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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 58075 matches for " Martha Ma.; Meneses-González "
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Pobreza, jóvenes y consumo de tabaco en México
Reddy-Jacobs,Carl; Téllez-Rojo,Martha Ma.; Meneses-González,Fernando; Campuzano-Rincón,Julio; Hernández-ávila,Mauricio;
Salud Pública de México , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342006000700010
Abstract: objective: to characterize tobacco use according to level of poverty in a random, nationally representative sample of adolescents (10 to 21 years old), living in urban areas with less than 50 000 inhabitants. the study was done in 2001 as part of the baseline assessment of the evaluation of the governmental program, oportunidades. material and methods: a questionnaire was applied to 29 548 adolescents living in 30 000 selected households and it included specific questions on individual tobacco use among other questions. results: the prevalence of smokers was 3.5% (95% ci: 3.3%-3.7%) and experimenters 9.9% (95% ci: 9.6%-10.2%). a logistic regression model for clustered data was constructed in order to evaluate the associated factors that distinguish a smoker from an experimenter. after adjusting for level of poverty of the household and use of alcohol and drugs, a significant association (or = 1.5, p <0.01) was found with having a paid job and a differential association was found between gender and age group. conclusions: the results of this study suggest that the additional availability of money that an adolescent has, could increase the prevalence of tobacco smoking and that the program oportunidades should include prevention campaigns directed specifically at this population group.
Efecto de la contaminación ambiental sobre las consultas por infecciones respiratorias en ni?os de la Ciudad de México
Salud Pública de México , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36341997000600004
Abstract: objective. to model the variability of medical visits by children for respiratory reasons as a consequence of the daily changes in environmental pollution observed in the emergency and family medicine departments of a hospital of the instituto mexicano del seguro social located in the southwest of mexico city during 1993. materials and methods. the correlation between the presence of upper and lower respiratory tract infections and exposure to ozone and nitrogen dioxide was studied. to model this association, the authors used multivariate poisson regression models with linear and non-linear risk, with lag periods between the environmental measurements and the medical visits of one, two and three days, as well as the average of the measurements of three, five and seven days previous to the visit. results. the model estimates that an increment of 50 ppb in the daily average of ozone would cause an increase of 9.9% in emergency visits due to high respiratory tract infections during the winter, which could rise to 30% if the increment would last five consecutive days in average. conclusions. results suggest that exposure of children younger than 15 years of age to ozone and nitrogen dioxide significantly affect the number of medical visits for respiratory causes in this part of mexico city.
Niveles de plomo en sangre y factores de exposición en ni?os del estado de Morelos, México
Meneses-González,Fernando; Richardson,Vesta; Lino-González,Montserrat; Vidal,María Teresa;
Salud Pública de México , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342003000800006
Abstract: objective: to assess blood lead levels and lead exposure factors in children living in morelos state, mexico. material and methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted between june and october 1996, in 232 children aged 1-12 years, at hospital del ni?o morelense de cuernavaca, morelos, mexico. blood lead levels were measured by anodic voltameter, and exposure factors were collected by questionnaire. the lead concentration value was log transformed for statistical analysis. odds ratios were obtained for some risk factors. the statistical significative risk factors were later analyzed with anova. results: a total of 232 children were recruited (50% female); 73% resided in cuernavaca city. the geometric mean blood lead level was 6.7 μg/dl; 29.7% of the children had levels over 10 μg/dl; 66% reported use of lead glazed pottery for cooking, 36% for storing food, and 19% for drinking. conclusions: blood lead levels were similar to those reported in other mexican children studies, after the reduction of lead in gasoline. the main risk factors were use of lead glazed pottery and vehicle traffic intensity near the household. these results will be useful for future prevention and control interventions.
