Abstract:
For sufficiently smooth bounded plane domains, the equivalence between the inequalities of Babu{\v s}ka --Aziz for right inverses of the divergence and of Friedrichs on conjugate harmonic functions was shown by Horgan and Payne in 1983 [7]. In a previous paper [4] we proved that this equivalence, and the equality between the associated constants, is true without any regularity condition on the domain. In three dimensions, Velte [9] studied a generalization of the notion of conjugate harmonic functions and corresponding generalizations of Friedrich's inequality, and he showed for sufficiently smooth simply-connected domains the equivalence with inf-sup conditions for the divergence and for the curl. For this equivalence, Zsupp{\'a}n [10] observed that our proof can be adapted, proving the equality between the corresponding constants without regularity assumptions on the domain. Here we formulate a generalization of the Friedrichs inequality for conjugate harmonic differential forms on bounded open sets in any dimension that contains the situations studied by Horgan--Payne and Velte as special cases. We also formulate the corresponding inf-sup conditions or Babu{\v s}ka --Aziz inequalities and prove their equivalence with the Friedrichs inequalities, including equality between the corresponding constants. No a-priori conditions on the regularity of the open set nor on its topology are assumed.

Abstract:
The equivalence between the inequalities of Babu\v{s}ka-Aziz and Friedrichs for sufficiently smooth bounded domains in the plane has been shown by Horgan and Payne 30 years ago. We prove that this equivalence, and the equality between the associated constants, is true without any regularity condition on the domain. For the Horgan-Payne inequality, which is an upper bound of the Friedrichs constant for plane star-shaped domains in terms of a geometric quantity known as the Horgan-Payne angle, we show that it is true for some classes of domains, but not for all bounded star-shaped domains. We prove a weaker inequality that is true in all cases.

Abstract:
We study integral operators related to a regularized version of the classical Poincar\'e path integral and the adjoint class generalizing Bogovski\u{\i}'s integral operator, acting on differential forms in $R^n$. We prove that these operators are pseudodifferential operators of order -1. The Poincar\'e-type operators map polynomials to polynomials and can have applications in finite element analysis. For a domain starlike with respect to a ball, the special support properties of the operators imply regularity for the de Rham complex without boundary conditions (using Poincar\'e-type operators) and with full Dirichlet boundary conditions (using Bogovski\u{\i}-type operators). For bounded Lipschitz domains, the same regularity results hold, and in addition we show that the cohomology spaces can always be represented by $C^\infty$ functions.

Abstract:
Suppose that $\Omega$ is the open region in $\mathbb{R}^n$ above a Lipschitz graph and let $d$ denote the exterior derivative on $\mathbb{R}^n$. We construct a convolution operator $T $ which preserves support in $\bar{\Omega$}, is smoothing of order 1 on the homogeneous function spaces, and is a potential map in the sense that $dT$ is the identity on spaces of exact forms with support in $\bar\Omega$. Thus if $f$ is exact and supported in $\bar\Omega$, then there is a potential $u$, given by $u=Tf$, of optimal regularity and supported in $\bar\Omega$, such that $du=f$. This has implications for the regularity in homogeneous function spaces of the de Rham complex on $\Omega$ with or without boundary conditions. The operator $T$ is used to obtain an atomic characterisation of Hardy spaces $H^p$ of exact forms with support in $\bar\Omega$ when $n/(n+1)

Abstract:
We prove weighted anisotropic analytic estimates for solutions of second order elliptic boundary value problems in polyhedra. The weighted analytic classes which we use are the same as those introduced by Guo in 1993 in view of establishing exponential convergence for hp finite element methods in polyhedra. We first give a simple proof of the known weighted analytic regularity in a polygon, relying on a new formulation of elliptic a priori estimates in smooth domains with analytic control of derivatives. The technique is based on dyadic partitions near the corners. This technique can successfully be extended to polyhedra, providing isotropic analytic regularity. This is not optimal, because it does not take advantage of the full regularity along the edges. We combine it with a nested open set technique to obtain the desired three-dimensional anisotropic analytic regularity result. Our proofs are global and do not require the analysis of singular functions.

