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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 28827 matches for " Martin Kudlá ek "
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The Influence of Dualism and Pragmatism on Physical Education
Martin Kudlá ek
Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research , 2009, DOI: 10.2478/v10141-009-0008-y
Abstract: Physical education is an area in which most professionals focus only on the body and its needs. Most PE teachers do not believe that having an understanding of philosophy is important in order to be a good teacher. One might ask why the physical educators think this. Looking at the history of philosophy we might find the answer within philosophy itself. Physical education is an unquestionable part of the school curriculum, but it does not have the same value as other subjects. The importance of PE is underestimated as school administrators stress the importance of academic subjects. The reason why physical education is so strongly separated from academic disciplines is because of its roots in ancient Greek times, when the soul was separated from the body. Medieval scholars stressed the importance of soul and cursed body as the nest of sins. From then on we have had dualism, a term which is widely adopted by western society. Dualism is so deep in us that we do not realize its impact any more. Other strong educational influence came from great thinkers such as: Comenius (1592-1670), Rousseau (1712-1778) and Dewey (1859-1952). Particularly Dewey's influence on American education, society, psychology, philosophy and way of life is significant. An importance of the experience is valued by Pragmatism. Pragmatists believe that the curriculum should be focused on the child and not on facts, they remind us about the role of education in society, and about the realization of the deep roots of division of our bodily and mental functions. The opportunities offered by the pragmatist's approach to education can help us to improve U.S. education, particularly physical education, and thus to use this to improve the state of American society.
Struktura postoj k integraci ák s tělesnym posti ením v TV v revidovaném dotazníku ATIPDPE-R u budoucích u itel v eské republice Components of attitudes toward inclusion of students with physical disabilities in physical education in the revised
Martin Kudlá?ek
Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis : Gymnica , 2007,
Abstract: Cílem této studie bylo prozkoumat strukturu revidované postojové kály dotazníku ATIPDPE-R, ktery je zalo en na Ajzenově (2000) teorii plánovaného jednání (Theory of planned behavior). Této studie se ú astnilo 214 budoucích u itel (155 en a 59 mu ) pr měrného věku 21,83 let, kte í studovali studijní obor u itelství TV na ty ech univerzitách, studijní obor aplikovaná tělesná vychova, speciální pedagogika a u itelství prvního stupně základní koly v eské republice. Analyza postojové kály ATIPDPE-R poukázala na t i psychologické ukazatele (komponenty). Zmíněné komponenty (na základě analyzy základních komponent – principal component analysis) objasňují více ne 65 % variance. T i komponenty jsou: a) pozitivní d sledky pro studenty, b) negativní d sledky pro u itele a c) negativní d sledky pro studenty. The purpose of the study was to examine the structure of the revised attitudinal scale of the ATIPDPE-R, an instrument based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) of Ajzen (2000). Participants were 214 prospective educators (155 females and 59 males) of an average age of 21.83 years enrolled in physical education teacher preparation programs at four universities, in one adapted physical education program, one special education program and one general education program in the Czech Republic. Based on analysis, the attitudinal scale of ATIPDPE-R measures III psychological properties (components). Three components, which come from principal component analysis, explain more than 65% of the variance. The three components are: a) positive outcomes for students, b) negative outcomes for teachers, and c) negative outcomes for students.
Aplikovaná tělesná vychova v USA v první polovině 20. století American adapted physical education in the first half of the 20th century
Martin Kudlá?ek
Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis : Gymnica , 2006,
Abstract: Aplikovaná tělesná vychova se v USA vyvinula z lé ebné, zdravotní tělesné vychovy. P vodní vliv védské lé ebné tělesné vychovy na americké vysoké koly mají "na svědomí" Hartwig Nissen (1855–1924), Nils Posse (1862–1895) a William Skarstrom (1896–1951). Mezi první americké pr kopníky zdravotní tělesné vychovy pat ily Lilian Curtis Drew a Louisa Lipin. Korektivní p ístup zdravotní tělesné vychovy byl dominantní v období 1920–1950. V d ími osobnostmi té doby byli Charles Kosman (1879–1977), George Stafford (1894–1968) a Josephina Rathbone (1899–1989). Tito odborníci v té době velmi úzce spolupracovali s fyzioterapeuty. Velky po et veterán z druhé světové války zp sobil vyznamné změny v p ístupu k pohybovym aktivitám osob se zdravotním posti ením. Toto později vedlo k oddělení korektivní fyzioterapie od aplikované tělesné vychovy v roce 1952. Adapted physical education in the U. S. has evolved from medical, corrective gymnastics. The original influence of Swedish gymnastics was passed on to American Universities via Hartwig Nissen (1855–1924), Nils Posse (1862–1895) and William Skarstrom (1896–1951). The first American leaders of corrective gymnastics were Lillian Curtis Drew and Louisa Lippitt. The corrective approach was the philosophy of physical education for students with special needs from the 1920 till the 1950. Leaders of APE in that era were Charles Lowman (1879–1977), George Stafford (1894–1968) and Josephine Rathbone (1899–1989). They very closely cooperated with physical therapists. A great number of World War II veterans influenced the major changes in sport for people with disabilities. World War II significantly changed the approach to physical activities for people with disabilities, which led to the separation of corrective physical therapy and adapted physical education in 1952.
