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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 319410 matches for " Martin J. Ward "
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1-5 micron imaging of 3CRR galaxies: The K-z relation and the geometry of the torus
Chris Simpson,Martin Ward,J. V. Wall
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2000.03920.x
Abstract: It has been claimed by Taylor et al. that the low-redshift end of the K-z relation for radio galaxies is too bright by about half a magnitude due to contributions from the obscured quasar nuclei. Such a result has major implications for the use of the K-band Hubble diagram in understanding the cosmological evolution of radio galaxies. In this paper we present 1-5 micron imaging data of a nearly-complete sample of low-redshift radio galaxies; this approach allows us to accurately determine the strengths of any unresolved nuclear components in the galaxies. We detect nuclear sources in five targets, whose broad-band colours are consistent with reddened quasar spectra. In all five cases the ratio of the inferred intrinsic near-infrared luminosity to the narrow-line luminosity is typical of quasars. We find a correlation between the inferred nuclear extinction and core-to-lobe ratio, which places constraints on the geometry of the torus. We find evidence for a shift of the K-z relation to fainter magnitudes, but by a much smaller amount (~0.1 mag) than Taylor et al. determined. Under the assumption that the nuclear sources in radio galaxies have the same intrinsic near-infrared spectra as quasars, our multi-wavelength images allow us to limit any possible shift to less than 0.3 magnitudes.
Constraints on the outer radius of the broad emission line region of active galactic nuclei
Hermine Landt,Martin J. Ward,Martin Elvis,Margarita Karovska
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu031
Abstract: Here we present observational evidence that the broad emission line region (BELR) of active galactic nuclei (AGN) generally has an outer boundary. This was already clear for sources with an obvious transition between the broad and narrow components of their emission lines. We show that the narrow component of the higher-order Paschen lines is absent in all sources, revealing a broad emission line profile with a broad, flat top. This indicates that the BELR is kinematically separate from the narrow emission line region. We use the virial theorem to estimate the BELR outer radius from the flat top width of the unblended profiles of the strongest Paschen lines, Pa alpha and Pa beta, and find that it scales with the ionising continuum luminosity roughly as expected from photoionisation theory. The value of the incident continuum photon flux resulting from this relationship corresponds to that required for dust sublimation. A flat-topped broad emission line profile is produced by both a spherical gas distribution in orbital motion as well as an accretion disc wind if the ratio between the BELR outer and inner radius is assumed to be less than ~100 - 200. On the other hand, a pure Keplerian disc can be largely excluded, since for most orientations and radial extents of the disc the emission line profile is double-horned.
A Logical Treatment of Non-Termination and Program Behaviour  [PDF]
Martin Ward, Hussein Zedan
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2014.77051
Abstract:

Can the semantics of a program be represented as a single formula? We show that one formula is insufficient to handle assertions, refinement or slicing, while two formulae are sufficient: A (S) , defining non-termination, and B (S), defining behaviour. Any two formulae A and B will define a corresponding program. Refinement is defined as implication between these formulae.

AGN with strong forbidden high-ionisation lines selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
Jonathan M. Gelbord,James R. Mullaney,Martin J. Ward
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.14961.x
Abstract: We have defined a sample of 63 AGN with strong forbidden high-ionisation line (FHIL) emission. These lines, with ionisation potentials >~ 100eV, respond to a portion of the spectrum that is often difficult to observe directly, thereby providing constraints on the EUV-soft X-ray continuum. The sources are selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) on the basis of their [Fe X]6374A emission, yielding one of the largest and the most homogeneous sample of FHIL-emitting galaxies. We fit a sequence of models to both FHILs ([Fe XI], [Fe X] and [Fe VII]) and lower-ionisation emission lines ([O III], [O I], H-alpha, [N II], [S II]) in the SDSS spectra. These data are combined with X-ray measurements from Rosat, which are available for half of the sample. The correlations between these parameters are discussed for both the overall sample and subsets defined by spectroscopic classifications. The primary results are evidence that: (1) the [Fe X] and [Fe XI] lines are photoionised and their strength is proportional to the continuum flux around 250 eV; (2) the FHIL-emitting clouds form a stratified outflow in which the [Fe X] and [Fe XI] source regions extend sufficiently close to the BLR that they are partially obscured in Seyfert 2s whereas the [Fe VII] source region is more extended and is unaffected by obscuration; (3) narrow-lined Seyfert 1s (NLS1s) tend to have the strongest [Fe X] flux (relative to lower-ionisation lines); and (4) the most extreme [Fe X] ratios (such as [Fe X]/[O III] or [Fe X]/[Fe VII]) are found in the NLS1s with the narrowest broad lines and appear to be an optical-band indication of objects with strong X-ray soft excesses.
