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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 38 matches for " Marlize; Durrheim "
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Using a geographical information system to plan a malaria control programme in South Africa
Booman Marlize,Durrheim Dave N.,La Grange Kobus,Martin Carrin
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2000,
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Sustainable control of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is jeopardized by dwindling public health resources resulting from competing health priorities that include an overwhelming acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. In Mpumalanga province, South Africa, rational planning has historically been hampered by a case surveillance system for malaria that only provided estimates of risk at the magisterial district level (a subdivision of a province). METHODS: To better map control programme activities to their geographical location, the malaria notification system was overhauled and a geographical information system implemented. The introduction of a simplified notification form used only for malaria and a carefully monitored notification system provided the good quality data necessary to support an effective geographical information system. RESULTS: The geographical information system displays data on malaria cases at a village or town level and has proved valuable in stratifying malaria risk within those magisterial districts at highest risk, Barberton and Nkomazi. The conspicuous west-to-east gradient, in which the risk rises sharply towards the Mozambican border (relative risk = 4.12, 95% confidence interval = 3.88-4.46 when the malaria risk within 5 km of the border was compared with the remaining areas in these two districts), allowed development of a targeted approach to control. DISCUSSION: The geographical information system for malaria was enormously valuable in enabling malaria risk at town and village level to be shown. Matching malaria control measures to specific strata of endemic malaria has provided the opportunity for more efficient malaria control in Mpumalanga province.
Using the SaTScan method to detect local malaria clusters for guiding malaria control programmes
Marlize Coleman, Michael Coleman, Aaron M Mabuza, Gerdalize Kok, Maureen Coetzee, David N Durrheim
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-68
Abstract: SaTScan? software using the Kulldorf method of retrospective space-time permutation and the Bernoulli purely spatial model was used to identify malaria clusters using definitively confirmed individual cases in seven towns over three malaria seasons. Following passive case reporting at health facilities during the 2002 to 2005 seasons, active case detection was carried out in the communities, this assisted with determining the probable source of infection. The distribution and statistical significance of the clusters were explored by means of Monte Carlo replication of data sets under the null hypothesis with replications greater than 999 to ensure adequate power for defining clusters.SaTScan detected five space-clusters and two space-time clusters during the study period. There was strong concordance between recognized local clustering of cases and outbreak declaration in specific towns. Both Albertsnek and Thambokulu reported malaria outbreaks in the same season as space-time clusters. This synergy may allow mutual validation of the two systems in confirming outbreaks demanding additional resources and cluster identification at local level to better target resources.Exploring the clustering of cases assisted with the planning of public health activities, including mobilizing health workers and resources. Where appropriate additional indoor residual spraying, focal larviciding and health promotion activities, were all also carried out.Malaria is the most important parasitic disease of humans. Over three billion people live in malarious areas and the disease causes over 500 million cases with one to three million deaths per year [1,2]. An estimated one hundred million people in Africa are at risk of malaria epidemics [3]. In common with most vector-borne infectious diseases, malaria is heterogeneous in its distribution in time and space [4-6], and incidence can vary greatly between districts, towns and villages. This heterogeneity is affected by patterns of malaria v
Evaluation of an operational malaria outbreak identification and response system in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa
Marlize Coleman, Michael Coleman, Aaron M Mabuza, Gerdalize Kok, Maureen Coetzee, David N Durrheim
Malaria Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-69