Components/factors of the Czech version of the Physical Self Perception Profile (PSPP-CZ) among high school students [Komponenty/faktory eské verze dotazníku tělesného sebepojetí (PSPP-CZ) u st edo kolskych student ]
Michal Kudlá?ek,Martin Kudlá?ek,Vlastimil Kudlá?ek jr.,Vlastimil Kudlá?ek
Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis : Gymnica , 2010,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The physical self has been widely investigated as a determinant of exercise behaviors as well as a contributor to mental health and well being (Fox, 1997). Self esteem has been generally accepted as an important mediator of exercise and self esteem (Fox, 2000; Sonstroem, 1997). Understanding self development processes has increased in importance as self esteem and self perception components have become increasingly valued in educational, clinical and community health programs (Ferreira & Fox, 2008). In order to examine the relationships between various levels of physical activities and self perception we need to use standardized instruments to measure physical self perception among Czech teenagers. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyse the structure of the translated PSPP-CZ questionnaire among the population of high school students by finding components of PSPP-CZ using principal component analysis. The Physical Self Perception Profile (PSPP) has never been used in the CZ population before. METHODS: Participants were high school students from five schools representing three kinds of high schools in the Czech Republic. Of these participants, 666 were boys and 403 were girls. The average age of the participants was 17.00 (± 1.34) in boys and 16.63 (± 1.39) in girls. Participants received a test battery containing a Czech version of PSPP (Fox, 1990). PSPP has four subscales: (a) sports competence – SPORT; (b) attractiveness of the figure – BODY; (c) physical strength and musculature – STRENGTH; and (d) physical conditioning and exercise – CONDITION (Fox, 1990). RESULTS: Data were analyzed using SPSS PC 11.0. Cronbach Alpha, representing the internal consistency measure consisted of: (a) sport subscale (males = .86, females = .86); (b) physical condition subscales (males = .82, females = .85); (c) attractiveness of figure subscales (males = .78, females = .88); and (d) strength subscale (males = .87, females = .85). Initially we have found that students from Czech high schools have a different structure of self perception then the original PSPP population from England (Fox, 1990). Our findings correspond with findings among Flemish adults (Van de Vliet et al., 2002; Ferreira & Fox, 2007) where components of sport and condition were also loaded into one factor. There are clear, subtle differences in the structure of physical self perception as related to cultural and language differences. Findings of internal reliability and content validity suggest that the three subscales questionnaire can be used in the Czech population as a vali
ivotní zp sob a enviromentální faktory ovlivňující vztah jedinc romského etnika k tělocvi nym aktivitám [Life style and environmental factors affecting the relation of Romany minority to moving activities]
Ond?ej Je?ina,Martin Kudlá?ek
Tělesná Kultura , 2008,
Abstract: P íspěvek seznamuje tená e s problematikou romského etnika ve vztahu k tělocvi nym aktivitám a ivotnímu zp sobu. Jedná se o relativně málo zpracovávané téma, p i jeho zpracování respektujeme historické souvislosti, popisujeme sou asnou situaci a nabízíme vizi tělocvi nych aktivit jako prost edku pro pozitivní ovlivnění osobnostních specifi k jedinc romského etnika. ím dál astěji se na vrcholné politicko spole enské úrovni setkáváme s projevy rasismu a xenofobního uva ování ve vztahu k etnickym men inám v eské spole nosti, p edev ím Rom m. A koliv se v p íspěvku sna íme zamě it a zamyslet nad spojitostí mezi tělocvi nymi aktivitami a romskym