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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3015 matches for " Martina Schulz "
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The circumventricular organs participate in the immunopathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Martina Schulz, Britta Engelhardt
Fluids and Barriers of the CNS , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1743-8454-2-8
Abstract: We performed an extensive immunohistological study on the area postrema (AP), the subfornical organ (SFO), the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) and the median eminence (ME) in frozen brain sections from healthy SJL mice and mice suffering from EAE. Expression of cell adhesion molecules, the presence of leukocyte subpopulations and the detection of major histocompatibility complex antigen expression was compared.Similar changes were observed for all four CVOs included in this study. During EAE significantly increased numbers of CD45+ leukocytes were detected within the four CVOs investigated, the majority of which stained positive for the macrophage markers F4/80 and Mac-1. The adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were upregulated on the fenestrated capillaries within the CVOs. A considerable upregulation of MHC class I throughout the CVOs and positive immunostaining for MHC class II on perivascular cells additionally documented the immune activation of the CVOs during EAE. A significant enrichment of inflammatory infiltrates was observed in close vicinity to the CVOs.Our data indicate that the CVOs are a site for the entry of immune cells into the CNS and CSF and consequently are involved in the inflammatory process in the CNS during EAE.In multiple sclerosis and in its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), inflammatory cells obtain access to the central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and initiate the events leading to signs of paralysis. The endothelial blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been considered the obvious place for entry for circulating lymphocytes into the CNS. Therefore most investigations have focused on defining the molecular mechanisms involved in leukocyte recruitment from the circulating blood across the endothelial BBB. The adhesion molecules, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), both members of the immunoglobulin superfam
Presenting a Treatment Concept for People with a Self-Reported Sexual Interest in Children in an Outpatient Setting  [PDF]
Tina Schulz, Simon Palmer, Georg Stolpmann, Martina Wernicke, Jürgen L. Müller
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2017.71001
Abstract: Results of several studies point to an increase in reported child sexual abuse offences in Germany and an even higher number of undetected cases are assumed. In addition, even more cases regarding the distribution of child pornography have been reported. On behalf of victims of child sexual abuse and for the general public, a preventive treatment approach for people with a sexual interest in children is of prime importance. Currently, there is no published, evaluated therapeutic approach for treating potential offenders, dark field offenders and bright field offenders with a sexual interest in children in an outpatient setting. We designed a cognitive-behavioral therapeutic approach that integrated need- and resource-oriented concepts for the specific treatment of those people. This treatment program comprises thirteen modules and is established for a period of about one and a half years. The therapy concept is presented in detail and we report experiences with two male clients. We found a reduction of child abusive behavior (on- and off-line), cognitive distortions and subjective psychological distress, an increase of the extent of self-perceived sexual self-regulation, life satisfaction and self-efficacy in general and a high level of clients’ satisfaction with the therapy concept. The present therapy concept shows promising results as a potential viable treatment program to protect children by reaching out to people with a self-reported sexual interest in children in an outpatient setting, but further research is necessary.
Effects of Increased Vigilance for Locomotion Disorders on Lameness and Production in Dairy Cows
Yasmin Gundelach,Timo Schulz,Maren Feldmann,Martina Hoedemaker
Animals , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ani3030951
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the influence of weekly locomotion scoring and, thus, early detection and treatment of lame cows by a veterinarian on lameness prevalence, incidence, duration of lameness, fertility and milk yield on one dairy farm in Northern Germany. Cows were distributed to two groups. Cows in Group A (n = 99) with a locomotion score (LS) > 1 were examined and treated. In Group B (n = 99), it was solely in the hands of the farmer to detect lame cows and to decide which cows received treatment. Four weeks after the beginning of the experimental period, the prevalence of cows with LS = 1 was higher in Group A compared with Group B. Prevalence of lame cows (LS > 1) increased in Group B (47.6% in Week 2 to 84.0% in Week 40) and decreased in Group A from Week 2 to Week 40 (50% to 14.4%; P < 0.05). Within groups, the monthly lameness incidence did not differ. The average duration of lameness for newly lame cows was 3.7 weeks in Group A and 10.4 weeks in Group B ( P < 0.001). There was no effect on fertility and incidence of puerperal disorders. The 100-day milk yield was calculated from cows having their first four Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) test day results during the experimental period . The mean 100-day milk yield tended to be higher in Group A compared with Group B (3,386 kg vs. 3,359 kg; P = 0.084).
