomic diets that reverse the effects of high fat diets are associated with the reduction in APPs, cholesterol homeostasis and improved clearance of Aβ. Nutritional diets that reduce the increase in plasma endotoxins (gut microbiotica) such as lipopolysaccarides (LPS) reduce the effects of LPS on cell membranes and increase the cellular uptake of Aβ by interactions with apo E. LPS alter hepatic lipid metabolism with an increase hepatic cytokines and APPs in plasma. Interactions between apo E and Aβ are altered by LPS with increased binding of LPS to apo E with effects on electrostatic alterations in Aβ oligomers. The role of LPS in neurodegenerative diseases includes the effects of LPS on alpha-synuclein metabolism with relevance to Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease
The role of organisational factors in combating tacit knowledge loss in organisations
EC Martins, N Martins
Southern African Business Review , 2011,
Abstract: 5Knowledge loss poses a challenge to organisations that wish to remain competitive. The meaning of knowledge that exists in the minds of people and its manifestation in organisations is examined to provide a framework for the investigation of organisational human input factors and strategic risks of knowledge loss. A theoretical model was developed that identifi es factors that would enhance knowledge retention, namely the identifi cation of whose knowledge and what type of knowledge is at risk of loss; the manifestation of knowledge behaviours (learning, knowing, creating, sharing, transferring and applying knowledge); behavioural enhancers at the individual, group and organisational levels; and the identifi cation of strategic risks of knowledge loss. Implementing a knowledge retention strategy taking these organisational factors into account would enhance knowledge retention.
An organisational culture model to promote creativity and innovation
Ellen Martins,Nico Martins
South African Journal of Industrial Psychology , 2002, DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v28i4.71
Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine what type of organisational culture would support creativity and innovation in an organisation. A new model was developed and compared with the theoretical model. Similarities, differences and new perspectives emerged. The factors trust relationship, working environment, management support and customer orientation on an operational level presented shifts in emphasis in the new model. The trust relationship in particular indicated that trust manifests in openness and sincerity. Trust influences both employee support for change and the probability of successful change, which influence the degree to which creativity and innovation are stimulated and promoted. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om te bepaal watter tipe organisasiekultuur kreatiwiteit en innovasie in ‘n organisasie sal stimuleer. ‘n Nuwe model is ontwikkel en met die teoretiese model vergelyk. Ooreenkomste, verskille en nuwe perspektiewe het aan die lig gekom. Die faktore vertrouensverhouding, werkomgewing, bestuursondersteuning en kli ntegeori nteerdheid op ‘n operasionele vlak was klemverskuiwings in die nuwe model. Spesifiek die vertrouensverhouding het daarop gedui dat vertroue manifesteer in openlikheid en opregtheid. Vertroue be nvloed beide werknemers se steun vir verandering en die waarskynlikheid van suksesvolle verandering, wat die mate waarin kreatiwiteit en innovasie gestimuleer en bevorder word, sal be nvloed.
Links between Insulin Resistance, Lipoprotein Metabolism and Amyloidosis in Alzheimer’s Disease  [PDF]
Ian James Martins, Rhona Creegan
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.612190
Abstract: The origins of premature brain aging and chronic disease progression are associated with atherogenic diets and sedentary lifestyles in Western communities. Interests in brain aging that involves non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the global stroke epidemic and neurodegeneration have become the focus of nutritional research. Atherogenic diets have been linked to plasma ceramide dysregulation and insulin resistance actively promoting chronic diseases and neurodegeneration in developed countries. Abnormal lipid signaling as observed in chronic diseases such as hypothyroidism, obesity and diabetes is connected to stroke and neurodegenerative diseases in man. Lipids that are involved in calcium and amyloid betahomeostasis are critical to cell membrane stability with the maintenance of nuclear receptors and transcriptional regulators that are involved in cell chromatin structure and DNA expression. Western diets high in fat induce hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance and other hormonal imbalances that are linked to alterations in brain calcium and lipid metabolism with susceptibility to various chronic diseases such as stroke. Nutrition and food science research identifies dietary components and lipids to prevent hyperlipidemia and calcium dyshomeostasis connected to neuroendocrine disease by maintaining astrocyte-neuron interactions and reversing hormonal imbalances that are closely associated with NAFLD, stroke and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in global populations.
Adaptation and Validation of a Proteolytic Activity Methodology Using Dye-Crosslinked Substrate Tablets  [PDF]
Fernanda Martins, Elaine C. Ramires
Advances in Enzyme Research (AER) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aer.2014.23012
Abstract: Enzymatic activities are important to be quantified in products as enzymatic cleaners, which are used in medical and surgical devices reprocessing. Enzymatic activities are critical for the proper chemical cleaning that intends to remove solid organic dirt from inaccessible sites. The most important enzyme for this purpose is the protease, which is able to dissolve the main dirt attached to medical and surgical instruments. In this context, this study contributes to the development of a new proteolytic activity quantification method and its validation. The methodology is based on colorimetry and uses a UV-Vis spectrophotometer to measure the substrate hydrolysis by the blue color intensity, employing Protazyme AK tablets as substrate.
Biopolítica: o poder médico e a autonomia do paciente em uma nova concep??o de saúde
Martins, André;
Interface - Comunica??o, Saúde, Educa??o , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1414-32832004000100003
Abstract: this paper proposes an articulation between foucault's critique of what he called the "authoritarian medicalization of bodies and diseases" and spinoza's concept of the enhancement of the power to act, within the framework of a reflection on the issue of individual autonomy. to this end, a critical and genealogical discussion of the concept of health and of cure as found in current medical practice is presented, as well as a discussion of medical power and the mechanistic and scientistic ideas concerning the body and the diseases attached to it. this idea is in contrast to canguilhem's notion of health as being linked to normativeness and of cure as being connected with rehabilitation. based on this change of indicators, current medical practices are reconsidered, as well as the idea of encouraging health and prevention.
Padr?es de eficiência no comércio: defini??es e implica??es normativas
Martins, Marcilene;
Nova Economia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-63512008000200005
Abstract: this paper discusses the relationship between efficiency standards and specialization in trade. the assumption is that in order to define trade specialization, it is necessary to have a prior idea of economic efficiency. the main argument is that this background knowledge is a necessary condition in order to appreciate the allocation and dynamic technical-productive implications associated with any given specialization standard, including with regards to the possibilities of trade-offs between different criteria of efficiency in trade.
A mulher junto às criminologias: de degenerada à vítima, sempre sob controle sociopenal
Martins, Simone;
Fractal : Revista de Psicologia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-02922009000100009
Abstract: this article presents figures reffering to woman in criminology, as discusses its repercussions in the brazilian penal code. identified in positive criminology the figure of the nate criminal related to prostitution, masculine woman and atavistic; as well as the victim, is her a criminal dependent of a man, or is it by the necessity of protection from the government. these figures have in common serve to social control of woman. in opposition, in feminist criminology it is identified the figure of the emancipated woman that does not search in penal law the solution of conflicts related socially, economically and politically.
Nanotecnologia e meio ambiente para uma sociedade sustentável
Martins, Paulo;
Estudios sociales (Hermosillo, Son.) , 2009,
Abstract: this paper has seven topics that discuss the relationship between nanotechnology and environment to build a sustainable society. in a glance is showed what is nanotechnology and its recent history (topics 1 and 2). in continuity is presented the theoretical bases to understand the relationship between environment and technological opportunities. the topic4 introduce nanotechnology in the reflection about environment and technological opportunities. nanotechnology and sustainable is discussed in the topic 5. after theses previews topic are presented the preliminary conclusions and suggestions to the theoretical reflections.
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