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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5496 matches for " Markus Simonius "
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Quantum Interferometry: Some Basic Features Revisited
Markus Simonius
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: The reduction paradigm of quantum interferometry is reanalyzed. In contrast to widespread opinion it is shown to be amenable to straightforward mathematical treatment within ``every-users'' simple-minded single particle quantum mechanics (without reduction postulate or the like), exploiting only its probabilistic content.
Quantum Interferometry, Measurement and Objectivity: Some Basic Features Revisited
Markus Simonius
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: The reduction paradigm of quantum interferometry and the objectivation problem in quantum measurements are reanalyzed. Both are shown to be amenable to straightforward mathematical treatment within "every-users" simple-minded quantum mechanics without reduction postulate etc., using only its probabilistic content.
Constraints on Parity-Even Time Reversal Violation in the Nucleon-Nucleon System and Its Connection to Charge Symmetry Breaking
Markus Simonius
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.78.4161
Abstract: Parity-even time reversal violation (TRV) in the nucleon-nucleon interaction is reconsidered. The TRV $\rho$-exchange interaction on which recent analyses of measurements are based is necessarily also charge-symmetry breaking (CSB). Limits on its strength $\bar{g}_\rho$ relative to regular $\rho$-exchange are extracted from recent CSB experiments in neutron-proton scattering. The result $\bar{g}_\rho\le 6.7\times 10^{-3}$ (95% CL) is considerably lower than limits inferred from direct TRV tests in nuclear processes. Properties of $a_1$-exchange and limit imposed by the neutron EDM are briefly discussed.
Measurement in Quantum Mechanics: From Probabilities to Objective Events
Markus Simonius
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: The problem of measurement in quantum mechanics is reanalyzed within a general, strictly probabilistic framework (without reduction postulate). Based on a novel comprehensive definition of measurement the natural emergence of objective events is demonstrated and their formal representation within quantum mechanics is obtained. In order to be objective an event is required to be observable or readable in at least two independent, mutually non-interfering ways with necessarily agreeing results. Consistency in spite of unrestricted validity of reversibility of the evolution or the superposition principle is demonstrated and the role played by state reduction, in a properly defined restricted sense, is discussed. Some general consequences are pointed out.
On the Ontology of Structural Realism  [PDF]
Markus Fischer
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2019.91008
Abstract: Due to its systemic approach, structural realism (or neorealism) can be subsumed under methodological holism, which takes social phenomena to be wholes that cannot be reduced to their parts. The wholes posited by structural realism are the state and the international structure. Recent developments in the philosophy of social science suggest that methodological holism ought to be limited to causal explanation and complemented by ontological individualism, which requires an account of how social wholes derive from individuals. Structural realism lacks such an account because it takes the state as an empirical given, mistaking for a fact what is really a concept in need of deductive derivation from individuals. To bring the theory methodologically up to date, this essay undertakes such a derivation of the state from individuals, proceeding in the deductive manner of political theory. It thus provides structural realism with a methodologically valid ontology, which, in turn, enables the theory to better defend itself against liberal and constructivist critics who reduce the state to a transient phenomenon.
Discretisation of stochastic control problems for continuous time dynamics with delay
Markus Fischer,Markus Reiss
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: As a main step in the numerical solution of control problems in continuous time, the controlled process is approximated by sequences of controlled Markov chains, thus discretising time and space. A new feature in this context is to allow for delay in the dynamics. The existence of an optimal strategy with respect to the cost functional can be guaranteed in the class of relaxed controls. Weak convergence of the approximating extended Markov chains to the original process together with convergence of the associated optimal strategies is established.
Spectral covolatility estimation from noisy observations using local weights
Markus Bibinger,Markus Rei?
Statistics , 2011,
Abstract: We propose localized spectral estimators for the quadratic covariation and the spot covolatility of diffusion processes which are observed discretely with additive observation noise. The eligibility of this approach to lead to an appropriate estimation for time-varying volatilities stems from an asymptotic equivalence of the underlying statistical model to a white noise model with correlation and volatility processes being constant over small intervals. The asymptotic equivalence of the continuous-time and the discrete-time experiments are proved by a construction with linear interpolation in one direction and local means for the other. The new estimator outperforms earlier nonparametric approaches in the considered model. We investigate its finite sample size characteristics in simulations and draw a comparison between the various proposed methods.
