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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4198 matches for " Martha Collares "
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A n o aceita o da gravidez e o desenvolvimento de crian as com quatro anos de idade no bairro Vila Jardim, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Unwanted pregnancy and children development at four years of age in Vila Jardim, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil No aceptación del embarazo y el desarrollo infantil a los cuatro a os de edad en Vila Jardim, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil
Angela Helena Marin,Olga Garcia Falceto,Martha Collares,Panila Longhi Lorenzzoni
Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade , 2012, DOI: 10.5712/rbmfc7(25)533
Abstract: Objetivo: investigar como a gravidez n o planejada e n o aceita pode afetar o desenvolvimento da crian a e quais os fatores sociodemográficos, das rela es familiares e da rede social que podem interagir nessa rela o. Método: participaram 82 mulheres que n o planejaram a gesta o, parte de um estudo longitudinal que incluiu todas as famílias do Bairro Vila Jardim de Porto Alegre, que tiveram filhos em hospital público entre novembro de 1998 e dezembro de 1999. Estas foram divididas em dois grupos: 73 mulheres que aceitaram a gesta o até o quarto mês e nove delas que n o a aceitaram. As participantes foram entrevistadas sobre: a gravidez e o parto, o relacionamento do casal e o impacto do nascimento da crian a tanto para as suas vidas como para a dos pais da crian a e famílias de origem. O desenvolvimento das crian as aos quatro anos foi avaliado pelo Teste de Denver II. Resultados: encontrou-se uma diferen a significativa entre os grupos, demonstrando que os filhos de m es que n o aceitaram a gesta o apresentam maiores dificuldades de desenvolvimento da linguagem e da coordena o motora fina em rela o às crian as cujas gesta es foram aceitas até o quarto mês. Destaca-se que o grupo de m es que n o aceitou a gesta o apresentou problemas conjugais de moderados a graves e maior número de filhos. Conclus es: as crian as cuja gesta o n o foi aceita têm maiores riscos de apresentarem problemas de desenvolvimento, quando comparadas com aquelas fruto de gesta es n o planejadas, mas aceitas até o quarto mês. Esse achado salienta a importancia de os profissionais de saúde identificarem durante o pré-natal a aceita o ou n o da gesta o, visto que este fator, assim como a qualidade da rela o conjugal e o número de filhos, está associado com as dificuldades de desenvolvimento da crian a, sendo sensível a interven es terapêuticas e/ou programas de preven o. Objective: To investigate how the unplanned and unaccepted pregnancy may affect children’s development and associated demographic and relational factors. Method: 82 women who did not plan their pregnancies participated. They are part of a larger study that follows all children born in public hospitals, from November 1998 to December 1999 in a Porto Alegre neighborhood, in South of Brazil. They were divided in two groups: 73 accepted the pregnancy after the fourth month and nine did not accept it. Participants were interviewed on: the pregnancy and birth; the couple’s relationship; the impact of the child’s birth for their lives and to the child’s fathers, as well as to the family of origin. Children wer
Effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on gastric emptying of liquids in rats
Collares E.F.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1997,
Abstract: The objectives of the present investigation were 1) to study the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on rat gastric emptying (GE) and 2) to investigate a possible involvement of the vagus nerve in the gastric action of LPS. Endotoxin from E. coli (strain 055:B5) was administered sc, ip or iv to male Wistar rats (220-280 g body weight) at a maximum dose of 50 μg/kg animal weight. Control animals received an equivalent volume of sterile saline solution. At a given time period after LPS administration, GE was evaluated by measuring gastric retention 10 min after the orogastric infusion of a test meal (2 ml/100 g animal weight), which consisted of 0.9% NaCl plus the marker phenol red (6 mg/dl). One group of animals was subjected to bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy or sham operation 15 days before the test. A significant delay in GE of the test meal was observed 5 h after iv administration of the endotoxin at the dose of 50 μg/kg animal weight. The LPS-induced delay of GE was detected as early as 30 min and up to 8 h after endotoxin administration. The use of different doses of LPS ranging from 5 to 50 μg/kg animal weight showed that the alteration of GE was dose dependent. In addition, vagotomized animals receiving LPS displayed a GE that was not significantly different from that of the sham control group. However, a participation of the vagus nerve in LPS-induced delay in GE could not be clearly demonstrated by these experiments since vagotomy itself induced changes in this gastric parameter. The present study provides a suitable model for identifying the mechanisms underlying the effects of LPS on gastric emptying