Niveles de plomo en sangre y factores de exposición en ni os del estado de Morelos, México
Meneses-González Fernando,Richardson Vesta,Lino-González Montserrat,Vidal María Teresa
Salud Pública de México , 2003,
Abstract: OBJETIVO: Evaluar los niveles de plomo en sangre de ni os morelenses y sus factores de exposición. MATERIAL Y MéTODOS: Estudio transversal para analizar, por voltametría anódica, los niveles de plomo en sangre de 232 ni os de 1 a 12 a os de edad, que acudieron de junio a octubre de 1996 al Hospital del Ni o Morelense de Cuernavaca, Morelos, México. Los factores de exposición se indagaron por cuestionario. El valor de concentración de plomo se transformó al logaritmo natural; se estimó la razón de momios para algunos factores de exposición que se incorporaron a un modelo de ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Se reclutaron 232 ni os (50% mujeres); 73% residentes en Cuernavaca. La media geométrica de plomo en sangre fue 6.7 μg/dl; 29.7% rebasaron los 10 μg/dl; 66% tenían antecedente de cocinar alimentos en barro vidriado; 36% de almacenar alimentos, y 19%, consumo de líquidos en ese material. CONCLUSIONES: Los niveles encontrados son similares a los reportados en otras poblaciones pediátricas mexicanas en los últimos a os. Entre los principales factores de exposición destacan el uso de barro vidriado para consumo de alimentos o líquidos y la intensidad del tráfico donde viven. Este es el primer estudio que documenta los niveles de plomo en sangre en población infantil de Morelos, México, y sus resultados son punto de partida para acciones futuras de control y prevención.
La industria tabacalera en México
Meneses-González,Fernando; Márquez-Serrano,Margarita; Sepúlveda-Amor,Jaime; Hernández-Avila,Mauricio;
Salud Pública de México , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342002000700021
Abstract: abstract smoking in presently one of the most important public health problems worldwide. even though smoking is a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, it still contributes importantly to the burden of disease. in mexico, contrary to what is happening in other parts of the world, the smoking epidemic is in an early phase, as evidenced by the low number of lung cancer cases or deaths, and by the minimal public health efforts to control tobacco consumption. one of the most important advances is its recognition as a priority public health problem by public health workers and society in general. effective interventions to reduce tobacco consumption have been launched to render the country free of tobacco. these public health interventions are being countered by the tobacco industry and the market forces that strive to preserve smoking as a life style of the population. the present work reviews the production means of the mexican tobacco industry, particularly those of cigarettes, the market structure, and the product expansion in the mexican population. this information should be useful to frame effective preventive measures, in the short and long term, to control this epidemic.
Environmental exposure of commuters in Mexico City to volatile organic compounds as assessed by blood concentrations, 1998
Lemire,Sharon; Ashley,David; Olaya,Patricia; Romieu,Isabelle; Welch,Susan; Meneses-González,Fernando; Hernández-Avila,Mauricio;
Salud Pública de México , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342004000100005
Abstract: objective: to assess the extent of exposure for volatile organic compounds (vocs) among nonoccupationally exposed commuters in mexico city. material and methods: blood concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-/p-xylene, o-xylene and methyl tert-butyl ether were determined on samples collected from participants after the morning commute. results: median blood concentrations of benzene (0.11 mg/l), ethylbenzene (0.081 mg/l), m-/p-xylene (0.32 mg/l) and toluene (0.56 mg/l) in the mexico city participants were all approximately two times higher than in a nonsmoking subset of the third national health and nutrition examination survey population of the united states. on the other hand, median voc blood levels were similar to medians observed in other studies involving commuters in specific u.s. cities, despite the fact that only half the mexico city study participants commuted by personal vehicles compared with all u.s. commuters. conclusions: these results reflect the extent of the air pollution problem in mexico city. the surrounding topography exacerbates the problems caused by heavy vehicular traffic, poor emission-control devices on older vehicles, and poor maintenance practices. elevated levels of gasoline components in the blood of nonoccupationally exposed commuters emphasize the need for regulatory initiatives and mass-transit options to reduce hydrocarbon emissions and thus reduce the risk for nonoccupational exposure for the residents of mexico city.
Evaluación de la calidad del aire interior y exterior en un jardín de ni os de la Ciudad de México
Cortez-Lugo Marlene,Mercado-García Adriana,Hernández-Avila Mauricio,Meneses-González Fernando
Salud Pública de México , 1998,
Abstract: Objetivo. Evaluar las diferencias en los niveles de ozono (O3) y bióxido de nitrógeno (NO2) en el interior y el exterior de una escuela en el suroeste de la Ciudad de México. Material y métodos. Se midieron diariamente estos contaminantes dentro y fuera del salón, de enero a abril de 1990, mediante monitoreo manual. Resultados. El NO2 adentro y afuera no sobrepasó la norma mexicana (0.21 ppm). El coeficiente de correlación entre las concentraciones máximas de NO2 de la estación de monitoreo local de la ciudad y el exterior del salón fue de 0.82 (p< 0.001). En relación con el O3, la concentración máxima fuera del salón fue de 0.29 ppm, y adentro, de 0.17 ppm (se colocaron en promedio por debajo de 0.06 ppm); entre el interior y el exterior del salón hubo una correlación de 0.72 y se observó que, por cada 1.7 ppm en el exterior, hay 1.0 ppm en el interior (p< 0.05). Conclusiones. Las mayores concentraciones de O3 en el exterior se presentaron entre las 11:00 y las 14:00 horas, por lo que se recomienda tener el descanso previamente a este horario.
