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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 463754 matches for " Marlene; Mercado-García "
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Evaluación de la calidad del aire interior y exterior en un jardín de ni os de la Ciudad de México
Cortez-Lugo Marlene,Mercado-García Adriana,Hernández-Avila Mauricio,Meneses-González Fernando
Salud Pública de México , 1998,
Abstract: Objetivo. Evaluar las diferencias en los niveles de ozono (O3) y bióxido de nitrógeno (NO2) en el interior y el exterior de una escuela en el suroeste de la Ciudad de México. Material y métodos. Se midieron diariamente estos contaminantes dentro y fuera del salón, de enero a abril de 1990, mediante monitoreo manual. Resultados. El NO2 adentro y afuera no sobrepasó la norma mexicana (0.21 ppm). El coeficiente de correlación entre las concentraciones máximas de NO2 de la estación de monitoreo local de la ciudad y el exterior del salón fue de 0.82 (p< 0.001). En relación con el O3, la concentración máxima fuera del salón fue de 0.29 ppm, y adentro, de 0.17 ppm (se colocaron en promedio por debajo de 0.06 ppm); entre el interior y el exterior del salón hubo una correlación de 0.72 y se observó que, por cada 1.7 ppm en el exterior, hay 1.0 ppm en el interior (p< 0.05). Conclusiones. Las mayores concentraciones de O3 en el exterior se presentaron entre las 11:00 y las 14:00 horas, por lo que se recomienda tener el descanso previamente a este horario.
Evaluación de la calidad del aire interior y exterior en un jardín de ni?os de la Ciudad de México
Cortez-Lugo,Marlene; Mercado-García,Adriana; Hernández-Avila,Mauricio; Meneses-González,Fernando; Palazuelos-Rendón,Eduardo;
Salud Pública de México , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36341998000500005
Abstract: objective. to evaluate the differences between indoor and outdoor ozone (o3) and nitrogen dioxide (no2) levels at a school located in southwest mexico city. material and methods. indoor and outdoor o3 and no2 levels were measured daily between january and april 1990 by manual monitoring. results. indoor and outdoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide did not surpass the mexican standard (0.21 ppm). the correlation coefficient between maximum no2 concentrations measured by the city?s local monitoring station and those measured outside the classroom was 0.82 (p< 0.001). regarding ozone, its maximum outdoor concentration was 0.29 ppm and indoor concentrations were on average below 0.06 ppm (maximum = 0.17 ppm). the indoor/outdoor correlation coefficient was 0.72, and for every 1.7 ppm outside, there was 1.0 ppm inside (p< 0.05) conclusions. since the highest outdoors o3 concentrations were observed between 11:00 and 14:00 hrs, it is recommendable to have recess before this time.
La inserción laboral de las personas con discapacidad: una salida profesional para trabajadores sociales. Occupational integration for the disabled: a career opportunity for social workers.
Esther Mercado-Garcí-a,Luis Mariano Garcí-a-Vicente
Portularia : Revista de Trabajo Social , 2010, DOI: 10.5218/prts.2010.0004
Abstract: La inserción laboral de las personas con discapacidad, ha sido una preocupación marcada por los organismos internaciones, a través de sus políticas sociales y de empleo. Es por ello que, la creación de programas de empleo con apoyo ha permitido el acceso al mercado de trabajo de estas personas; así como, la aparición de nuevas figuras profesionales -preparador o preparadora laboral-, cuyas funciones y metodología de intervención se aproximan a la de los trabajadores y las trabajadoras sociales. The occupational integration for the disabled has been a concern of international agencies that is reflected in the development of social and employment policies. The creation of supported employment programs has both given the disabled access to the labour market, and caused the emergence of new professional figures such as the job coach, whose functions and methodology of intervention resemble those of the social worker.
