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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 231703 matches for " Martinón-Torres "
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Megaliths as land-marks. Chronicle of the territorial role of the megalithic monuments through written sources
Martinón-Torres, Marcos
Trabajos de Prehistoria , 2001,
Abstract: Megalithic monuments have played dijferent roles throughout History. One of them has a spatial function, i.e. as landmarks. The aim of this paper has been to collect and analyse every written reference concerning Galician megaliths operating as landmarks between the 6th and 19th centuries AD. On this basis, the evolution of this social-territorial function of the monuments through time is reconstructed, and an interpretative hypothesis for this phenomenon is proposed. Finally, the importance of reviewing written sources as a methodology for archaeological survey and for studies of the topographic settings of monuments is emphasised. A lo largo de la Historia, los monumentos megalíticos han desempe ado, entre otras, una función espacial, como marcos de territorio. Para este artículo se recogen y analizan las referencias escritas a megalitos gallegos funcionando como marcadores o identificadores espaciales, entre los siglos VI y XIX d.C. A partir de este registro de fuentes se reconstruye la evolución de este papel social-territorial de los monumentos en las distintas épocas. Se plantea un modelo interpretativo para este fenómeno, y se valora la revisión de fuentes escritas como metodología para la prospección arqueológica y para los estudios de emplazamiento de megalitos.
The Archaeology of Alchemy and Chemistry in the Early Modern World: An Afterthought
Marcos Martinón-Torres
Archaeology International , 2012, DOI: 10.5334/ai.1508
Abstract:
El Padre Sarmiento y el megalitismo gallego
Martinón-Torres, Marcos
Cuadernos de Estudios Gallegos , 2004,
Abstract: In this paper, the observations made by Father Martin Sarmiento (1695-1772) upon the megalithic complex in Galicia are collected and analysed in their historical context. On this basis, his contribution to our knowledge of this phenomenon is discussed, and it is argued that he was the first scholar to consider the monuments as actual sources of information about the past. Lastly, a table with his references to specific megaliths and their location is presented, in the hope that this could be of use for modem archaeological surveys. Se recogen y analizan, dentro de su contexto histórico, las referencias del Padre Fray Martín Sarmiento (1695-1772) al megalitismo gallego. A partir de ellas se estudia su aportación al conocimiento de este fenómeno y se comprueba cómo él inaugura la consideración de los monumentos como verdaderos documentos que informan sobre el pasado. Finalmente, se presenta una tabla con sus alusiones más específicas a monumentos megalíticos que podría facilitar eventuales trabajos de prospección arqueológica.
Orígenes del dorado por amalgama: aportaciones desde la orfebrería protohistórica del noroeste de la Península Ibérica
Martinón-Torres, Marcos,Ladra, Lois
Trabajos de Prehistoria , 2011, DOI: 10.3989/tp.2011.11066
Abstract: The origins and transmission of mercury gilding remain unclear. Recently, the possibility of an independent focus of invention in the South of the Iberian Peninsula has been proposed (Perea et al. 2008). Here we present analyses by portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) of two torcs from the Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula that reveal the earliest evidence for this technique in the region. The technology and style of these artefacts raise the possibility of contacts and technological transmission on the Atlantic coast of Europe. Thus, these finds call for a diversification of the explanatory models for the difussion of this technique. Los orígenes y difusión de la técnica del dorado por amalgama de mercurio siguen planteando numerosos interrogantes. Recientemente se ha sugerido la posible existencia de un foco independiente para la invención de esta técnica en el sur de la Península Ibérica (Perea et al. 2008). En este artículo se presentan los análisis por fluorescencia de rayos X (FRX) de dos fragmentos de torques protohistóricos del noroeste de la Península Ibérica dorados por amalgama, que constituyen la evidencia más temprana de dicha técnica en esta región. La tecnología y el estilo de estos objetos plantean la posibilidad de contactos y transmisión tecnológica a lo largo de la fachada atlántica europea. En consecuencia, estos hallazgos nos obligan a diversificar los modelos explicativos para la difusión de esta técnica.
Indian Signatures in the Westernmost Edge of the European Romani Diaspora: New Insight from Mitogenomes
Alberto Gómez-Carballa, Jacobo Pardo-Seco, Laura Fachal, Ana Vega, Miriam Cebey, Nazareth Martinón-Torres, Federico Martinón-Torres, Antonio Salas
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075397
Abstract: In agreement with historical documentation, several genetic studies have revealed ancestral links between the European Romani and India. The entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 27 Spanish Romani was sequenced in order to shed further light on the origins of this population. The data were analyzed together with a large published dataset (mainly hypervariable region I [HVS-I] haplotypes) of Romani (N = 1,353) and non-Romani worldwide populations (N>150,000). Analysis of mitogenomes allowed the characterization of various Romani-specific clades. M5a1b1a1 is the most distinctive European Romani haplogroup; it is present in all Romani groups at variable frequencies (with only sporadic findings in non-Romani) and represents 18% of their mtDNA pool. Its phylogeographic features indicate that M5a1b1a1 originated 1.5 thousand years ago (kya; 95% CI: 1.3–1.8) in a proto-Romani population living in Northwest India. U3 represents the most characteristic Romani haplogroup of European/Near Eastern origin (12.4%); it appears at dissimilar frequencies across the continent (Iberia: ~31%; Eastern/Central Europe: ~13%). All U3 mitogenomes of our Iberian Romani sample fall within a new sub-clade, U3b1c, which can be dated to 0.5 kya (95% CI: 0.3–0.7); therefore, signaling a lower bound for the founder event that followed admixture in Europe/Near East. Other minor European/Near Eastern haplogroups (e.g. H24, H88a) were also assimilated into the Romani by introgression with neighboring populations during their diaspora into Europe; yet some show a differentiation from the phylogenetically closest non-Romani counterpart. The phylogeny of Romani mitogenomes shows clear signatures of low effective population sizes and founder effects. Overall, these results are in good agreement with historical documentation, suggesting that cultural identity and relative isolation have allowed the Romani to preserve a distinctive mtDNA heritage, with some features linking them unequivocally to their ancestral Indian homeland.
