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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1187 matches for " Martino Cassandro "
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Status of Milk Production and Market in Italy
Martino Cassandro
Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus (ACS) , 2003,
Abstract: Aim of this review was to describe the milk production and market in Italy evidencing crucial points both in terms of weakness and strength. The weight of Italian dairy sector in terms of agriculture gross domestic product (GDP) is around the 10%. The cow milk production in Italy is 10.5 million of tons (52% of self- sufficient) and this quota is about the 9% of total amount of milk of EU-15. The Italian dairy herds structure radically change in the last decades and the most important aspects of this change were the progressive concentration and specialization of dairy herds. The number of dairy cows, from 1988 to 2002, are reduced more than 65% and in the same period the average herd size is almost tripled (28.84 cows/herds in 2002). Average milk yield production per cow is 6,010 kg in 2001/02 and it is comparable with other EU countries, but above the levels of other Mediterranean countries.The peculiarity to Italian milk production is the high quota of fluid milk used for cheese making (68% of total domestic milk yield). The 80% of cheese manufacture is of varieties that are exclusive to the localities from they come and that cannot therefore be made outside those areas (e.g. Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano). A weakness point for Italian dairy industry is due to the structure extremely fragmented with almost 70% of Italian cheese output produced by enterprise handling less than 4,000 tonnes of milk per year. This high fragmentation can be transformed in a competitive element if Italian dairy industries will invest on typical and local dairy products.
Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls
Mara Battagin,Mauro Penasa,Martino Cassandro
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2012.e4
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS) on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data were available on 1973 bulls born between 1986 and 2004, progeny tested in Italy and with at least 4 paternal half-sibs. On average, bulls exited the genetic centre at 11.3±1.1 months and reached their first official genetic proof at 58.0±3.1 months of age. An analysis of variance was performed on the cumulative frequency of daughters at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. The generalized linear model included the fixed effects of year of birth of the bull (18 levels), artificial insemination stud (4 levels) and sire of bull (137 levels). All effects significantly affected the variability of studied traits. Artificial insemination stud was the most important source of variation, followed by year of birth and sire of bull. Significant differences among AI studs exist, probably reflecting different strategies adopted during progeny testing.
Accomplishments and new challenges in dairy genetic evaluations
Christian Maltecca,Kristen L. Parker,Martino Cassandro
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2012,
Abstract: This review presents the evolution of dairy genetic methods to estimate breeding values. For centuries, human action has shaped animal populations by choosing progenitors of the next generation. Since the twentieth century, applied concepts were integrated into a new discipline, quantitative genetics. The past quarter-century in genetic evaluation of dairy cattle has been marked by evolution in methodology and computer capacity, expansion in the array of evaluated traits, and globalization. Selection index was replaced by mixed model procedures and animal models replaced by sire and sire-maternal grandsire models. Recently, application of Bayesian theory to breeding values prediction and variance components estimation has become standard. Individual test-day observations have been used more effectively in the estimation of lactation yield as direct input to evaluation models. Computer speed and storage are less limiting in choosing procedures. National evaluations combined internationally provide evaluations for bulls from all participating countries on each of the national scales, facilitating choices from among many more bulls. Selection within countries has increased inbreeding and the use of similar genetics across countries reduces the previously available genetic diversity. Finally, considerable progress in genomics has created a new tool, genomic selection. The collection and analysis of several types of phenotypic data to evaluate genetic merit will continue to be the most important tool for genetic progress in the foreseeable future. Information will increasingly be obtained from smaller reference populations and the extrapolation from these data will require careful validation.
Estimation of genetic diversity over time in an in-situ marker assisted conservation scheme of local chicken breeds
Chiara Dalvit,Enrico Zanetti,Martino Cassandro
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2009.s2.63
Abstract: The aim of this research was to study the genetic variability of two local chicken breeds (Ermellinata di Rovigo and Robusta Maculata) involved in a conservation programme, over a period of three years. Samples were collected in 2002 and in 2005 and analysed using 15 microsatellite markers. Obtained results evidenced that Robusta Maculata was genetically less variable than Ermellinata di Rovigo even after three years of conservation activities. During the studied period the observed heterozigosity was maintained and the excess of homozygous animals found in both breeds in 2002 was strongly reduced in 2005. These findings suggested that the conservation activities helped to overcome the probable presence of population substructures and to limit inbreeding. Moreover, this study evidenced the usefulness of microsatellite markers to monitor genetic diversity in conservation programmes for animal breeds.
Accomplishments and new challenges in dairy genetic evaluations
Christian Maltecca,Kristen L. Parker,Martino Cassandro
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2010.e68
Abstract: This review presents the evolution of dairy genetic methods to estimate breeding values. For centuries, human action has shaped animal populations by choosing progenitors of the next generation. Since the twentieth century, applied concepts were integrated into a new discipline, Quantitative Genetics. The past quarter-century in genetic evaluation of dairy cattle has been marked by evolution in methodology and computer capacity, expansion in the array of evaluated traits, and globalization. Selection index was replaced by mixed model procedures and animal models replaced by sire and sire-maternal grandsire models. Recently, application of Bayesian theory to breeding values prediction and variance components estimation has become standard. Individual test-day observations have been used more effectively in the estimation of lactation yield as direct input to evaluation models. Computer speed and storage are less limiting in choosing procedures. National evaluations combined internationally provide evaluations for bulls from all participating countries on each of the national scales, facilitating choices from among many more bulls. Selection within countries has increased inbreeding and the use of similar genetics across countries reduces the previously available genetic diversity. Finally, considerable progress in genomics has created a new tool, genomic selection. The collection and analysis of several types of phenotypic data to evaluate genetic merit will continue to be the most important tool for genetic progress in the foreseeable future. Information will increasingly be obtained from smaller reference populations and the extrapolation from these data will require careful validation.
