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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7467 matches for " Marta Vignola "
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A NATIONAL WAY TO INTERNATIONAL JUSTICE? INTERNATIONAL COURTS VS. NATIONAL PROCEEDINGS
Marta Vignola
Nómadas , 2009,
Abstract: This article examines the co-existence of national and international proceeding in the world of law, taking the cases of the Argentina dictatorial militaristic regime of the 70s against Italian citizens as the startpoint and going through other current similar cases.
NEW FORMS OF PARTICIPATION, DEVELOPMENT AND DEMOCRACY IN LATIN AMERICA
Marta Vignola
Nómadas , 2011,
Abstract:
New forms of participation, development and democraty in Latin America
Marta Vignola
Nómadas , 2011,
Abstract:
NEW FORMS OF PARTICIPATION, DEVELOPMENT AND DEMOCRACY IN LATIN AMERICA
Marta Vignola
Nómadas , 2011,
Abstract:
“I would prefer not to”: note su precarietà e soggettivazione
Paolo Vignola
m@gm@ , 2011,
Abstract: Che la formazione del soggetto, come singolo essere umano inserito in una molteplicità di relazioni sociali, sia legata all'attività lavorativa è storicamente un’evidenza, ma negli ultimi trenta anni è emerso un fenomeno che al tempo stesso amplifica e rovescia tale dinamica. Per un verso infatti non si può negare il ruolo formatore di soggettività che la diversificazione dei ruoli lavorativi detiene ancora oggi, ma il mutamento – in termini estensivi e inglobanti – del rapporto tra tempo produttivo e tempo improduttivo giunge a istituire un piano di esistenza le cui coordinate dipendono direttamente dalle variabili che il mondo del lavoro esibisce. In altre parole, se oggi sembra realizzarsi una precarizzazione della vita a partire dalla precarizzazione del lavoro, ciò non è dovuto solamente alle condizioni socioeconomiche che un determinato impiego può offrire, ma essenzialmente al fatto che “la vita stessa è stata messa al lavoro”, nel senso che nessun aspetto dell’esistenza sfugge alla dimensione produttiva. Indagare il peso che il rapporto tra vita e lavoro esprime nella formazione di soggettività è allora l'obiettivo di questo contributo, teso alla ricerca di strumenti concettuali idonei a esplorare il significato della precarietà e orientare possibili percorsi di “resistenza”.
Effect of Fluorescent Particle Size on the Modulation Efficiency of Ultrasound-Modulated Fluorescence
Yuan Liu,Baohong Yuan,Joseph Vignola
International Journal of Optics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/260709
Abstract: To investigate whether the size of fluorescent particles affects the modulation efficiency of ultrasound-modulated fluorescence (UMF), we measured UMF and DC (direct current) signals of the fluorescence emission from four different-sized fluorescent particles: (1) three carboxylate-modified fluorescent microspheres (FM) with diameters of 20?nm, 200?nm, and 1.0?μm and (2) streptavidin-conjugated Alexa Fluor 647 with a diameter of approximately 5?nm. The UMF and DC signals were simultaneously measured using a broadband lock-in amplifier and a narrowband amplifier, respectively. The ratio of the UMF strength to the DC signal strength is defined as the modulation efficiency. This modulation efficiency was then used to evaluate the effects of fluorophore size and concentration. Results show that the modulation efficiency was improved by approximately a factor of two when the size of the fluorescent particles is increased from 5?nm to 1?μm. In addition, the linear relationship between the UMF strength and ultrasound pressure (observed in our previous study) was maintained regardless of the fluorescent particle sizes. 1. Introduction Tissue fluorescence imaging has been well developed and widely used because of its high sensitivity and specificity [1, 2]. Fluorescence techniques can provide unique tissue physiological information when compared with other noninvasive imaging modalities (ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, etc.) and are sensitive to tissue microenvironments, such as tissue pH, temperature, and gas/ion concentrations. Also, they are relatively cost efficient, flexible in imaging probes selection (from organic dyes, to quantum dots, and to nanoparticles or microparticles), highly sensitive to imaging probes (fM-nM, 10?15–10?9?mole/liter), and nonionizing radiative [1–3]. Commonly used high-resolution fluorescence microscopy faces a fundamental challenge due to tissue’s strong optical scattering, which typically limits penetration depth to a few hundred micrometers [3]. Techniques used to image deep tissue at ranges of millimeters or centimeters, such as fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT) [4], take advantage of diffused photons that have been scattered many times before being detected. These diffused photons can penetrate biological tissue up to tens of millimeters at the red or near infrared (NIR) region [3] at the expense of spatial resolution (limited to ~1–5?mm) [4]. Ultrasound-modulated fluorescence (UMF) has been proposed to increase spatial resolution while maintaining imaging depth [5]. This is possible
Is there a role for glucocorticoid receptor beta in asthma?