etnikem, jsme si vědomi obrovské í e témat a spole ensko historickych souvislostí, které nejsme schopni do hloubky obsáhnout. P edev ím se jedná o sféry postojové i osobnostně-sociální. Jde nám p edev ím o hledání vněj ích p í in ovlivňujících participaci jedinc romského etnika v rámci tělocvi nych aktivit. A koliv zdaleka neobsáhneme v echny, sna íme se o jejich nastínění. [INTRODUCTION: The presentation focuses on the issues of movement activities among Romany minority population in relation to their life style. There are limited sources related to this topic. We describe historical backgrounds and curent situation and we also highlight the possibilities of positive infl uence of movement activities on this population. RESEARCH METHODS: The paper is based on the review of literature related to Romany and ethnical minorities in general. We have also studied relevant literature from the area of physical education, sport and recreation. ISSUES: In history we can find multiple factors which shaped lives and life style of this minority. We argue that appropriately structured movement activities can play crucial role in facilitation of socialisation and inclusion in mainstream society. Frequent movement actvities have also positive influence on overall health and well being. (Trost, Pate, Saunders R, a kol., 1997; Freedson, 1991). RESULTS AND DISCUSION: We argue that only optional and free behaviors can facilitate the improvement of issues related to some issues of socialization of Romany in Czech society. In movement activities we use certain principles that resonate with the values and characteristics of Romany. In this presentation we focus on the environmental factors influencing Romany in relation to movement activities. We argue that it is crucial to not use "traditional" sport based and performance driven activities (e.g. physical education), but we should use more holistic approach to physical activitie
Inkluze v zá itkové pedagogice jako strategie pro p ístup k jinakosti Inclusion in experiential education as a strategy for working with differentness
Ivo Jirásek,Martin Kudlá?ek
Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis : Gymnica , 2007,
Abstract: Tento p íspěvek se zamě uje na koncept jinakosti, specifické pot eby osob se zdravotním posti ením a zp soby práce s jinakostí v oblasti vychovy a vzdělávání. Nejprve se zamě ujeme na koncepty jinakosti a rovnych p íle itostí z pohledu olympijskych ideál a teoretického modelu klasifikace posti ení (International classification of functioning and disability of WHO, 2001). Dále se věnujeme vymezení pojmu inkluze z historického a teoretického pohledu autor st ední Evropy (Jesensky, 1998 a Vítková, 1999). Nakonec uvádíme p íklady vyu ití zá itkové pedagogiky pro pochopení a p ijetí jinakosti a facilitaci plného za lenění jedinc se zdravotním posti ením do spole nosti. Nabízíme specifické p íklady program a aktivit, které mohou podpo it za lenění osob se zdravotním posti ením ve vzdělávacím prost edí. This paper focuses on the concept of differentness and the unique needs of persons with disabilities and the ways how this concept can be used in the educational environment. At first we focus on the general concepts of differentness and equal opportunities from the perspectives of the Olympic ideals of amateurism and from the point of view of the International classification of functioning and disability of WHO (2001). Later we discuss the meaning of the term inclusion from the historical perspective and from the point of view of the theoretical approach of two central/eastern European authors (Jesensky, 1998; Vítková, 1999). Finally we explore the potential of experiential education programs in understandning differentness and enhancing full inclusion. We provide specific examples of programs and activities which can help to enhance the inclusion of persons with disabilities in the educational environment.
