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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 211260 matches for " Martín "
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Kp Pan Evaporation and ETo Monthly Maps Using Information of 60 Weather Observatories Included in the Climate Normals (1941-1970) from Mexico  [PDF]
Martín Mundo-Molina
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.615136
Abstract: The most precise equation in order to estimate the evapotranspiration (ET) of crops is the Penman-Monteith (PM). However, the PM equation needs specific data that, in the majority of Mexico’s irrigation districts, it is not available because there are few automated weather stations. For this reason, it is convenient to develop simple methods that allow to precise estimation of ET. A reliable way to estimate ET is by using the pan evaporation that, according to the revised literature, continues to be used nowadays. Investigators like to include its use in irrigation water management projects in various parts of the world. However, this method uses Kp from the FAO that is not calibrated in Mexico. The use of FAO Kp affects the precision of the results, since some variables like radiation, wind, temperature and relative humidity vary from place to place; therefore ET is under estimated or overestimated. This paper presents an original contribution across method to estimate “Kp pan evaporation and ETo monthly maps”, using information from 60 weather observatories included in The Climate Normals (1941-1970) from Mexico, based on the PM method and the class A pan evaporation. Once the Kp values were obtained from each weather observatory, the Kringing method was used. This way, by interpolating data of the triad “latitude, longitude and Kp” and “latitude, longitude and ET”, monthly normalized maps of Kp and ET were established for Mexico, except the upland areas (Sierra Madre Occidental and Sierra Madre Oriental), as well as other highland zones above 2700 meters over sea level, for the highest observatory is located in Toluca, State of Mexico (key 14-0039), at 2680 m over sea level.
Climate Change Effects on Evapotranspiration in Mexico  [PDF]
Martín Mundo-Molina
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2015.42012
Abstract: In Mexico’s case, the scarcity of water in the north of the country is worrying, even more from the agricultural point of view because according to the results of general circulation models, a major impact due to global warming is expected in this region, and it will have important repercussions on the rural sector in the north of Mexico. According to [1] the results of the sensitivity analysis made in this study indicate that the most vulnerable zone is the north of Mexico, wherein the increase of evapotraspiration (ET) is greater in comparison to the rest of the country; up to 8% annual average for a +3°;C growth in mean annual temperature. Due to some limitations in this preliminary investigation (e.g., global temperature data was used without regionalizing it), it was decided to make more detailed studies to estimate the climate change effects on ET on a regional scale, using the downscaling method to adjust temperature data. In this study a new methodology to estimate the ET before climate change scenarios is introduced, which includes the selection of the Hargreaves-Samani method (HS), calibrated and compared against the Penman-Monteith ASCE method in various irrigation districts in the northern part of the country, obtaining ET estimations with a 93% precision. This procedure was applied to nine states in north Mexico: Baja California, Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila y Durango. The principal results are enunciated as follows: the ET variations between the contemporary scenario and the 2030 scenario are quite significant, according to the data of 160 meteorological stations; for temperature variations between 0.1°;C to 0.45°;C the corresponding ET fluctuation goes from 2% in the current scenario to 7% in the 2030 scenario. These obtained percentages are greater than the ones expected to happen for the precision of the method. It is important to note that a 7% rise of ET
Supplying System for Drinking Water to Small Rural Communities with Zero Greenhouse Gasses: Sixteen Years of Experiences in Mexico  [PDF]
Martín Mundo-Molina
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.812083
Abstract: In Chiapas highlands to southeast of Mexico, the scarcity of water is worrying, according to technical reports of the IPCC the runoff will less between 150 to 250 mm per year in the southeast of Mexico, this situation will increase the problems of water availability in Chiapas highlands in the future. For actually more of 18,160 small rural indigenous communities (SRIC) in Chiapas there is not drinking water. In order to contribute a given solution to scarcity of drinking water in the SRIC, The Autonomous University of Chiapas (UNACH in its Spanish acronym) and Mexican Institute of Water Technology (IMTA in its Spanish acronym) designed and constructed in 1999 the Rain Water Harvesting (RWH) in Yalentay municipality of Zinacantan in Chiapas, Mexico. The scientific and technical contributions of RWH are: The design guarantee the water quality for a prolonged time of storage avoiding the photosynthesis inside the system; Not emitted greenhouse gasses because it doesn’t need any kind of fossil fuels; Not produces anything kind of damage to the environment; It has to be inexpensive, using in its construction manpower and materials from de region; Store the maximum quantity of water in the minimum space. The RWH has increased the standard of living of the habitants from Yalentay and improving their health conditions.
THE MITIGATION OF SCIENTIFIC CLAIMS IN RESEARCH PAPERS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY
Pedro Martín Martín
International Journal of English Studies (IJES) , 2008, DOI: 10.6018/ijes.8.2.49201
Abstract: In the context of academic writing, authors tend to mitigate the force of their scientific claims by means of hedging devices in order to reduce the risk of opposition and minimise the face threatening acts that are involved in the making of claims. This study explores the phenomenon of hedging in the research article (RA) from a cross-cultural perspective. To this end, a total of 40 RAs written in English and Spanish in the field of Clinical and Health Psychology were analysed in terms of the frequency of occurrence and distribution of the various strategies and the linguistic devices associated to each strategy which perform a hedging function in the different structural units of the articles. The results of the comparative quantitative analyses revealed that there are similarities between the two languages regarding the distribution of hedges across the structural units of the RAs, although a certain degree of rhetorical variation was also found mainly in terms of the frequency of use of the strategy of indetermination (i.e. modality devices and approximators) which occurs to a much greater extent in the English texts. This suggests that the English RAs in the field of Clinical and Health Psychology, as a whole, involve more protection to the author’s face.