Características, percepciones y necesidades sociales de los ni os y ni as con discapacidad y sus familias Characteristics, perceptions and social needs of disabled children and their families
Esther Mercado-Garcí-a,Luis Mariano Garcí-a-Vicente,Eva Aizpurúa-González
Portularia : Revista de Trabajo Social , 2012, DOI: 10.5218/prts.2012.0045
Abstract: En las últimas décadas se han alcanzado notables avances en el reconocimiento de los derechos de las personas con discapacidad; aún así, actualmente persisten situaciones en las que encuentran ciertas dificultades para el ejercicio de sus derechos. El presente trabajo tiene como objeto analizar los principales rasgos, percepciones y necesidades percibidas por este grupo de población. Los resultados alcanzados, consistentes con la investigación previa, evidencian la complejidad inherente al fenómeno de la discapacidad, revelando la multiplicidad de variables que delinean las distintas realidades de estos menores y sus familias, observándose ciertas diferencias según las características del centro educativo al que asisten, y evidenciando, así mismo, que las circunstancias que envuelven a las personas con discapacidad son tan heterogéneas y diversas como las que arropan a las personas carentes de ellas. Over the last decades considerable progress has been made with regard to the recognition of the rights of the disabled. Even so, there are still situations where they find certain difficulties in exercising their rights. This study aims to analyse the main characteristics, perceptions and needs of this section of the population. The results obtained, consistent with previous research, underline the complexity inherent to the phenomenon of disability and reveal the multitude of variables resulting from the different realities of these children and their families. Although some differences were observed according to the characteristic of the school they attend, the circumstances affecting people with disabilities are as heterogeneous and diverse as those affecting people without them.
Exposición al plomo y su relación con el tiempo requerido para embarazo
Guerra-Tamayo Juan Luis,Hernández-Cadena Leticia,Téllez-Rojo Martha María,Mercado-García Adriana del S
Salud Pública de México , 2003,
Abstract: OBJETIVO: Determinar los efectos de la exposición al plomo relacionados con el tiempo requerido para embarazo. MATERIAL Y MéTODOS: Entre 1997 y 2001 se realizó un estudio en 142 mujeres residentes en la Ciudad de México, participantes en un estudio de cohorte para evaluar diversos efectos del plomo sobre la salud reproductiva. Se realizaron mediciones de plomo en sangre y en hueso a cada una de las participantes en el momento de ingresar al estudio, y se obtuvo información relativa a la exposición y otras variables de interés a través de un cuestionario. A cada una de las participantes se les siguió hasta el momento en que se embarazaron, o bien, hasta el tiempo de término del estudio, con el propósito de determinar la asociación entre la exposición al plomo y el tiempo requerido para quedar embarazada. El análisis estadístico se llevó a cabo utilizando curvas de Kaplan-Meier y modelos de riesgos proporcionales de Cox. RESULTADOS: Del total de mujeres que iniciaron el estudio se embarazaron 42, de las cuales 34 lo lograron antes del primer a o de seguimiento y ocho posteriormente. Las medias de las concentraciones de plomo en sangre fueron de 9.3 μg/dl; en rótula y tibia fueron de 16.0 y 11.0 μg Pb/g de hueso mineral, respectivamente. No se detectaron diferencias en los niveles de plomo en sangre respecto al tiempo que durante el estudio requirió la mujer para embarazarse en el primer a o; no obstante, se encontró que en las mujeres con plomo en sangre por encima de 10 μg/dl el riesgo de no embarazo fue cinco veces mayor [IC 95% (1.9-19.1)] después de un a o de seguimiento, comparado con aquellas mujeres con plomo en sangre por debajo de 10 μg/dl. CONCLUSIONES: La exposición a concentraciones altas de plomo puede ser un factor de riesgo importante en el tiempo requerido para que una mujer quede embarazada, principalmente en aquellas que siendo fértiles tienen periodos mayores de un a o buscando un embarazo.