GENETIC AND PRODUCTIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BURLINA CATTLE BREED
Chiara Dalvit,Riccardo Dal Zotto,Massimo De Marchi,Martino Cassandro
Poljoprivreda (Osijek) , 2007,
Abstract: The Burlina (BUR) is a local Italian cattle breed, its main feature is to be a small sized animal well adapted to live in difficult environment such as mountain areas. Nowadays only 350 cows are enrolled in the Italian Herd Book due to its substitution by more productive breeds. This study proposes a phenotypic and genetic characterization of the BUR breed in comparison with Holstein Friesian (HFR) and Brown Swiss (BSW). The comparison of productive traits showed lower production than HFR and BSW as well as longer productive life and more favourable reproductive traits in BUR animals. The genetic analyses, performed by microsatellites markers, showed the high level of heterozygosity and the genetic distinctiveness of BUR. These findings approve the feasibility of a conservation scheme and suggest the profitability of breeding BUR,especially in difficult environment where the low production can be compensated by longevity and the economic loss by the added value of its typical dairy production.
GENETIC ASPECTS OF MILK COAGULATION PROPERTIES IN DAIRY CATTLE
Martino Cassandro,Chiara Dalvit,Enrico Zanetti,Massimo De Marchi
Poljoprivreda (Osijek) , 2007,
Abstract: Authors reviewed the genetic aspects of milk coagulation ability focusing on heritability and genetic correlation values and on the breed and milk protein loci effects on rennet coagulation time and curd firmness. The review discussed milk and cheese yield production all over the world concluding that the per capita retail demand for cheese will increase with a mean annual growth rate of 0.8%. Therefore, in the future, cheese production will continue to be one of the major livestock food products around the world. The development of new payment systems for milk considering the intrinsic value for cheese making ability, could be an important opportunity for select best individual within dairy cattle breeds and to preserve, among dairy cattle breeds, those with high milk coagulation properties. Often these genetic resources, beyond their genetic value, also exercise a positive influence on sustainability of milk production in fragile environments, such as mountain areas, preserving an important cultural value (history, traditions, arts, and literature).
Genetic Traceability of Chicken Breeds
Massino De Marchi,Chiara Targhetta,Barbara Contiero,Martino Cassandro
Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus (ACS) , 2003,
Abstract: Aims of this study were to apply AFLP markers to assess the genetic diversity and to define a marker-assisted traceability system in local chicken breeds. Data were based on 107 cocks of three different local chicken breeds from Veneto region (Italy): Robusta (PRR: n=54), Pepoi (PPP: n=33) and Padovana (PPD: n=20). Chickens were individually identified at birth with wing tag and reared in four different herds using a free-range system. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood and AFLP analysis was performed according to the protocol described in Barcaccia et al. (1998). Values of expected heterozygosity (H) and polymorphism information content (PIC) at AFLP loci were calculated for each breed. Genetic similarities of all possible pairs of genotypes were estimates using a Jaccard index; the values obtained were subsequently used in a factorial analysis in order to define latent variables which explain the whole genetic similarity relation system between individuals. The average PIC index within breed was generally low: 24.1% for PRR, 23.6% for PPD and 17.2% for PPP. The average heterozygosities of the three breeds for all markers were 29.5% for PRR and PPD and 21.3% for PPP. In the majority of cases (from 90% to 100% of individuals within breed), marker-assisted traceability system used in this research correctly identified the breed of cocks. Hence, results are promising to identify biological tissue (meat, gamets, embryo, etc.) from these local chicken breeds. However, the method used in this study should be improved in terms of cost reduction for single sample, work effort, reproducibility and accuracy of results obtained.
Cluster Analysis on Across Country Genetic Correlations for Conformation Traits in Holstein Cattle Breed
Mara Battagin,Flavio Forabosco,Mauro Penasa,Martino Cassandro
Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus (ACS) , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate across country genetic correlations of conformation traits of 21 Holstein bull populations, using cluster analysis. Data consisted of across country genetic correlations of 18 conformation traits estimated by Interbull for the April 2011 routine genetic evaluation. For cluster analysis, the distance measure (dij) between countries i and j was calculated as dij=1-rG2ij, where rGij is the genetic correlation between countries i and j. Traits showed different mean distances with the lowest value for udder depth (0.062) and the highest for locomotion (0.441). For traits with similar definition further investigation is needed to understand differences within cluster. Also, more attention needs to be paid to countries that define or record traits differently from what is suggested by World Holstein Friesian Federation.
Assessing genetic variability in two ancient chicken breeds of Padova area
Massimo De Marchi,Chiara Dalvit,Chiara Targhetta,Martino Cassandro
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2005.3s.151
Abstract: Genetic diversity in two ancient indigenous chicken breeds of the Veneto region was assessed using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of 63 individuals were analysed using three selected AFLP primer combinations that produced 66 clear polymorphisms. The breeds analyzed were the Padovana and the Polverara (two ancient breeds) and a reference broiler line. The expected heterozygosity (Het) did not differ significantly among breeds. The variability at AFLP loci was largely maintained across breeds, as indicated by the coefficient of genetic differentiation (Gst) value. The lowest genetic distance is found between the Padovana and Polverara breeds suggesting that they could be genetically close.
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