Abstract:
The paper argues that, at the European level, the situation of Roma minorities represent a new policy issue. However, over the 1990s the level of understanding of this issue became increasingly distorted, reflecting more the interests of mainstream institutions than those of Roma people and communities. In particular, the Roma issue has been increasingly defined in cultural terms, as a matter of discrimination, rather than identifying the causes of and effectively addressing the considerable objective problems faced by many Roma people such as poverty, unemployment, poor housing, health etc. The role of scholars should be to develop methods and theories to aid policy makers' understanding of the complex conditions affecting the highly diverse people covered by the concept of 'Roma'. To date this has not been achieved, partly due to the blurring of boundaries between scholarship and political activism.

Abstract:
The paper examines the activities of the first National Gypsy Minority-Self-Government in Hungary (1995-8). It argues that, in respect of the Roma, Hungary's innovative system of minority representation is subject to conflicting tensions stemming both from the context of the disintegration of most Roma from the mainstream economy and society, as well as the competitiveness of nascent Roma political activity. The paper identifies a tendency towards unaccountable empire building and for the control of increasingly large sums of public money, resulting from structural problems of the system which need to be addressed if it is to be an effective and successful mechanism for minority representation.

Abstract:
Using both probabilistic and classical analytic techniques, we investigate the parabolic Kolmogorov equation $$ L_t v +frac {partial v}{partial t}equiv frac 12 a^{ij}(t)v_{x^ix^j} +b^i(t) v_{x^i} -c(t) v+ f(t) +frac {partial v}{partial t}=0 $$ in $H_T:=(0,T) imes E_d$ and its solutions when the coefficients are bounded Borel measurable functions of $t$. We show that the probabilistic solution $v(t,x)$ defined in $ar H_T$, is twice differentiable with respect to $x$, continuously in $(t,x)$, once differentiable with respect to $t$, a.e. $t in [0,T)$ and satisfies the Kolmogorov equation $L_t v +frac {partial v}{partial t}=0$ a.e. in $ar H_T$. Our main tool will be the Aleksandrov-Busemann-Feller Theorem. We also examine the probabilistic solution to the fully nonlinear Bellman equation with time-measurable coefficients in the simple case $bequiv 0,,cequiv 0$. We show that when the terminal data function is a paraboloid, the payoff function has a particularly simple form.

Abstract:
We generalize a result due to Campanato [C] and use this to obtain regularity results for classical solutions of fully nonlinear elliptic equations. We demonstrate this technique in two settings. First, in the simplest setting of Poisson's equation $Delta u=f$ in $B$, where $f$ is Dini continuous in $B$, we obtain known estimates on the modulus of continuity of second derivatives $D^2u$ in a way that does not depend on either differentiating the equation or appealing to integral representations of solutions. Second, we use this result in the concave, fully nonlinear setting $F(D^2u,x)=f(x)$ to obtain estimates on the modulus of continuity of $D^2u$ when the $L^n$ averages of $f$ satisfy the Dini condition.

Abstract:
the el ni？o-southern oscillation (enso) is the best known example of quasi-periodic natural climate variability on the interannual time scale. it comprises changes in sea temperature in the pacific ocean (el ni？o) and changes in atmospheric pressure across the pacific basin (the southern oscillation), together with resultant effects on world weather. el ni？o events occur at intervals of 2-7 years. in certain countries around the pacific and beyond, el ni？o is associated with extreme weather conditions that can cause floods and drought. globally it is linked to an increased impact of natural disasters. there is evidence that enso is associated with a heightened risk of certain vector-borne diseases in specific geographical areas where weather patterns are linked with the enso cycle and disease control is limited. this is particularly true for malaria, but associations are also suggested in respect of epidemics of other mosquito-borne and rodent-borne diseases that can be triggered by extreme weather conditions. seasonal climate forecasts, predicting the likelihood of weather patterns several months in advance, can be used to provide early indicators of epidemic risk, particularly for malaria. interdisciplinary research and cooperation are required in order to reduce vulnerability to climate variability and weather extremes.