Rosalia Gagliardo, Antonio M Vignola, Marc Mathieu
Respiratory Research , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/rr31
Abstract: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are involved in the regulation of numerous physiological processes and, as drugs, represent the cornerstone of anti-inflammatory treatment in asthma. Their effects are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα). Upon ligand-binding, GRα inhibits or stimulates gene transcription. Different mechanisms for negative transcriptional regulation by GRα have been described, but the most common is transrepression, which involves inhibitory protein-protein interactions between GRα and other transcription factors like AP-1 and NF-κB [1]. These transcription factors stimulate the expression of many genes encoding inflammatory mediators. Stimulation of gene transcription, or transactivation, occurs after binding of the hormone-activated GRα to GC response elements (GREs) on DNA. These are found in another set of genes like those involved in the control of neoglucogenesis, arterial pressure and intraocular tension (genes and references are listed in [2]). GCs also transactivate the β2-adrenergic receptor gene and may, consequently, facilitate bronchodilatory action of β2-agonists [3,4]. It should be noted that GCs induce expression of IκBα, an inhibitor of NF-κB, and may therefore counteract inflammation through transactivation. However, recent data suggest that induction of IκBα by GCs is neither required nor sufficient for the downmodulation of NF-κB activity [5,6,7]. Possibly, other genes encoding anti-inflammatory proteins might be upregulated by GCs, but these remain to be identified. Thus, whereas transrepression of AP-1 and NF-κB activities is clearly implicated in the anti-inflammatory effect of GCs [8], transactivation probably accounts for certain beneficial (eg bronchodilatation) or adverse effects (diabetes, arterial hypertension, hydrosodic retention, hypokalemia, glaucoma) of these hormones when used as drugs.In addition to the 94 kDa GRα, a receptor isoform of 90 kDa termed GRβ is generated by alternative splicing in humans [9]. GRα and G
Is there a role for glucocorticoid receptor beta in asthma?
Gagliardo Rosalia,Vignola Antonio,Mathieu Marc
Respiratory Research , 2001,
Abstract: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are routinely used as anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of asthma. They act through binding to glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα), which represses numerous genes encoding pro-inflammatory mediators. A hormone binding deficient GR isoform named GRβ has been isolated in humans. When overexpressed by transfection, GRβ may function as a dominant negative modulator of GRα. However, to act as such, GRβ has to be more abundant than GRα, and conflicting data have been obtained concerning the relative levels of the two isoforms in cell lines and freshly isolated cells. Moreover, the dominant negative effect was not confirmed by independent laboratories. In GC-resistant asthmatics, GRβ was expressed by an increased number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), airway T cells, and cells found in skin biopsies of tuberculin responses. However, the relative amounts of GRα and GRβ in these cells were not determined. In GC-dependent asthmatics, PBMCs expressed GRα predominantly. No cells containing higher levels of GRβ than GRα have yet been reported in asthmatics. Even if the existence of such cells is demonstrated, the role of GRβ in asthma will remain a matter of controversy because functional studies have given discrepant data.
The globular cluster distributions in the Galaxy, M31 and M87: are many globulars disappeared to the galactic centres?
R. Capuzzo-Dolcetta,L. Vignola
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: The radial distribution of globular clusters in our Galaxy, M31 and M87 is studied and compared with that of halo stars. The globular cluster distributions seem significantly flatter than those of the stars bulge. Assuming this is a consequence of an evolution of the globular cluster distribution in these galaxies, a comparison with the (unevolved) stellar distribution allows us to obtain estimates of the number and total mass of clusters lost, which are possibly gone to feed the massive central objects present in these galaxies. It results that the cluster systems studied should have been initially about one third and one forth richer than now in our Galaxy and in M31, respectively, and twice as abundant in M87. The estimated mass of globular clusters lost is compatible with the galactic nucleus masses.
Forests and Climate Change in Latin America: Linking Adaptation and Mitigation
Bruno Locatelli,Vanessa Evans,Andrew Wardell,Angela Andrade,Raffaele Vignola
Forests , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/f2010431
Abstract: Climate change can be addressed by mitigation (reducing the sources or enhancing the sinks of greenhouse gases) and adaptation (reducing the impacts of climate change). Mitigation and adaptation present two fundamentally dissimilar approaches whose differences are now well documented. Forest ecosystems play an important role in both adaptation and mitigation and there is a need to explore the linkages between these two options in order to understand their trade-offs and synergies. In forests, potential trade-offs can be observed between global ecosystem services, such as the carbon sequestration relevant for mitigation, and the local ecosystem services that are relevant for adaptation. In addition, mitigation projects can facilitate or hinder the adaptation of local people to climate change, whereas adaptation projects can affect ecosystems and their potential to sequester carbon. Linkages between adaptation and mitigation can also be observed in policies, but few climate change or forest policies have addressed these linkages in the forestry sector. This paper presents examples of linkages between adaptation and mitigation in Latin American forests. Through case studies, we investigate the approaches and reasons for integrating adaptation into mitigation projects or mitigation into adaptation projects. We also analyze the opportunities for mainstreaming adaptation–mitigation linkages into forest or climate change policies.
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