Crystal Structure Analysis of the Polysialic Acid Specific O-Acetyltransferase NeuO
Eike C. Schulz,Anne K. Bergfeld,Ralf Ficner,Martina Mühlenhoff
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017403
Abstract: The major virulence factor of the neuroinvasive pathogen Escherichia coli K1 is the K1 capsule composed of α2,8-linked polysialic acid (polySia). K1 strains harboring the CUS-3 prophage modify their capsular polysaccharide by phase-variable O-acetlyation, a step that is associated with increased virulence. Here we present the crystal structure of the prophage-encoded polysialate O-acetyltransferase NeuO. The homotrimeric enzyme belongs to the left-handed β-helix (LβH) family of acyltransferases and is characterized by an unusual funnel-shaped outline. Comparison with other members of the LβH family allowed the identification of active site residues and proposal of a catalytic mechanism and highlighted structural characteristics of polySia specific O-acetyltransferases. As a unique feature of NeuO, the enzymatic activity linearly increases with the length of the N-terminal poly-ψ-domain which is composed of a variable number of tandem copies of an RLKTQDS heptad. Since the poly-ψ-domain was not resolved in the crystal structure it is assumed to be unfolded in the apo-enyzme.
Cereulide synthetase gene cluster from emetic Bacillus cereus: Structure and location on a mega virulence plasmid related to Bacillus anthracis toxin plasmid pXO1
Monika Ehling-Schulz, Martina Fricker, Harald Grallert, Petra Rieck, Martin Wagner, Siegfried Scherer
BMC Microbiology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-6-20
Abstract: The complete sequence of the cereulide synthetase (ces) gene cluster, which encodes the enzymatic machinery required for the biosynthesis of cereulide, was dissected. The 24 kb ces gene cluster comprises 7 CDSs and includes, besides the typical NRPS genes like a phosphopantetheinyl transferase and two CDSs encoding enzyme modules for the activation and incorporation of monomers in the growing peptide chain, a CDS encoding a putative hydrolase in the upstream region and an ABC transporter in the downstream part. The enzyme modules responsible for incorporation of the hydroxyl acids showed an unusual structure while the modules responsible for the activation of the amino acids Ala and Val showed the typical domain organization of NRPS. The ces gene locus is flanked by genetic regions with high homology to virulence plasmids of B. cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis. PFGE and Southern hybridization showed that the ces genes are restricted to emetic B. cereus and indeed located on a 208 kb megaplasmid, which has high similarities to pXO1-like plasmids.The ces gene cluster that is located on a pXO1-like virulence plasmid represents, beside the insecticidal and the anthrax toxins, a third type of B. cereus group toxins encoded on megaplasmids. The ces genes are restricted to emetic toxin producers, but pXO1-like plasmids are also present in emetic-like strains. These data might indicate the presence of an ancient plasmid in B. cereus which has acquired different virulence genes over time. Due to the unusual structure of the hydroxyl acid incorporating enzyme modules of Ces, substantial biochemical efforts will be required to dissect the complete biochemical pathway of cereulide synthesis.Bacillus cereus belongs to the B. cereus group of organisms that comprises the genetically highly related organisms Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus pseudomycoides, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus weihenstephanensis, (16, 33)which for the m
Sex-dependent behavioral effects and morphological changes in the hippocampus after prenatal invasive interventions in rats: implications for animal models of schizophrenia
von Wilmsdorff, Martina;Sprick, Ulrich;Bouvier, Marie-Luise;Schulz, Daniela;Schmitt, Andrea;Gaebel, Wolfgang;
Clinics , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1807-59322010000200014
