Abstract:
Our aim is to find a general approach to the theory of classical solutions of the Garnier system in $n$-variables, ${\cal G}_n$, based on the Riemann-Hilbert problem and on the geometry of the space of isomonodromy deformations. Our approach consists in determining the monodromy data of the corresponding Fuchsian system that guarantee to have a classical solution of the Garnier system ${\cal G}_n$. This leads to the idea of the reductions of the Garnier systems. We prove that if a solution of the Garnier system ${\cal G}_{n}$ is such that the associated Fuchsian system has $l$ monodromy matrices equal to $\pm\ID$, then it can be reduced classically to a solution of a the Garnier system with $n-l$ variables ${\cal G}_{n-l}$. When $n$ monodromy matrices are equal to $\pm\ID$, we have classical solutions of ${\cal G}_n$. We give also another mechanism to produce classical solutions: we show that the solutions of the Garnier systems having reducible monodromy groups can be reduced to the classical solutions found by Okamoto and Kimura in terms of Lauricella hypergeometric functions. In the case of the Garnier system in 1-variables, i.e. for the Painlev\'e VI equation, we prove that all classical non-algebraic solutions have either reducible monodromy groups or at least one monodromy matrix equal to $\pm\ID$.

Abstract:
In this paper we introduce a basic representation for the confluent Cherednik algebras $\mathcal H_{\rm V}$, $\mathcal H_{\rm III}$, $\mathcal H_{\rm III}^{D_7}$ and $\mathcal H_{\rm III}^{D_8}$ defined in arXiv:1307.6140. To prove faithfulness of this basic representation, we introduce the non-symmetric versions of the continuous dual $q$-Hahn, Al-Salam-Chihara, continuous big $q$-Hermite and continuous $q$-Hermite polynomials.

Abstract:
In this paper we produce seven new algebras as confluences of the Cherednik algebra of type \check{C_1}C_1 and we characterise their spherical-sub-algebras. The limit of the spherical sub-algebra of the Cherednik algebra of type \check{C_1}C_1 is the monodromy manifold of the Painlev\'e VI equation. Here we prove that by considering the limits of the spherical sub-algebras of our new confluent algebras, one obtains the monodromy manifolds of all other Painlev\'e differential equations. Moreover, we introduce confluent versions of the Zhedanov algebra and prove that each of them (quotiented by their Casimir) is isomorphic to the corresponding spherical sub-algebra of our new confluent Cherednik algebras. We show that in the basic representation our confluent Zhedanov algebras act as symmetries of certain elements of the q-Askey scheme, thus setting a stepping stone towards the solution of the open problem of finding the corresponding quantum algebra for each element of the q-Askey scheme. These results establish a new link between the theory of the Painlev\'e equations and the theory of the q-Askey scheme and shed light on the reasons behind the occurrence of special polynomials in the Painlev\'e theory.

Abstract:
The Schlesinger equations $S_{(n,m)}$ describe monodromy preserving deformations of order $m$ Fuchsian systems with $n+1$ poles. They can be considered as a family of commuting time-dependent Hamiltonian systems on the direct product of $n$ copies of $m\times m$ matrix algebras equipped with the standard linear Poisson bracket. In this paper we present a new canonical Hamiltonian formulation of the general Schlesinger equations $S_{(n,m)}$ for all $n$, $m$ and we compute the action of the symmetries of the Schlesinger equations in these coordinates.

Abstract:
In this paper we study the Goldman bracket between geodesic length functions both on a Riemann surface $\Sigma_{g,s,0}$ of genus $g$ with $s=1,2$ holes and on a Riemann sphere $\Sigma_{0,1,n}$ with one hole and $n$ orbifold points of order two. We show that the corresponding Teichm\"uller spaces $\mathcal T_{g,s,0}$ and $\mathcal T_{0,1,n}$ are realised as real slices of degenerated symplectic leaves in the Dubrovin--Ugaglia Poisson algebra of upper--triangular matrices $S$ with 1 on the diagonal.

Abstract:
A starting point of this paper is a classification of quadratic polynomial transformations of the monodromy manifold for the 2x2 isomonodromic Fuchsian systems associated to the Painleve VI equation. Up to birational automorphisms of the monodromy manifold, we find three transformations. Two of them are identified as the action of known quadratic or quartic transformations of the Painleve VI equation. The third transformation of the monodromy manifold gives a new transformation of degree 3 of Picard's solutions of Painleve VI.

Abstract:
We consider the space of bilinear forms on a complex N-dimensional vector space endowed with the quadratic Poisson bracket studied in our previous paper arXiv:1012.5251. We classify all possible quadratic brackets on the set of pairs of matrices A and B with the property that the natural action of B on the defining matrix A of a bilinear form is a Poisson action of a Poisson-Lie group, thus endowing this space of bilinear forms with the structure of Poisson homogeneous space. Beside the product Poisson structure we find two more (dual to each other) structures for which (in contrast to the product Poisson structure) we can implement the reduction to the space of bilinear forms with block upper triangular defining matrices by Dirac procedure. We consider the generalisation of the above construction to triples and show that the space of bilinear forms then acquires the structure of Poisson symmetric space. We study also the generalisation to chains of transformations and to the quantum and quantum affine algebras and the relation between the construction of Poisson symmetric spaces and that of the Poisson groupoid.

Abstract:
In this paper by using Teichmuller theory of a sphere with four holes/orbifold points, we obtain a system of flat coordinates on the general affine cubic surface having a D_4 singularity at the origin. We show that the Goldman bracket on the geodesic functions on the four-holed/orbifold sphere coincides with the Etingof-Ginzburg Poisson bracket on the affine D_4 cubic. We prove that this bracket is the image under the Riemann-Hilbert map of the Poisson Lie bracket on the direct sum of three copies of sl_2. We realise the action of the mapping class group by the action of the braid group on the geodesic functions . This action coincides with the procedure of analytic continuation of solutions of the sixth Painlev\'e equation. Finally, we produce the explicit quantisation of the Goldman bracket on the geodesic functions on the four-holed/orbifold sphere and of the braid group action.

Abstract:
In this paper we study a quadratic Poisson algebra structure on the space of bilinear forms on $C^{N}$ with the property that for any $n,m\in N$ such that $n m =N$, the restriction of the Poisson algebra to the space of bilinear forms with block-upper-triangular matrix composed from blocks of size $m\times m$ is Poisson. We classify all central elements and characterise the Lie algebroid structure compatible with the Poisson algebra. We integrate this algebroid obtaining the corresponding groupoid of morphisms of block-upper-triangular bilinear forms. The groupoid elements automatically preserve the Poisson algebra. We then obtain the braid group action on the Poisson algebra as elementary generators within the groupoid. We discuss the affinisation and quantisation of this Poisson algebra, showing that in the case $m=1$ the quantum affine algebra is the twisted $q$-Yangian for ${o}_n$ and for $m=2$ is the twisted $q$-Yangian for ${sp}_{2n}$. We describe the quantum braid group action in these two examples and conjecture the form of this action for any $m>2$.

Abstract:
In this paper we obtain a system of flat coordinates on the monodromy manifold of each of the Painlev\'e equations. This allows us to quantise such manifolds. We produce a quantum confluence procedure between cubics in such a way that quantisation and confluence commute. We also investigate the underlying cluster algebra structure and the relation to the versal deformations of singularities of type $D_4,A_3,A_2$, and $A_1$.