Investigating the Role of Mitochondrial Haplogroups in Genetic Predisposition to Meningococcal Disease
Antonio Salas,Laura Fachal,Sonia Marcos-Alonso,Ana Vega,Federico Martinón-Torres
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008347
Abstract: Meningococcal disease remains one of the most important infectious causes of death in industrialized countries. The highly diverse clinical presentation and prognosis of Neisseria meningitidis infections are the result of complex host genetics and environmental interactions. We investigated whether mitochondrial genetic background contributes to meningococcal disease (MD) susceptibility.
Origen y filogenia de los primeros homínidos de Europa
J.M. Bermúdez de Castro,M. Martinón-Torres,E. Carbonell,M. Lozano
Munibe Antropologia-Arkeologia , 2005,
Abstract: Se discuten el origen y relaciones filogenéticas de la especie Homo antecesor, Bermudez de Castro et al.., 1997, con especial atención a los datos aportados por la nueva mandíbula recuperada en el nivel TD6 del yacimiento de Gran Dolina, en la Sierra de Atapuerca, que refuerzan la identidad taxonómica de esta especie y su relación con el origen de H. sapiens. Se constata la hipótesis de que H. antecessor represente el último antecesor común de los neandertales y de las poblaciones modernas y se considera la posibilidad de un origen asiático para el primer poblamiento de Europa
Diversifying the picture: indigenous responses to European arrival in Cuba
Marcos Martinón-Torres,Jago Cooper,Roberto Valcárcel Rojas,Thilo Rehren
Archaeology International , 2007, DOI: 10.5334/ai.1008
Abstract: There is a growing interest in cultural contact between indigenous peoples and Europeans following their arrival in the New World. In this article the authors explore local responses to European arrival in Cuba, through analysis of metalwork found in indigenous graves. These studies demonstrate that the local communities valued particular metals quite differently from the Europeans, as the imported materials were incorporated into pre-existing symbolic systems relating to sacred power.
Making Weapons for the Terracotta Army
Marcos Martinón-Torres,Xiuzhen Janice Li,Andrew Bevan,Yin Xia
Archaeology International , 2011, DOI: 10.5334/ai.1316
Abstract: The Terracotta Army of the First Emperor of China is one of the most emblematic archaeological sites in the world. Many questions remain about the logistics of technology, standardisation and labour organisation behind the creation of such a colossal construction in just a few decades over 2,000 years ago. An ongoing research project co-ordinated between the UCL Institute of Archaeology and the Emperor Qin Shihang's Terracotta Army Museum is beginning to address some of these questions. This paper outlines some results of the typological, metric, microscopic, chemical and spatial analyses of the 40,000 bronze weapons recovered with the Terracotta Warriors. Thanks to a holistic approach developed specifically for this project, it is possible to reveal remarkable aspects of the organisation of the Qin workforce in production cells, of the standardisation, efficiency and quality-control procedures employed, and of the sophisticated technical knowledge of the weapon-makers.
Prospective evaluation of indirect costs due to acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in Spain: the ROTACOST study
Marta Bouzón-Alejandro, Lorenzo Redondo-Collazo, Juan Sánchez-Lastres, Nazareth Martinón-Torres, José Martinón-Sánchez, Federico Martinón-Torres, the ROTACOST research team
BMC Pediatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-11-81
Abstract: A prospective observational study was conducted from October 2008 to June 2009. It included 682 children up to 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) who attended primary care (n = 18) and emergency room/hospital settings (n = 10), covering the regions of Galicia and Asturias (North-west Spain). All non-medical expenses incurred throughout the episode were recorded in detail using personal interviews and telephone contact.Among the 682 enrolled children, 207 (30.4%) were rotavirus positive and 170 (25%) had received at least one dose of rotavirus vaccine. The mean (standard deviation) indirect cost caused by an episode of AGE was estimated at 135.17 (182.70) Euros. Costs were 1.74-fold higher when AGE was caused by rotavirus compared with other etiologies: 192.7 (219.8) Euros vs. 111.6 (163.5) Euros (p < .001). The costs for absenteeism were the most substantial with a mean of 91.41 (134.76) Euros per family, resulting in a loss of 2.45 (3.17) days of work. In RVAGE patients, the absenteeism cost was 120.4 (154) Euros compared with 75.8 (123) for the other etiologies (p = .002), because of loss of 3.5 (3.6) vs 1.9 (2.9) days of work (p < .001). Meals costs were 2-fold-higher (48.5 (55) vs 24.3 (46) Euros, p < .001) and travel costs were 2.6-fold-higher (32 (92) vs 12.5 (21.1) Euros, p = .005) in RVAGE patients compared with those with other etiologies. There were no differences between RVAGE and other etiologies groups regarding costs of hiring of caregivers or purchase of material. Patients with RVAGE were admitted to hospital more frequently than those with other etiologies (47.8% vs 14%, p < .001).Rotavirus generates a significant indirect economic burden. Our data should be considered in the decision-making process of the eventual inclusion of rotavirus vaccine in the national immunization schedule of well developed countries.Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in infants and children under 5 years of age, causing 600,000 death
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