Abstract:
We study the strongly singular volume integral equation that describes the scattering of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves by a penetrable obstacle. We consider the case of a cylindrical obstacle and fields invariant along the axis of the cylinder, which allows the reduction to two-dimensional problems. With this simplification, we can refine the analysis of the essential spectrum of the volume integral operator started in a previous paper (M. Costabel, E. Darrigrand, H. Sakly: The essential spectrum of the volume integral operator in electromagnetic scattering by a homogeneous body, Comptes Rendus Mathematique, 350 (2012), pp. 193-197) and obtain results for non-smooth domains that were previously available only for smooth domains. It turns out that in the TE case, the magnetic contrast has no influence on the Fredholm properties of the problem. As a byproduct of the choice that exists between a vectorial and a scalar volume integral equation, we discover new results about the symmetry of the spectrum of the double layer boundary integral operator on Lipschitz domains.

Abstract:
The interface problem describing the scattering of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves by a dielectric body is often formulated as a pair of coupled boundary integral equations for the electric and magnetic current densities on the interface $\Gamma$. In this paper, following an idea developed by Kleinman and Martin \cite{KlMa} for acoustic scattering problems, we consider methods for solving the dielectric scattering problem using a single integral equation over $\Gamma$ for a single unknown density. One knows that such boundary integral formulations of the Maxwell equations are not uniquely solvable when the exterior wave number is an eigenvalue of an associated interior Maxwell boundary value problem. We obtain four different families of integral equations for which we can show that by choosing some parameters in an appropriate way, they become uniquely solvable for all real frequencies. We analyze the well-posedness of the integral equations in the space of finite energy on smooth and non-smooth boundaries.

Abstract:
This report presents explicit analytical expressions for the primal, primal shadows, dual and dual shadows functions for the Laplace equation in the vicinity of a circular singular edge with Neumann boundary conditions on the faces that intersect at the singular edge. Two configurations are investigated: a penny-shaped crack and a 90^o V-notch.

Abstract:
The inf-sup constant for the divergence, or LBB constant, is explicitly known for only few domains. For other domains, upper and lower estimates are known. If more precise values are required, one can try to compute a numerical approximation. This involves, in general, approximation of the domain and then the computation of a discrete LBB constant that can be obtained from the numerical solution of an eigenvalue problem for the Stokes system. This eigenvalue problem does not fall into a class for which standard results about numerical approximations can be applied. Indeed, many reasonable finite element methods do not yield a convergent approximation. In this article, we show that under fairly weak conditions on the approximation of the domain, the LBB constant is an upper semi-continuous shape functional, and we give more restrictive sufficient conditions for its continuity with respect to the domain. For numerical approximations based on variational formulations of the Stokes eigenvalue problem, we also show upper semi-continuity under weak approximation properties, and we give stronger conditions that are sufficient for convergence of the discrete LBB constant towards the continuous LBB constant. Numerical examples show that our conditions are, while not quite optimal, not very far from necessary.

Abstract:
In this paper we prove the discrete compactness property for a wide class of p-version finite element approximations of non-elliptic variational eigenvalue problems in two and three space dimensions. In a very general framework, we find sufficient conditions for the p-version of a generalized discrete compactness property, which is formulated in the setting of discrete differential forms of any order on a d-dimensional polyhedral domain. One of the main tools for the analysis is a recently introduced smoothed Poincar\'e lifting operator [M. Costabel and A. McIntosh, On Bogovskii and regularized Poincar\'e integral operators for de Rham complexes on Lipschitz domains, Math. Z., (2010)]. For forms of order 1 our analysis shows that several widely used families of edge finite elements satisfy the discrete compactness property in p-version and hence provide convergent solutions to the Maxwell eigenvalue problem. In particular, N\'ed\'elec elements on triangles and tetrahedra (first and second kind) and on parallelograms and parallelepipeds (first kind) are covered by our theory.