Abstract: Using five years of historical notification data, two binomial thresholds were determined for each primary health care facility in the highest malaria risk area of Mpumalanga province. Whenever the thresholds were exceeded at health facility level (tier 1), primary health care staff notified the malaria control programme, which then confirmed adequate stocks of malaria treatment to manage potential increased cases. The cases were followed up at household level to verify the likely source of infection. The binomial thresholds were reviewed at village/town level (tier 2) to determine whether additional response measures were required. In addition, an automated electronic outbreak identification system at town/village level (tier 2) was integrated into the case notification database (tier 3) to ensure that unexpected increases in case notification were not missed.The performance of these binomial outbreak thresholds was evaluated against other currently recommended thresholds using retrospective data. The acceptability of the system at primary health care level was evaluated through structured interviews with health facility staff.Eighty four percent of health facilities reported outbreaks within 24 hours (n = 95), 92% (n = 104) within 48 hours and 100% (n = 113) within 72 hours. Appropriate response to all malaria outbreaks (n = 113, tier 1, n = 46, tier 2) were achieved within 24 hours. The system was positively viewed by all health facility staff. When compared to other epidemiological systems for a specified 12 month outbreak season (June 2003 to July 2004) the binomial exact thresholds produced one false weekly outbreak, the C-sum 12 weekly outbreaks and the mean + 2 SD nine false weekly outbreaks. Exceeding the binomial level 1 threshold triggered an alert four weeks prior to an outbreak, but exceeding the binomial level 2 threshold identified an outbreak as it occurred.The malaria outbreak surveillance system using binomial thresholds achieved its primary goal o
Enhancing malaria control using a computerised management system in southern Africa
Marlize Booman, Brian L Sharp, Carrin L Martin, Bonifacio Manjate, Jacobus J la Grange, David N Durrheim
Malaria Journal , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-2-13
Abstract: Successful development and application of a computerised spraying operations management system in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa during 1998 resulted in its adaptation and introduction in neighbouring Maputo Province, southern Mozambique during 2000. The structure and components of this computerised management system are described, and its' operational benefit in southern Mozambique, where community-based spray operators apply intradomiciliary insecticide, are reviewed.The computerised management system allowed malaria programme management and field supervisors to monitor spraying coverage, insecticide consumption and application rates on an ongoing basis. The system supported a successful transition to community-based spraying, while assuring correct insecticide application and spraying completion according to schedule.In 1946, South Africa introduced intradomiciliary spraying with residual insecticides, DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and BHC (Benzene hexachloride), to kill indoor-resting vector mosquitoes and thereby control malaria [1]. This resulted in a 75 percent reduction in the geographic extent of the malaria-affected area, with malaria occurrence limited to summer epidemics in the low-lying northern and eastern border areas with Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique [2,3]. Similar malaria control programmes were initiated in other southern African countries. In Mozambique, spraying operations for malaria control collapsed during the 1970s due to the protracted civil war with a resulting high burden of endemic malaria throughout the country [4].Recently there has been a resurgence of malaria in southern Africa, attributed to a number of factors, including parasite drug-resistance, mosquito insecticide-resistance, climate changes and large-scale population migration [3,5]. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has resulted in a simultaneous dwindling of resources available for public health programmes, thus placing an onus on programme managers to ensure optimal effic
Using a geographical information system to plan a malaria control programme in South Africa
Booman,Marlize; Durrheim,Dave N.; La Grange,Kobus; Martin,Carrin; Mabuza,Aaron M.; Zitha,Alpheus; Mbokazi,Frans M.; Fraser,Colleen; Sharp,Brian L.;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862000001200010
Abstract: introduction: sustainable control of malaria in sub-saharan africa is jeopardized by dwindling public health resources resulting from competing health priorities that include an overwhelming acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) epidemic. in mpumalanga province, south africa, rational planning has historically been hampered by a case surveillance system for malaria that only provided estimates of risk at the magisterial district level (a subdivision of a province). methods: to better map control programme activities to their geographical location, the malaria notification system was overhauled and a geographical information system implemented. the introduction of a simplified notification form used only for malaria and a carefully monitored notification system provided the good quality data necessary to support an effective geographical information system. results: the geographical information system displays data on malaria cases at a village or town level and has proved valuable in stratifying malaria risk within those magisterial districts at highest risk, barberton and nkomazi. the conspicuous west-to-east gradient, in which the risk rises sharply towards the mozambican border (relative risk = 4.12, 95% confidence interval = 3.88-4.46 when the malaria risk within 5 km of the border was compared with the remaining areas in these two districts), allowed development of a targeted approach to control. discussion: the geographical information system for malaria was enormously valuable in enabling malaria risk at town and village level to be shown. matching malaria control measures to specific strata of endemic malaria has provided the opportunity for more efficient malaria control in mpumalanga province.