Effect of baclofen on liquid and solid gastric emptying in rats
Collares, Edgard Ferro;Vinagre, Adriana Mendes;
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-28032010000300015
Abstract: context: gamma-aminobutyric acid (gaba) is a potent inhibitory neurotransmitter. there is evidence that gabab receptors located in the dorsal complex and in afferent fibers of the vagus nerve participate in the control of gastrointestinal motility. objective: to assess the intracerebroventricularly (icv) and intravenously (iv) effect of baclofen, a gabab receptor agonist, on liquid and solid gastric emptying in rats. methods: adult male wistar rats weighing 250-300 g (n = 6-8 animals) were used. gastric emptying of liquid test meals labeled with phenol red was evaluated by the determination of percent gastric retention (%gr) 10 and 15 min after orogastric administration of saline and 10% glucose meals, respectively. baclofen was injected icv (1 and 2 μg/animal) through a tube implanted into the lateral ventricle of the brain and was injected iv (1 and 2 mg/kg) into a tail vein. the gastric emptying of liquid was determined 10 or 30 min after icv and iv baclofen administration, respectively. the gastric emptying of the solid meal was assessed by the determination of percent gastric retention 2 h after the beginning of the ingestion of the habitual ratio by the animal, consumed over a period of 30 min. baclofen was administered icv (1 and 2 μg/animal) or iv (1 and 2 mg/kg) immediately after the end of the ingestion of the solid meal. the control groups received vehicle (sterile saline solution) icv or iv. results: the group of animals receiving baclofen icv (2 mg/animal) presented a significantly lower (p<0.05, tukey test) %gr (mean ± sem) of the saline (18.1 ± 2.5%) compared to control (33.2 ± 2.2%). in the group receiving the drug iv, the gastric retention of the same test meal did not differ from control. icv and iv administration of baclofen had no effect on the gastric emptying of the 10% glucose solution compared to control. icv administration of 1 or 2 mg baclofen/animal significantly increased the gastric retention of the solid test meal (57.9 ± 6.5% and 66.6
Efeito do lipopolissacarídio bacteriano sobre o esvaziamento gástrico de ratos: avalia??o do pré-tratamento com dexametasona e azul de metileno
Collares, Edgard Ferro;Vinagre, Adriana Mendes;
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-28032003000200008
Abstract: background: the nitric oxide might be a putative mediator of the decrease in gastric emptying induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide in rats. aim: for that, we evaluated the effect of the pretreatment intravenous with dexamethasone and methylene blue in the retardation process of gastric emptying induced by intravenous application of lipopolysaccharide in rats. dexamethasone has been shown to inhibit the induction of nos ii (induced no-synthase) while the methylene blue, that blocks the soluble guanylyl cyclase, inhibits nitric oxide synthases and, in addition, inactivates nitric oxide directly. material and methods: male wistar rats, specific patogenic free, were used after a 24 hour fast and 1 hour-water withdrawn. the pretreatment was performed using dexamethasone solutions (3 and 6 mg/kg), methylene blue (2 mg/kg) or sterile vehicle. the treatment consisted in the application of lipopolysaccharide (50 mg/kg) or vehicle. the time period between the pretreatment and treatment was 10 minutes, excluding the study with dexamethasone 6 mg/kg that was 1 hour. the gastric emptying was evaluated 1 hour after the lipopolysaccharide application, except for two studies with dexamethasone 3 mg/kg in which the time periods were 2 and 8 hours. a saline solution containing phenol red was used as the test meal. the gastric emptying was determined by measuring gastric retention 10 minutes after the orogastric infusion of the test meal. results: the pretreatment with dexamethasone or methylene blue and treatment with vehicle did not have effect in the gastric emptying comparing to the control group. we found that pretreatment with dexamethasone in the studies for 1 hour and 2 hours did not interfere in the retardation of the gastric emptying produced by endotoxin. nevertheless, in the eighth period study with this drug there was a significant reduction of gastric retention in the endotoxin-treated animals in relation to the unpretreated ones. meanwhile, the pretreatment with the
Efeito do lipopolissacarídio bacteriano sobre o esvaziamento gástrico de ratos: avalia??o do pré-tratamento com Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)