Star Formation in the Circumnuclear Environment of NGC1068
Richard I. Davies,Hajime Sugai,Martin J. Ward
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.1998.01928.x
Abstract: We present near-infrared emission line images of the circumnuclear ring in NGC1068. We have measured the Br_gamma fluxes in a number of star forming complexes and derived extinctions for each of these by comparison with H_alpha. We investigate the star forming histories of these regions and find that a short burst of star formation occured co-evally throughout the ring within the last 30-40 Myr, and perhaps as recently as 4-7 Myr ago. The 1-0 S(1) flux and S(1)/Br_gamma ratios indicate that as well as fluorescence, shock excited H_2 emission contributes to the total flux. There is excess H_2 flux to the North-West where the ionisation cone crosses the ring, and we have shown it is possible that the non-stellar continuum from the Seyfert nucleus which produces the high excitation lines could also be causing fluorescence at the edges of molecular clouds in the ring. The nuclear 1-0 S(1) is more extended than previously realised but only along the bar's major axis, and we consider mechanisms for its excitation.
Reaching the Peak of the Quasar Spectral Energy Distribution I: Observations and Models
James S. Collinson,Martin J. Ward,Chris Done,Hermine Landt,Martin Elvis,Jonathan C. McDowell
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv362
Abstract: We perform a spectral analysis of a sample of 11 medium redshift (1.5 < z < 2.2) quasars. Our sample all have optical spectra from the SDSS, infrared spectra from GNIRS and TSPEC, and X-ray spectra from XMM-Newton. We first analyse the Balmer broad emission line profiles which are shifted into the IR spectra to constrain black hole masses. Then we fit an energy-conserving, three component accretion model of the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) to our multi-wavelength data. Five out of the 11 quasars show evidence of an SED peak, allowing us to constrain their bolometric luminosity from these models and estimate their mass accretion rates. Based on our limited sample, we suggest that estimating bolometric luminosities from L_5100A and L_2-10keV may be unreliable, as has been also noted for a low-redshift, X-ray selected AGN sample.
The near-infrared broad emission line region of active galactic nuclei. II. The one-micron continuum
Hermine Landt,Martin Elvis,Martin J. Ward,Misty C. Bentz,Kirk T. Korista,Margarita Karovska
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18383.x
Abstract: We use quasi-simultaneous near-infrared (near-IR) and optical spectroscopy from four observing runs to study the continuum around 1 micron in 23 well-known broad-emission line active galactic nuclei (AGN). We show that, after correcting the optical spectra for host galaxy light, the AGN continuum around this wavelength can be approximated by the sum of mainly two emission components, a hot dust blackbody and an accretion disc. The accretion disc spectrum appears to dominate the flux at ~1 micron, which allows us to derive a relation for estimating AGN black hole masses based on the near-IR virial product. This result also means that a near-IR reverberation programme can determine the AGN state independent of simultaneous optical spectroscopy. On average we derive hot dust blackbody temperatures of ~1400 K, a value close to the sublimation temperature of silicate dust grains, and relatively low hot dust covering factors of ~7%. Our preliminary variability studies indicate that in most sources the hot dust emission responds to changes in the accretion disc flux with the expected time lag, however, a few sources show a behaviour that can be attributed to dust destruction.