Managing risk in statistics - "Relative risk"
DN Durrheim
South African Family Practice , 2003,
Abstract:
Quality use of medicines: The young 'Pill' user with poor cycle control
GA Ogunbanjo, DN Durrheim
South African Family Practice , 2003,
Abstract:
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES
Marlize Breedt,Antonie Van Rensburg
South African Journal of Industrial Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Business drivers such as digitisation, globalisation, customer intimacy and the emergence of the Information Age initiate the need to manage the organisation's knowledge asset. Knowledge management aims at leveraging this explicit and tacit knowledge asset to the collective benefit of the organisation by developing an infrastructure to facilitate the knowledge process and by making information readily available. The implementation of such an initiative requires integration of the strategic, process, human resource, and technology architecture components as the company's competitive advantage depends on the quality of the organisation's knowledge asset and successful exploitation of it. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Veranderingsdrywers soos digitalisering, globalisering, klienteverhoudings en die ontstaan van die inligtingsera inisieer die behoefte om organisasiekennishulpbronne te bestuur. Kennisbestuur het ten doel om die eksplisiete en nie-eksplisiete kennishulpbron tot die gesamentlike voordeel van die organisasie aan te wend deur 'n infrastruktuur daar te stel om die kennisproses te fasiliteer en inligting beskikbaar te stel. Die implementering van 'n kennisbestuursinisiatief vereis integrasie van die strategiese-, proses-, menslikehulpbron-, en tegnologieargitektuur komponente ten einde die kompeterende voordeel van die organisasie te behou. Onderliggend tot die sukses is die vermoe en kwaliteit van die organisasie se kennishulpbronne.
Psychological expertise and governmentality in democratic South Africa: a tracer study of masters graduates from UKZN
Shelene G Gentz,Kvin Durrheim
Psychology in Society , 2009,
Abstract: Foucault (1978) proposed that scientific discourses can become objects for political practice. Following from this, Nikolas Rose has elaborated how psychological expertise is implicated in the government of conduct in liberal democracies. In this study these ideas are explored in the local South African context, paying particular attention to post-apartheid imperatives to extend psychological services to socially relevant spheres. The sample was drawn from psychologists who graduated from UKZN (University of KwaZulu-Natal) between 1993 and 2003/4. Data were collected about problems that psychologists see in their daily working environments, their causes and the practices used to solve them. Findings indicate that psychologists deal with a range of traditional psychological problems as well as diverse social/structural problems. Individualised interventions, encouraging self-regulation, dominate both these groups of problems, including interventions focussing on the community and social change. We argue that psychological expertise as a tool for government finds its limits in conditions of extreme social and economic hardship.
Internacionaliza??o da educa??o superior: processo de Bolonha
Wielewicki, Hamilton de Godoy;Oliveira, Marlize Rubin;
Ensaio: Avalia??o e Políticas Públicas em Educa??o , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-40362010000200003
Abstract: the transition to the xxi century has deeply changed relationships within society. education is part of such process and, thus, the relationship between the process of unification of europe itself and of its higher education is emblematic of such perception. this paper aims to bring about elements to understand the bologna process; analyzing aspects of its implementation; seeking for links between its characteristics and the goals and reasoning underlying that process; and discuss likely impacts upon the brazilian context. our analysis indicates that as europe aims to establish international partnerships to widen the scope of options for its higher education, one can assume that the agenda to be proposed tends to be screened by european interests. that, in its turn, requires some discussion and negotiation that foregrounds the notions of otherness and diversity, with the university fully performing its condition of privileged locus for critical, propositional and prospective analysis.
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