Collares, Edgard Ferro;Vinagre, Adriana Mendes;
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-28032006000300014
Abstract: background: there is evidence that nitric oxide plays a role in the decrease in gastric emptying induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. aim: to evaluate the effect of pretreatment with nw-nitro-l-arginine methyl to ester, one competitive inhibitor of the nitric oxide syntases, on the gastric emptying delay induced by lipopolysaccharide. material and methods: male wistar rats, spf, were used after 24 h fast and 1 h-water withdrawn. the pretreatment was done intravenously with vehicle (saline) or nw-nitro-l-arginine methyl to ester in the doses of 0.5, 1, 2.5 e 5 mg/kg. after 10 min, the animals were treated iv with lipopolysaccharide (50 mg/kg) or received vehicle (saline). the gastric emptying was evaluated 1 h after the lipopolysaccharide administration. a saline solution containing phenol red was used as the test meal. the gastric emptying was indirectly assessed by the determination of percent gastric retention of the test meal 10 min after orogastric administration. results: the animals pretreated with vehicle and treatment with lipopolysaccharide have significant rise of the gastric retention (average = 57%) in comparison with the controls receiving only vehicle (38.1%). the pretreatment with the different doses of nw-nitro-l-arginine methyl to ester did not modify per se the gastric retention in comparison with the animals pretreated with vehicle. pretreatment with nw-nitro-l-arginine methyl to ester with the dose of 1 mg/kg determined a discrete but significant reduction in the gastric retention (52%) of animals treated with lipopolysaccharide in comparison with vehicle-pretreated rats. paradoxically, animals pretreated with 2.5 or 5 mg of nw-nitro-l-arginine methyl to ester/kg followed by treatment with lipopolysaccharide displayed a significantly higher gastric retention (74.7% and 80.5%, respectively) as compared to their controls, pretreated with the same doses of the inhibitor and treated with vehicle (40.5% and 38.7%, respectively) and to those pretre
Gastric emptying in rats with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis
Hessel, G.;Collares, E.F.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X1998000900006
Abstract: the objective of this work was to study the gastric emptying (ge) of liquids in fasted and sucrose-fed rats with toxic hepatitis induced by acetaminophen. the ge of three test meals (saline, glucose and mayonnaise) was evaluated in wistar rats. for each meal, the animals were divided into two groups (n = 24 each). group i was fed a sucrose diet throughout the experiment (66 h) while group ii was fasted. forty-two hours after the start of the experiment, each group was divided into two subgroups (n = 12 each). subgroup a received a placebo and subgroup b was given acetaminophen (1 g/kg). twenty-four hours later, the ge of the three test meals was assessed and blood samples were collected to measure the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (alt), aspartate aminotransferase (ast) and acetaminophen. in group ib, the mean ast and alt values were 515 and 263 iu/l, respectively, while for group iib they were 4014 and 2472 iu/l, respectively. the mean serum acetaminophen levels were higher in group iib (120 μg/ml) than in group ib (87 μg/ml). the gastric retention values were significantly higher in group iib than in group iia for all three test meals: saline, 51 vs 35%; glucose, 52 vs 38% and mayonnaise, 51 vs 29% (median values). the correlation between gastric retention and ast levels was significant (p<0.05) for group iib for the three test meals: r = 0.73, 0.67 and 0.68 for saline, glucose and mayonnaise, respectively. we conclude that ge is altered in rats with hepatic lesions induced by acetaminophen, and that these alterations may be related to the liver cell necrosis caused by the drug.
Recursos familiares e o desempenho cognitivo dos alunos do ensino básico brasileiro
Soares, José Francisco;Collares, Ana Cristina Murta;
Dados , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0011-52582006000300007
Abstract: this article discusses the processes by which family structure affects students' cognitive performance in brazilian schools. the article's basic premise is that family influence is not a uni-dimensional construct, and the study thus uses four dimensions to capture such influence. the effects of these factors on students' performance are measured through a school attainment analysis model. the data are compatible with a model in which the parents' involvement acts as a mediating factor for the action of cultural resources, which in turn depend on economic resources, which have only indirect effects on students' cognitive performance in primary school.