Exposición al plomo y su relación con el tiempo requerido para embarazo
Guerra-Tamayo,Juan Luis; Hernández-Cadena,Leticia; Téllez-Rojo,Martha María; Mercado-García,Adriana del S; Solano-González,Maritsa; Hernández-Avila,Mauricio; Hu,Howard;
Salud Pública de México , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342003000800004
Abstract: objective: to determine the effects of lead exposure on the time elapsed to become pregnant. material and methods: the study population consisted of 142 women residing in mexico city between 1997 and 2001, who were already participating in a study to evaluate effects of lead exposure on reproductive health. measurements of lead in bone were performed when women were first admitted to the program. information on lead exposure and other variables of interest was obtained through a questionnaire. participants were followed up to assess the relationship between the time required to become pregnant and lead exposure. statistical analysis consisted of kaplan-meier estimates and cox proportional hazards models. results: of the total number of women in the program, 42 got pregnant: 34 before the first year of follow-up, and 8 at a later date. the mean value for lead concentration in blood was 9.3 μg/dl. the mean values for lead concentration in patella and tibia were 16.0 y 11.0 μg pb/g of bone, respectively. survival analysis was performed and no differences were detected in blood lead levels and time to pregnancy in the first year. nevertheless, in women with blood lead levels above 10.0 μg/dl, the likelihood of not achieving pregnancy was five times higher (95% confidence interval [ci] 0.05-0.56) after one year of follow-up compared with women with blood lead levels below 10.0 μg/dl. conclusions: exposure to high lead concentrations may be an important risk factor influencing the time period for a woman to get pregnant, especially in fertile women who have tried to get pregnant for more than a year.
HFE Gene Variants Modify the Association between Maternal Lead Burden and Infant Birthweight: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study in Mexico City, Mexico
David Cantonwine, Howard Hu, Martha Téllez-Rojo, Brisa N Sánchez, Héctor Lamadrid-Figueroa, Adrienne S Ettinger, Adriana Mercado-García, Mauricio Hernández-Avila, Robert O Wright
Environmental Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-9-43
Abstract: We investigated the role of HFE C282Y, HFE H63 D, and transferrin (TF) P570 S gene variants in modifying the association of lead and infant birthweight in a cohort of Mexican mother-infant pairs. Subjects were initially recruited between 1994-1995 from three maternity hospitals in Mexico City and 411 infants/565 mothers had archived blood available for genotyping. Multiple linear regression models, stratified by either maternal/infant HFE or TF genotype and then combined with interaction terms, were constructed examining the association of lead and birthweight after controlling for covariates.3.1%, 16.8% and 17.5% of infants (N = 390) and 1.9%, 14.5% and 18.9% of mothers (N = 533) carried the HFE C282Y, HFE H63D, and TF P570 S variants, respectively. The presence of infant HFE H63 D variants predicted 110.3 g (95% CI -216.1, -4.6) decreases in birthweight while maternal HFE H63 D variants predicted reductions of 52.0 g (95% CI -147.3 to 43.2). Interaction models suggest that both maternal and infant HFE H63 D genotype may modify tibia lead's effect on infant birthweight in opposing ways. In our interaction models, maternal HFE H63 D variant carriers had a negative association between tibia lead and birthweight.These results suggest that the HFE H63 D genotype modifies lead's effects on infant birthweight in a complex fashion that may reflect maternal-fetal interactions with respect to the metabolism and transport of metals.Decreased birthweight has been established as a predictor of infant mortality, morbidity, developmental outcomes such as cognitive performance, and chronic disease into adulthood [1]. Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to the weight of an infant at birth. Environmental factors that have been associated with birth weight include, but are not limited to: maternal nutritional status [2], maternal infections [3], parity, and exposure to toxicants, such as lead [4]. Two recent population studies have estimated that approximately 50% of t
Bisphenol a exposure in Mexico City and risk of prematurity: a pilot nested case control study
David Cantonwine, John D Meeker, Howard Hu, Brisa N Sánchez, Héctor Lamadrid-Figueroa, Adriana Mercado-García, Gamola Z Fortenberry, Antonia M Calafat, Martha Téllez-Rojo
Environmental Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-9-62