The Influence of Surface Energy on the Washing Quality of Filter Cakes  [PDF]
Markus Wilkens, Urs A. Peuker
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2011.14036
Abstract: The washing of filter cakes, especially the displacement washing, represents an important aspect in science researches and industrial applications. A lot of ongoing researches are focussed on impurities, which are dissolved in the mother liquid (e.g. sodium chloride) and washed out with the identical pure liquid without impurities. The project flushing focuses on systems with two chemically different liquids. The main aim is to exchange an organic solvent by water. This article focuses on the adsorption effects during a washing process with solid systems of different wetting behaviours.
Not All Shrivels Are Created Equal—Morpho-Anatomical and Compositional Characteristics Differ among Different Shrivel Types That Develop during Ripening of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Berries  [PDF]
Bhaskar Rao Bondada, Markus Keller
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.37105
Abstract: An understanding of physiological disorders associated with ripening of fruits triggered by abiotic stress relies on anatomical and physico-chemical analyses, as it provide insights into their origin and probable causes. The objective of this study was to analyze different ripening disorders of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries by dissecting their morpho-anatomy, shriveling nature, and composition. Four well-defined disorders—sunburn, prolonged dehydration (PD), late-season bunch stem necrosis (LBSN), and berry shrivel (BS) were analyzed in field-grown grapevines of the cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon. Early bunch stem necrosis (EBSN) that occurred before ripening was also included in the study. Unlike healthy spherical berries, the pericarp of disordered berries except for sunburn shriveled causing concomitant reductions in fresh weight and volume. The exocarp of PD berries developed well-ordered indentations as distinct from the wrinkles in LBSN berries, whereas BS berries were flaccid with numerous skin folds. The epicuticular wax occurred as upright platelets in all shrivel forms excluding the sun-exposed hemisphere of sunburned berries. A chlorophyllous inflorescence framework persisted in all shrivel forms but in LBSN, wherein the necrotic regions developed tylosis. Unlike the translucent mesocarp of healthy, sunburned, and PD berries, the mesocarp was collapsed in BS and LBSN berries, nevertheless all had well-developed seeds. The composition of healthy berries was optimal, whereas the disordered berries were compositionally distinct from each other, which as a whole differed from the healthy berries. The BS berries had the lowest sugar content, and although sugar concentration was higher in LBSN, sunburned and PD berries, sugar amount per berry was highest in the healthy berries, the same was true for hexoses. Healthy and BS berries exhibited highest amounts of tartaric acid followed by sunburn and PD berries, whereas the LBSN berries had the lowest values. Conversely, healthy and PD berries had the highest amounts of malic acid followed by LBSN, sunburn and BS berries, which collectively displayed similar amounts. The PD berries exhibited the highest calcium content followed by LBSN, healthy, and finally BS and sunburned berries. A linear relationship existed between potassium (K) and pH of the berries. The PD berries had the highest amounts of K followed by healthy, sunburn, LBSN, and BS berries. Overall, the results reported here provided combined morpho-anatomical and compositional analyses of different shrivel types that occurred during
Derivation of Moment Equations for the Theoretical Description of Electrons in Nonthermal Plasmas  [PDF]
Markus M. Becker, Detlef Loffhagen
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2013.33049
Abstract:

The derivation of moment equations for the theoretical description of electrons is of interest for modelling of gas discharge plasmas and semiconductor devices. Usually, certain artificial closure assumptions are applied in order to derive a closed system of moment equations from the electron Boltzmann equation. Here, a novel four-moment model for the description of electrons in nonthermal plasmas is derived by an expansion of the electron velocity distribution function in Legendre polynomials. The proposed system of partial differential equations is consistently closed by definition of transport coefficients that are determined by solving the electron Boltzmann equation and are then used in the fluid calculations as function of the mean electron energy. It is shown that the four-moment model can be simplified to a new drift-diffusion approximation for electrons without loss of accuracy, if the characteristic frequency of the electric field alteration in the discharge is small in comparison with the momentum dissipation frequency of the electrons. Results obtained by the proposed fluid models are compared to those of a conventional drift-diffusion approximation as well as to kinetic results using the example of low pressure argon plasmas. It is shown that the results provided by the new approaches are in good agreement with kinetic results and strongly improve the accuracy of fluid descriptions of gas discharges.

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