La industria tabacalera en México
Meneses-González Fernando,Márquez-Serrano Margarita,Sepúlveda-Amor Jaime,Hernández-Avila Mauricio
Salud Pública de México , 2002,
Abstract: El tabaquismo es uno de los problemas de salud pública más importantes del siglo pasado y del presente. Lo paradójico de la práctica de la salud pública es que el tabaquismo es un evento totalmente prevenible que ha estado presente en el desarrollo de la sociedad, contribuyendo de manera importante en la morbilidad y mortalidad, aun a costa de la evolución que ha tenido la salud pública mundial. En el caso de México, al contrario que en otras partes del mundo, la ola epidémica del tabaquismo se encuentra en su primera fase, expresada en la morbilidad y mortalidad asociadas, como el cáncer pulmonar, así como por las mínimas actividades preventivas instrumentadas; pero un buen avance ha sido el reconocimiento que como problema prioritario de salud se ha dado por los trabajadores de la salud pública y la sociedad. Se han iniciado las acciones de intervención tendientes a disminuir el consumo de tabaco entre la población y, con ello, dejar sembrado el camino de la prevención para futuras generaciones libres de tabaco. Frente a estas acciones de intervención se encuentran la industria tabacalera y los mecanismos de reproducción del mercado que opera para mantener el consumo de tabaco como un hábito de vida poblacional. El presente trabajo revisa los mecanismos de producción del tabaco, en especial de los cigarrillos, así como la comercialización, estructura del mercado y penetración del producto en la población mexicana, para contribuir con elementos de comprensión de la epidemia mexicana de tabaquismo para la implantación de medidas preventivas exitosas, presentes y futuras, para el control de la epidemia.
Evaluación de la calidad del aire interior y exterior en un jardín de ni?os de la Ciudad de México
Cortez-Lugo,Marlene; Mercado-García,Adriana; Hernández-Avila,Mauricio; Meneses-González,Fernando; Palazuelos-Rendón,Eduardo;
Salud Pública de México , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36341998000500005
Abstract: objective. to evaluate the differences between indoor and outdoor ozone (o3) and nitrogen dioxide (no2) levels at a school located in southwest mexico city. material and methods. indoor and outdoor o3 and no2 levels were measured daily between january and april 1990 by manual monitoring. results. indoor and outdoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide did not surpass the mexican standard (0.21 ppm). the correlation coefficient between maximum no2 concentrations measured by the city?s local monitoring station and those measured outside the classroom was 0.82 (p< 0.001). regarding ozone, its maximum outdoor concentration was 0.29 ppm and indoor concentrations were on average below 0.06 ppm (maximum = 0.17 ppm). the indoor/outdoor correlation coefficient was 0.72, and for every 1.7 ppm outside, there was 1.0 ppm inside (p< 0.05) conclusions. since the highest outdoors o3 concentrations were observed between 11:00 and 14:00 hrs, it is recommendable to have recess before this time.
Análisis costo beneficio del Programa de Detección Oportuna del Cáncer Cervicouterino
Salud Pública de México , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36341997000400015
Abstract: objective. previous researches pointed out the critical changes needed to increase the efficiency of the national screening programme of cervical cancer in mexico. these changes were assessed through a cost-benefit analysis. this paper presents the results of that appraisal. figures are presented as usdollars of 1996 valued as 7.5 pesos for each dollar. results. the operational unitary cost of the integral process of the cytology ?the obtention of the pap smear, its transportation to the interpretation centre, its analysis, and the notification of results to users? was estimated in us$ 11.6. if the proposed changes are operated, the cost of each citology would increase by 32.7%. the benefit/cost ratio would be 2 and the net benefit of 88 millions of us dollars for the next five years. conclusions. the operation of the proposed changes is socially desirable, but should be supported the training activities of the personnel, the increase of the coverage of women at risk, the quality control activities, the monitoring of the program and the communication with women detected as positive cases.
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