Abstract: A nested case-control subset of 60 participants in the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to ENvironmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) study in Mexico City, Mexico were selected based on delivering less than or equal to 37 weeks of gestation and greater than 37 weeks of gestation. Third trimester archived spot urine samples were analyzed by online solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry.BPA was detected in 80.0% (N = 48) of the urine samples; total concentrations ranged from < 0.4 μg/L to 6.7 μg/L; uncorrected geometric mean was 1.52 μg/L. The adjusted odds ratio of delivering less than or equal to 37 weeks in relation to specific gravity adjusted third trimester BPA concentration was 1.91 (95%CI 0.93, 3.91, p-value = 0.08). When cases were further restricted to births occurring prior to the 37th week (n = 12), the odds ratio for specific-gravity adjusted BPA was larger and statistically significant (p < 0.05).This is the first study to document measurable levels of BPA in the urine of a population of Mexican women. This study also provides preliminary evidence, based on a single spot urine sample collected during the third trimester, that pregnant women who delivered less than or equal to 37 weeks of gestation and prematurely (< 37 weeks) had higher urinary concentrations of BPA compared to women delivering after 37 weeks.Bisphenol A (BPA, CAS no. 80-05-7) is produced in high volume worldwide for use in a variety of industrial and consumer products, such as epoxy resins used to line food cans [1], polyester-styrene [2], and polycarbonate plastics which make up some baby bottles and other containers [3]. Due to this wide spread usage, the primary exposure route in humans is thought to occur via ingestion of food or water [4,5]. Calafat et al. documented extensive exposure to the general US population in a subset of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), where 93% of the
La evidencia científica y la intervención farmacológica preventiva en geriatría Scientific evidence and preventive pharmacological intervention in geriatrics
Marlene García Orihuela
Revista Cubana de Medicina General Integral , 2012,
Abstract: Los adultos mayores constituyen un grupo poblacional que cada día va en aumento, y son ellos los que requieren mayor atención médica y los que consumen un número elevado de fármacos. Este trabajo intenta hacer una revisión sobre la prescripción de fármacos con fines preventivos en el adulto mayor según las evidencias científicas. La polifarmacia en el anciano incrementa las posibilidades de reacciones adversas a los medicamentos, interacciones entre ellos potencialmente deletéreas, aumento de los ingresos hospitalarios por esta causa y aumento de los gastos en salud. Los fármacos constituyen la primera fuente de trastornos yatrogénicos en los ancianos, atribuible a que muchas veces se indican de forma irracional y se aplican malas prácticas de prescripción sin un sustento científico sólido. Se espera contribuir a que el médico desarrolle la habilidad de prescribir el fármaco de manera eficaz, conveniente, con prudencia clínica y distancie las recomendaciones sesgadas del mercado en términos de terapéutica. Es importante mejorar la prescripción farmacológica en aras de una mejor calidad de vida en el adulto mayor. The older adults are a population group that increases every day and they require more medical care and consume a large number of drugs. This paper was intended to make a review on drug prescription for preventive purposes in the elderly on the basis of scientific evidence. The multiple drug consumption by the elderly increases the possibilities of suffering adverse reactions to drugs, potentially deleterious interactions, rise of admissions at hospital due to this problem and higher health expenses. The drugs are the first source of iatrogenic disorders in the aged people, often attributable to irrational and wrong practices of prescription without any sound scientific support. This paper was expected to contribute to developing the skill of prescribing a drug in an effective, convenient and prudent way, thus paying little attention to the market-biased recommendations in terms of therapeutics. It is important to improve drug prescription towards a better quality of life for the older people.
Infecciones por Strongyloides stercoralis en Chile
Mercado,Rubén; Jercic,María Isabel; Ueta,Marlene T;
Boletín chileno de parasitología , 2001, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-94022001000200007
Abstract: a limited epidemiological information on strongyloides stercoralis infection excists in chile. in 1983 a mentally retarded 53-year-old man died by disseminated strongyloidiosis associated with malabsortion syndrome, this case constitutes the first histopathological confirmation of the parasitose in chile. later on, cases have been described in hospitalized patients in mental institutions from the central part of the country, where the frequency of infection registered in studies carried out in the psyquiatric hospital of putaendo in 1985 and 1987-1989 were 11.6% and 7.0%. in 1992 an outbreak of strongyloidiasis that affected 13 out of 55 children in a nutritional recuperation center in the north extreme of chile was reported. in 2000 four cases were detected in a group of 20 hospitalized mental affected patients with elevated eosinophilia. sensitive methods for detecting larvae in stool samples and seroepidemiological surveys would permit determine the importance of this human heminthic infection in chile.
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