Effect of the intervention program "Paralympic School Day" on attitudes of children attending international school towards inclusion of students with disabilities [Vliv interven ního programu "Paralympijsky kolní den" na postoje dětí nav těvujících mezinárodní kolu v i za lenění student s posti ením]
Georgios Xafopoulos,Martin Kudlá?ek,Christina Evaggelinou
Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis : Gymnica , 2009,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect that the "Paralympic School Day" had on the attitudes of children attending the International school in Ostrava, Czech Republic, toward the inclusion of peers with a disability in general physical education classes. METHODS: Students (71, including 42 boys and 29 girls), with a mean age of 12.70 and 11.67 years respectively, originating from 5 countries, participated in the program. All participants completed the questionnaire "Children's Attitude Toward Integrated Physical Education-Revised" (CAIPE-R) (Block, 1995) and the Adjective checklist (Siperstein, 1980) before and after the implementation of the program. The CAIPE-R questionnaire examines two areas (subscales) - general attitudes and sport specific attitudes. RESULTS: Results indicated significant differences only in general attitudes among girls measured by the Adjective checklist. Other changes were non significant. Among boys there were slight non significant positive changes in the adjective checklist (t = 0.75, p = 0.46) and in attitudes toward inclusion in PE (t = 0.61, p = 0.55) and non significant negative changes in attitudes toward the modification of sport rules (t = -0.25, p = 0.81). Among girls we found non significant negative changes in attitudes toward inclusion in PE (t = -0.64, p = 0.53) and non significant negative changes were also found in attitudes toward the modification of sport rules (t = -1.26, p = 0.22). [CíL: Cílem této studie bylo pro et it, jaky má "Paralympijsky kolní den" vliv na postoje dětí nav těvujících 1. mezinárodní kolu v Ostravě v i za lenění spolu ák s posti ením do hodin tělesné vychovy. METODIKA: Programu ze zú astnili studenti z 5 zemí (71, z toho 42 chlapc a 29 dívek) pr měrného věku 12,70, respektive 11,67 let. V ichni ú astníci vyplnili dotazník "Postoj dětí v i integrované tělesné vychově - revidovaná verze" (CAIPE-R) (Block, 1995) a Adjective checklist (Siperstein, 1980), a to p ed implementací programu a po ní. Dotazník CAIPE-R zkoumá dvě oblasti (sub kály) - obecné postoje a postoje vztahující se ke sportu. VYSLEDKY: Vysledky nazna ily vyznamné rozdíly pouze v obecnych postojích mezi dívkami, a to dle vysledk v Adjective checklist. Dal í změny nebyly vyznamné. Mezi chlapci byly slabé nevyznamné pozitivní změny v Adjective checklist (t = 0,75, p = 0,46) a v postojích v i za lenění do TV (t = 0,61, p = 0,55) a nevyznamné negativní změny v postojích v i p izp sobení sportovních pravidel (t = -0,25, p = 0,81). Mezi dívkami jsme zaznamenali nevyznamné negativní změny v postojích
Vyvoj protokolu o pozorování dovedností pro sledge hokej - pilotní studie Development of a skills observation protocol for sledge ice hockey - pilot study
Emma Beckman,Martin Kudlá?ek,Yves Vanlandewijck
Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis : Gymnica , 2007,
Abstract: V pr běhu několika posledních let vzrostly mo nosti jedinc s tělesnym posti enym zapojit se do fyzickych inností. Z tohoto d vodu je uznáván vyznam zvládnutí sportovních dovedností je tě p ed samotnou ú astí v soutě ích. O stále oblíbeněj ím sledge hokeji bylo dosud provedeno málo vyzkum . Hlavní slo kou vykonu je analyza dovedností. Vzhledem k její uznávané d le itosti a sou asnému nedostatku p íslu nych vyzkum na tomto poli jsme p i této studii vyu ili videozáznam z paralympijského sledge hokejového turnaje z Turína v roce 2006, které nám poskytly mo nost vytvo it protokol o pozorování s podrobnymi kritérii toho, co utvá í vyspělé profesionální sledge hokejové dovednosti. Proběhly konzultace s odborníky z tohoto odvětví a jejich zpětná vazba nám umo nila vytvo it tento nástroj. Po dokon ení protokolu jsme provedli pilotní vyhodnocení, pro které byli hrá i vybíráni na základě statistik z paralympijskych her. Tito hrá i byli poté pomocí na eho protokolu hodnoceni. Bylo prokázáno, e protokol doká e úspě ně rozli ovat hrá e vy í a ni í úrovně. Over the past few years opportunities have been increasing for individuals with physical disabilities to become involved in physical activities; hence there is a recognition of the importance of mastering sport skills before participation. Currently there is little research that has been performed on the increasingly popular sport of sledge hockey. A major component of performance is skill analysis. Having recognised its importance and the current unavailability of relevant research in the area, this study used video recordings of the Torino 2006 Paralympic sledge ice hockey tournament to provide a setting in which to produce a skill observation protocol with detailed criteria of what constitutes a mature professional sledge ice hockey skill. Experts in the field were consulted and their feedback enabled the construction of the instrument. Once this protocol was complete a pilot evaluation was done in which players were selected on the basis of statistics from the Paralympics and then evaluated using the protocol. It was determined that the protocol could successfully differentiate between higher and lower level players.