Variability of the coronal line region in NGC 4151
Hermine Landt,Martin J. Ward,Katrien C. Steenbrugge,Gary J. Ferland
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv062
Abstract: We present the first extensive study of the coronal line variability in an active galaxy. Our data set for the nearby source NGC 4151 consists of six epochs of quasi-simultaneous optical and near-infrared spectroscopy spanning a period of about eight years and five epochs of X-ray spectroscopy overlapping in time with it. None of the coronal lines showed the variability behaviour observed for the broad emission lines and hot dust emission. In general, the coronal lines varied only weakly, if at all. Using the optical [Fe VII] and X-ray O VII emission lines we estimate that the coronal line gas has a relatively low density of n~10^3 cm^-3 and a relatively high ionisation parameter of log U~1. The resultant distance of the coronal line gas from the ionising source is about two light years, which puts this region well beyond the hot inner face of the obscuring dusty torus. The high ionisation parameter implies that the coronal line region is an independent entity rather than part of a continuous gas distribution connecting the broad and narrow emission line regions. We present tentative evidence for the X-ray heated wind scenario of Pier & Voit. We find that the increased ionising radiation that heats the dusty torus also increases the cooling efficiency of the coronal line gas, most likely due to a stronger adiabatic expansion.
Strong variability of the coronal line region in NGC 5548
Hermine Landt,Martin J. Ward,Katrien C. Steenbrugge,Gary J. Ferland
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv2176
Abstract: We present the second extensive study of the coronal line variability in an active galaxy. Our data set for the well-studied Seyfert galaxy NGC 5548 consists of five epochs of quasi-simultaneous optical and near-infrared spectroscopy spanning a period of about five years and three epochs of X-ray spectroscopy overlapping in time with it. Whereas the broad emission lines and hot dust emission varied only moderately, the coronal lines varied strongly. However, the observed high variability is mainly due to a flux decrease. Using the optical [FeVII] and X-ray OVII emission lines we estimate that the coronal line gas has a relatively low density of n~10^3/cm^3 and a relatively high ionisation parameter of log U~1. The resultant distance of the coronal line gas from the ionising source of about eight light years places this region well beyond the hot inner face of the dusty torus. These results imply that the coronal line region is an independent entity. We find again support for the X-ray heated wind scenario of Pier & Voit; the increased ionising radiation that heats the dusty torus also increases the cooling efficiency of the coronal line gas, most likely due to a stronger adiabatic expansion. The much stronger coronal line variability of NGC 5548 relative to that of NGC 4151 can also be explained within this picture. NGC 5548 has much stronger coronal lines relative to the low ionisation lines than NGC 4151 indicating a stronger wind, in which case a stronger adiabatic expansion of the gas and so fading of the line emission is expected.
Extended Gas in Seyfert Galaxies: Near Infrared Observations of NGC 2110 and Circinus
T. Storchi-Bergmann,C. Winge,Martin J. Ward,A. S. Wilson
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.1999.02360.x
Abstract: We present results of near--IR long-slit spectroscopy in the J and K bands of the Seyfert 2 galaxies NGC 2110 and Circinus, investigating the gaseous distribution, excitation, reddening and kinematics. In NGC 2110, the emission line ratio [FeII]/Pa beta increases towards the nucleus (to ~ 7). The nuclear [Fe II]1.257 (microns) and Pa beta lines are broader (FWHM ~ 500 km/s) than the H2 (2.121) line (FWHM ~ 300 km/s). Both these results suggest that shocks, driven by the radio jet, are an important source of excitation of [Fe II]. The H2 excitation appears to be dominated by X-rays from the nucleus. In Circinus, both [FeII]/Pa beta and H2/Br gamma decrease from ~ 2 at 4 arcsec from the nucleus to nuclear values of ~ 0.6 and ~ 1, respectively, suggesting that the starburst dominates the nuclear excitation, while the AGN dominates the excitation further out (r > 2 arcsec). For both galaxies, the gaseous kinematics are consistent with circular rotation in the plane of the disk. Our rotation curves suggest that the nucleus (identified with the peak of the IR continuum) is displaced from the kinematic centre of the galaxies. This effect has been observed previously in NGC 2110 based on the kinematics of optical emission lines, but the displacement is smaller in the infrared, suggesting the effect is related to obscuration. The continuum J-K colours of the nuclear region indicate a red stellar population in NGC 2110 and a reddened young stellar population in Circinus. Right at the nucleus of both galaxies, the colours are redder, apparently a result of hot dust emission from the inner edge of a circumnuclear torus.
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