Efeito do lipopolissacarídio bacteriano sobre o esvaziamento gástrico de ratos: avalia o do pré-tratamento com dexametasona e azul de metileno
Collares Edgard Ferro,Vinagre Adriana Mendes
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia , 2003,
Abstract: RACIONAL: O óxido nítrico pode estar envolvido no retardo do esvaziamento gástrico produzido pelo lipopolissacarídio bacteriano. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do pré-tratamento com a dexametasona, bloqueadora da indu o do óxido nítrico-sintetase induzida e com o azul de metileno, que bloqueia a guanilato-ciclase, inibe as óxido nítrico-sintetases e inativa o óxido nítrico, sobre o retardo do esvaziamento gástrico determinado pelo lipopolissacarídio em ratos. MATERIAL E MéTODOS: Foram utilizados ratos Wistar, machos, ''specific patogen free'', após 24 horas de jejum alimentar. No pré-tratamento foram empregadas, via intravenosa, solu es de dexametasona (3 e 6 mg/kg), azul de metileno (2 mg/kg) e veículo estéril. O tratamento constou da administra o, via intravenosa, de lipopolissacarídio (50 mig/kg) e veículo. O intervalo entre o pré-tratamento e o tratamento foi de 10 minutos, exceto no estudo com dexametasona 6 mg/kg, que foi de 1 hora. O intervalo entre a administra o do lipopolissacarídio e a avalia o do esvaziamento gástrico foi de 1 hora, exceto nos dois estudos com dexametasona 3 mg/kg que foram de 2 e 8 horas. O esvaziamento gástrico foi avaliado, indiretamente, através da determina o da percentagem de reten o gástrica de solu o salina marcada com fenol vermelho. RESULTADOS: Os valores de reten o gástrica, nos animais pré-tratados com dexametasona ou azul de metileno e tratados com veículo, n o diferiram significativamente dos observados nos que receberam veículo nos dois momentos. Os animais pré-tratados com veículo e tratados com lipopolissacarídio apresentaram valores de reten o gástrica significativamente mais elevados que nos controles. O pré-tratamento com dexametasona n o interferiu no aumento da reten o gástrica determinado pelo lipopolissacarídio, nas primeiras 2 horas após administra o da endotoxina. Oito horas após a administra o da endotoxina, foi observada diminui o significativa da reten o gástrica nos animais pré-tratados com dexametasona e tratados com lipopolissacarídio em rela o aos que receberam veículo + lipopolissacarídio. O mesmo fen meno foi observado nos animais pré-tratados com azul de metileno e tratados com lipopolissacarídio. CONCLUS O: Os resultados sugerem o envolvimento do óxido nítrico no efeito do lipopolissacarídio sobre o esvaziamento gástrico em ratos.
Gastric emptying in rats with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis
Hessel G.,Collares E.F.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1998,
Abstract: The objective of this work was to study the gastric emptying (GE) of liquids in fasted and sucrose-fed rats with toxic hepatitis induced by acetaminophen. The GE of three test meals (saline, glucose and mayonnaise) was evaluated in Wistar rats. For each meal, the animals were divided into two groups (N = 24 each). Group I was fed a sucrose diet throughout the experiment (66 h) while group II was fasted. Forty-two hours after the start of the experiment, each group was divided into two subgroups (N = 12 each). Subgroup A received a placebo and subgroup B was given acetaminophen (1 g/kg). Twenty-four hours later, the GE of the three test meals was assessed and blood samples were collected to measure the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and acetaminophen. In group IB, the mean AST and ALT values were 515 and 263 IU/l, respectively, while for group IIB they were 4014 and 2472 IU/l, respectively. The mean serum acetaminophen levels were higher in group IIB (120 μg/ml) than in group IB (87 μg/ml). The gastric retention values were significantly higher in group IIB than in group IIA for all three test meals: saline, 51 vs 35%; glucose, 52 vs 38% and mayonnaise, 51 vs 29% (median values). The correlation between gastric retention and AST levels was significant (P<0.05) for group IIB for the three test meals: r = 0.73, 0.67 and 0.68 for saline, glucose and mayonnaise, respectively. We conclude that GE is altered in rats with hepatic lesions induced by acetaminophen, and that these alterations may be related to the liver cell necrosis caused by the drug.
Maximum-size antichains in random set-systems
Maurício Collares Neto,Robert Morris
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: We show that, for $pn \to \infty$, the largest set in a $p$-random sub-family of the power set of $\{1, \ldots, n\}$ containing no $k$-chain has size $( k - 1 + o(1) ) p \binom{n}{n/2}$ with high probability. This confirms a conjecture of Osthus, and has been proved independently by Balogh, Mycroft and Treglown.
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