Components of attitudes toward the inclusion of students with disabilities in physical education in the ATIPDPE-GR instrument for Greek physical educators [Názory na za lenění student s posti ením do hodin tělesné vychovy v nástroji ATIPDPE-GR pro ecké u itele tělesné vychovy]
Agapi Doulkeridou,Christina Evaggelinou,Martin Kudlá?ek
Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis : Gymnica , 2010,
Abstract: BACKROUND: Over the last decade the idea of the inclusion of students with disabilities and special educational needs (SEN) in general schools has become increasingly the focus of national and international policies in Greece. An important factor that affects the success of inclusion is attitude and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) provides a useful framework for the study of attitudes toward people with disabilities. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to examine the structure of the attitudinal scale, modified for Greece, of the Attitudes Toward Inclusion of Individuals with Physical Disabilities in Physical Education - Greece (ATIPDPE-GR), an instrument based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) of Ajzen (2000), aiming to measure Greek physical educators' attitudes. METHODS: Participants were 155 physical educators (85 females and 70 males) with a mean age of 37.68 years teaching either the physical education (PE) course or the Olympic & Paralympic education (O & PE) course in seven different prefectures of Greece. RESULTS: Based on the one way ANOVA, the attitudinal scale of ATIPDPE-GR measures two psychological properties (components). Two components, which come from a principal component analysis, explain more than 42% of the variance. The two components are: a) positive outcomes for students and b) negative outcomes for teachers and students. CONCLUSIONS: Our present results indicate that the ATIPDPE-GR can be a reliable instrument that measures PE teachers' attitudes and that the theory of planned behavior can provide a sound theoretical framework for the study of the attitudes of physical educators. [VYCHODISKA: Za poslední dekádu my lenka za lenění student s posti ením a speciálními vzdělávacími pot ebami (SVP) do v eobecnych kol v ecku nabyvá na vyznamu v rámci národní a mezinárodní politiky. D le ity faktor, ktery podmiňuje úspěch tohoto za lenění, je postoj k této otázce a teorie plánovaného chování (TPCH) poskytuje u ite ny rámec pro studium postoj k lidem s posti ením. CíLE: ú elem studie bylo posoudit strukturu postojové kály, modifikované pro ecko, dle nástroje Attitudes Toward Inclusion of Individuals with Physical Disabilities in Physical Education - Greece (ATIPDPE-GR), zalo eného na teorii plánovaného chování (TPCH) Ajzena (2000). kála je ur ena pro mě ení postoj eckych u itel tělesné vychovy. METODIKA: Zú astnilo se 155 u itel tělesné vychovy (85 en a 70 mu ) v pr měrném věku 37,68 let, kte í vyu ují bu tělesnou vychovu (TV) nebo olympijskou a paralympijskou vychovu (OPV) v sedmi r znych prefekturách ecka.
European Inclusive Physical Education Training
Martin Kudlá ek , Ond ej Je ina , Pat Flannagan
Advances in Rehabilitation , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10029-010-0003-6
Abstract: The purpose of this presentation is to introduce the outcomes of the project European Inclusive Physical Education Training (EIPET; LLP/LdV/TOI/2007/IRL-502). The project aims to tackle difficulties that arise associated with the inclusion of children with disabilities into general education; and associated current deficiencies in initial and continued physical education teacher training to deal with same. The purpose of this article is to describe job specific functions, which general PE teachers can face in inclusive physical education, and related professional competencies, which teachers should acquire in their pre-service or in-service training. The functional map was developed based on the model of service delivery titled PAPTECA to reflect systematic step in teaching children with disabilities in inclusive PE. We will discuss the implication of functional map and competence framework for teacher preparation programs in light of presented barriers and facilitators of inclusive physical education. We will provide practical examples of modules and courses build on the EIPET theoretical framework. We will discuss the possibilities and limitations related to the theoretical principles, practical training and practicum experiences working with persons with disabilities as part of EIPET module (introductory APA courses).
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