EL INGLéS PARA FINES ACADéMICOS: APORTACIONES EN LA INVESTIGACIóN Y ENSE ANZA DEL DISCURSO CIENTíFICO
Pedro Martín Martín
Revista de Lingüística y Lenguas Aplicadas , 2010, DOI: 10.4995/rlyla.2010.756
Abstract: English for Academic Purposes (EAP) is one of the fastest-expanding sub-branches of Applied Linguistics. In this fi eld of knowledge, research carried out in the areas of Genre Analysis and Contrastive Rhetoric has had particular relevance due to their valuable contribution to pedagogical material design. This paper surveys the evolution of EAP from its origins and its contribution to the analysis of scientifi c discourse. Within the Genre Analysis paradigm, this paper also explores the concepts of "discourse community" and "genre", and the importance that these concepts have today in academic discourse research. Moreover, this paper gives an account of the role of rhetoric studies, and particularly Contrastive Rhetoric, in the development of written compositions and the analyses of written discourse in academic contexts. El Inglés para Fines Académicos (IFA) constituye en la actualidad una de las sub-áreas de mayor expansión de la Lingüística Aplicada. Dentro de este campo de estudio, las investigaciones realizadas en el ámbito del Análisis del Género y la Retórica Contrastiva han resultado particularmente relevantes por su valiosa aportación en la creación de material didáctico. En el presente ensayo se hace una revisión de la evolución que ha tenido el IFA desde sus inicios y su aportación al análisis del discurso científi co. Del mismo modo, dentro del paradigma del Análisis del Género, se examina el concepto de "comunidad discursiva" y el de "género", y la trascendencia que éstos han tenido en las investigaciones realizadas hasta el momento sobre el discurso académico en inglés, así como la importancia que han tenido los estudios de la retórica, y en particular la Retórica Contrastiva, en el desarrollo de la composición escrita y el análisis del discurso escrito en los diversos contextos académicos.
La gestación de libros digitales y de bibliotecas virtuales en el marco de la Unión Europea (y el caso concreto de Espa a)
Enrique Martín Martín
Caracteres : Estudios Culturales y Críticos de la Esfera Digital , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to state the methods of scanning used by the company Digibís. Throughout these pages we will state the kind of business of this company and their greatest achievements, in order to expose the projects of development of virtual libraries in the EU in general and particularly in Spain.
Primary Care Practitioners’ Views on the Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors Associated with Alginate-Antacids for Better Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptom Control: Results of a National Survey in Spain  [PDF]
Carlos Martín de Argila, Mercedes Ricote Belinchón, Agustín Albillos Martínez
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2014.410048
Abstract: Background: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a prevalent disease in Western countries. Despite effective treatment modalities, in some patients total symptom control is not achieved in clinical practice. A cross-sectional study was designed to assess primary care practitioners’ views on the effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) as monotherapy in the control of the most common symptoms of GERD (heartburn and regurgitation), as well as to determine the level of implementation of the “combined therapy” (PPI + alginate-antacids). Methods: A questionnaire on different aspects of the management of GERD was completed by 1491 primary care physicians. The questionnaire was composed of 11 close-ended questions with one-choice answer, with a total of 52 items, covering the main data from patients presenting with GERD. Results: Treatment with PPI alone was mostly considered insufficient for the control of GERD symptoms. The combined treatment of PPI + alginate-antacids was used for 37% and 21% of physicians for treating heart-burn and regurgitation, respectively. A better control of symptoms, an increase in the onset of action and to reduce nocturnal acid breakthrough were the most frequently argued reasons for the use of PPI + alginate-antacids. A high percentage of participants believed that treatment with PPI alone was insufficient for the control of symptoms and 39.8% of physicians reported the persistence of heartburn, 38.6% the persistence of regurgitation and 43.2% the persistence of epigastric discomfort in more than 25% of their patients treated with PPI as monotherapy. The most common schedule for the use of the antacid medication was on demand. Conclusions: Spanish primary care physicians consider that a high proportion of GERD patients continue to suffer from symptoms during PPI treatment alone. Ondemand “combined therapy” (PPI + antacid) is considered an efficient option to control reflux symptoms still troublesome in patients with PPI treatment alone.
Marta Lorente Sari ena (coord.), De justicia de jueces a justicia de leyes: hacia la Espa a de 1870.
Sebastián Martín
Forum Historiae Iuris , 2008,
Abstract:
Historia de los Estados Unidos. Una nación entre naciones
Martín Marimón
Prismas : Revista de Historia Intelectual , 2012,
Abstract:
Oleaceae (Continuación)
Martín Almirón
Multequina , 2010,
Abstract:
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