Abstract: objectives: although schizophrenia affects both human genders, there are gender-dependent differences with respect to age of onset, clinical characteristics, course and prognosis of the disease. methods: to investigate sex-dependent differences in motor coordination and activity as well as in cognitive and social behavior, we repeatedly tested female (n = 14) and male (n = 12) fisher rats (postnatal days, pd 56-174) that had received intracerebroventricular injections of kainic acid as well as female (n = 15) and male (n = 16) control animals. the hippocampus was examined histologically. results: compared to male controls, in the alcove test both female controls and female animals with prenatal intervention spent less time in a dark box before entering an unknown illuminated area. again, animals that received prenatal injection (particularly females) made more perseveration errors in the t-maze alternation task compared to controls. female rats exhibited a higher degree of activity than males, suggesting these effects to be sex-dependent. finally, animals that received prenatal intervention maintained longer lasting social contacts. histological analyses showed pyramidal cells in the hippocampal area ca3 (in both hemispheres) of control animals to be longer than those found in treated animals. sex-dependent differences were found in the left hippocampi of control animals and animals after prenatal intervention. conclusion: these results demonstrate important differences between males and females in terms of weight gain, response to fear, working memory and social behavior. we also found sex-dependent differences in the lengths of hippocampal neurons. further studies on larger sample sets with more detailed analyses of morphological changes are required to confirm our data.
Delayed Primary Closure of Omphaloceles: A Minimal-Invasive Treatment Strategy
Martin M. Kaiser,Martina Kohl,Kianusch Tafazzoli,Andreas Paech,Arndt P. Schulz,Lucas M. Wessel
Surgery Journal , 2012,
Abstract: For omphaloceles, specially giant ones, different approaches of abdominal wall repair exist. Serious complications can follow staged repair as well as primary closure. We performed a delayed direct closure under stable conditions. Eight patients (gestational age: 26-37 weeks, birth weight: 710-3240 g) with omphalo-celes of different sizes were treated prospectively. The hernial sac was protected by a sterile dressing and gentle upward traction was performed without sedation or anaesthesia. This allowed spontaneous reduction of herniated viscera and liver, before the defect was closed. Seven defects were closed on day 2-14. No serious complications were observed. At follow-up 15-34 months cosmetic results were excellent without ventral hernia. One re-laparotomy for ileus due to adhesions was necessary. The preterm infant with 730 g birth weight died of severe intracranial haemorrhage before the defect could be closed. Present treatment proved to be safe and reliable, even in two giant omphaloceles. Multiple operative procedures as well as prosthetic material were avoided. No infection or abdominal-compartment syndrome occurred. Cosmetic results were very good, no secondary ventral hernia or other long-term complications developed.
SIRT and Its Unresolved Problems—Is Imaging the Solution? A Review  [PDF]
Franziska Schulz, Michael Friebe
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2016.77054
Abstract: Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) is used as a treatment option for unresectable liver tumors. In SIRT, microspheres, which have a radioactive substance as an integral component, are placed via image guided catheters into the hepatic artery. The ionizing radiation is directly delivered to the tumor. Currently used commercially available microspheres are based on Yttrium 90, a β-emitter, which has been shown to be safe and to produce good clinical results. The technical features of Y90, their applications and their limitations are presented. Image guidance and intraoperative depiction of Yttrium 90 microspheres are restricted, which is currently one of the main limitations in SIRT. Therapy planning and control is currently based on pre- and post-operative images to evaluate the placement of the microspheres respectively. Holmium 166, another possible nuclide integrated into the microspheres emits a higher amount of secondary γ-radiation (Bremsstrahlung) than Yttrium 90. This enables an improved depiction of the microspheres inside the patient during and immediately after application, but comes with other shortfalls. Imaging of delivery and verification of the microsphere placement could solve many of the identified problems with SIRT. The different technologies are reviewed and an outlook in future developments is given particularly on image guidance and therapy control.
Restoration of contact inhibition in human glioblastoma cell lines after MIF knockdown
J?rg Schrader, Oliver Deuster, Birgit Rinn, Martina Schulz, Andreas Kautz, Richard Dodel, Bernhard Meyer, Yousef Al-Abed, Karthikeyan Balakrishnan, Jens P Reese, Michael Bacher
BMC Cancer , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-9-464
Abstract: Here we show that in vitro targeting MIF in cultures of human malignant glioblastoma cells by either antisense plasmid introduction or anti-MIF antibody treatment reduced the growth rates of tumor cells. Of note is the marked decrease of proliferation under confluent and over-confluent conditions, implying a role of MIF in overcoming contact inhibition. Several proteins involved in contact inhibition including p27, p21, p53 and CEBPalpha are upregulated in the MIF antisense clones indicating a restoration of contact inhibition in the tumor cells. Correspondingly, we observed a marked increase in MIF mRNA and protein content under higher cell densities in LN18 cells. Furthermore, we showed the relevance of the enzymatic active site of MIF for the proliferation of glioblastoma cells by using the MIF-tautomerase inhibitor ISO-1.Our study adds another puzzle stone to the role of MIF in tumor growth and progression by showing the importance of MIF for overcoming contact inhibition.The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has long been known as a modulator of the immune response towards various infectious agents [1-4] Over the last years, its role in other disease-related processes, in particular neoplastic disorders, has been elucidated [5]. MIF is expressed in various malignant tumors, comprising ectodermal [6], mesenchymal [7,8] and endodermal cell types [9,10]. MIF functions in multiple ways to boost tumor growth by promoting angiogenesis [11-13], stimulating cell cycle progression [8,10,14], inhibiting apoptosis [15,16] and preventing NK cell lysis [6]. MIF expression in tumor cell lines is regulated by growth factors [10] and cell stress [7,17]. Suppression of MIF function by anti-MIF antibody treatment and MIF-antisense transfection alters the proliferate state of tumor cells in vivo and in vitro [10,12,13]. Additionally, MIF has been identified as a promoter of carcinogenesis in an intestinal tumor model [18]. Recently, a MIF receptor complex cons
X-Ray Induced Formation of γ-H2AX Foci after Full-Field Digital Mammography and Digital Breast-Tomosynthesis
Siegfried A. Schwab, Michael Brand, Ina-Kristin Schlude, Wolfgang Wuest, Martina Meier-Meitinger, Luitpold Distel, Ruediger Schulz-Wendtland, Michael Uder, Michael A. Kuefner
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070660
Abstract: Purpose To determine in-vivo formation of x-ray induced γ-H2AX foci in systemic blood lymphocytes of patients undergoing full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and to estimate foci after FFDM and digital breast-tomosynthesis (DBT) using a biological phantom model. Materials and Methods The study complies with the Declaration of Helsinki and was performed following approval by the ethic committee of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. Written informed consent was obtained from every patient. For in-vivo tests, systemic blood lymphocytes were obtained from 20 patients before and after FFDM. In order to compare in-vivo post-exposure with pre-exposure foci levels, the Wilcoxon matched pairs test was used. For in-vitro experiments, isolated blood lymphocytes from healthy volunteers were irradiated at skin and glandular level of a porcine breast using FFDM and DBT. Cells were stained against the phosphorylated histone variant γ-H2AX, and foci representing distinct DNA damages were quantified. Results Median in-vivo foci level/cell was 0.086 (range 0.067–0.116) before and 0.094 (0.076–0.126) after FFDM (p = 0.0004). In the in-vitro model, the median x-ray induced foci level/cell after FFDM was 0.120 (range 0.086–0.140) at skin level and 0.035 (range 0.030–0.050) at glandular level. After DBT, the median x-ray induced foci level/cell was 0.061 (range 0.040–0.081) at skin level and 0.015 (range 0.006–0.020) at glandular level. Conclusion In patients, mammography induces a slight but significant increase of γ-H2AX foci in systemic blood lymphocytes. The introduced biological phantom model is suitable for the estimation of x-ray induced DNA damages in breast tissue in different breast imaging techniques.
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