Abstract:
We give some heuristics for counting elliptic curves with certain properties. In particular, we re-derive the Brumer-McGuinness heuristic for the number of curves with positive/negative discriminant up to $X$, which is an application of lattice-point counting. We then introduce heuristics (with refinements from random matrix theory) that allow us to predict how often we expect an elliptic curve $E$ with even parity to have $L(E,1)=0$. We find that we expect there to be about $c_1X^{19/24}(\log X)^{3/8}$ curves with $|\Delta|

Abstract:
We explain how to find a rational point on a rational elliptic curve of rank 1 using Heegner points. We give some examples, and list new algorithms that are due to Cremona and Delaunay. These are notes from a short course given at the Institut Henri Poincare in December 2004.

Abstract:
In 1987, Zagier and Kramarz published a paper in which they presented evidence that a positive proportion of the even-signed cubic twists of the elliptic curve $x^3+y^3=1$ should have positive rank. We extend their data, showing that it is more likely that the proportion goes to zero.

Abstract:
We derive an explicit zero-free region for symmetric square L-functions of elliptic curves, and use this to derive an explicit lower bound for the modular degree of rational elliptic curves. The techniques are similar to those used in the classical derivation of zero-free regions for Dirichlet L-functions, but here, due to the work of Goldfield-Hoffstein-Lieman, we know that there are no Siegel zeros, which leads to a strengthened result.

Abstract:
The conjectures of Deligne, Be\u\i linson, and Bloch-Kato assert that there should be relations between the arithmetic of algebro-geometric objects and the special values of their $L$-functions. We make a numerical study for symmetric power $L$-functions of elliptic curves, obtaining data about the validity of their functional equations, frequency of vanishing of central values, and divisibility of Bloch-Kato quotients.

Abstract:
Suppose $p$ is a prime of the form $u^2+64$ for some integer $u$, which we take to be 3 mod 4. Then there are two Neumann--Setzer elliptic curves $E_0$ and $E_1$ of prime conductor $p$, and both have Mordell--Weil group $\Z/2\Z$. There is a surjective map $X_0(p)\xrightarrow{\pi} E_0$ that does not factor through any other elliptic curve (i.e., $\pi$ is optimal), where $X_0(p)$ is the modular curve of level $p$. Our main result is that the degree of $\pi$ is odd if and only if $u \con 3\pmod{8}$. We also prove the prime-conductor case of a conjecture of Glenn Stevens, namely that that if $E$ is an elliptic curve of prime conductor $p$ then the optimal quotient of $X_1(p)$ in the isogeny class of $E$ is the curve with minimal Faltings height. Finally we discuss some conjectures and data about modular degrees and orders of Shafarevich--Tate groups of Neumann--Setzer curves.

Abstract:
We investigate a problem considered by Zagier and Elkies, of finding large integral points on elliptic curves. By writing down a generic polynomial solution and equating coefficients, we are led to suspect four extremal cases that still might have nondegenerate solutions. Each of these cases gives rise to a polynomial system of equations, the first being solved by Elkies in 1988 using the resultant methods of~\Macsyma, with there being a unique rational nondegenerate solution. For the second case we found that resultants and/or Gr\"obner bases were not very efficacious. Instead, at the suggestion of Elkies, we used multidimensional $p$-adic Newton iteration, and were able to find a nondegenerate solution, albeit over a quartic number field. Due to our methodology, we do not have much hope of proving that there are no other solutions. For the third case we found a solution in a nonic number field, but we were unable to make much progress with the fourth case. We make a few concluding comments and include an appendix from Elkies regarding his calculations and correspondence with Zagier.

Abstract:
For r=6,7,...,11 we find an elliptic curve E/Q of rank at least r and the smallest conductor known, improving on the previous records by factors ranging from 1.0136 (for r=6) to over 100 (for r=10 and r=11). We describe our search methods, and tabulate, for each r=5,6,...,11, the five curves of lowest conductor, and (except for r=11) also the five of lowest absolute discriminant, that we found.

Abstract:
Extensive studies in the past have focused on precise calculations of the nonlinear-optical susceptibility of thousands of molecules. In this work, we use the broader approach of considering how geometry and symmetry alone play a role. We investigate the nonlinear optical response of potential energy functions that are given by a superposition of force centers (representing the nuclear charges) that lie in various planar geometrical arrangements. We find that for certain specific geometries, such as an octupolar-like molecule with donors and acceptors of varying strengths at the branches, the hyperpolarizability is near the {\em fundamental limit}. In these cases, the molecule is observed to be well approximated by a three-level model - consistent with the three-level ansatz previously used to calculate the {\em fundamental limits}. However, when the hyperpolarizability is below the {\em apparent limit} (about a factor of thirty below the {\em fundamental limit}) the system is no longer representable by a three-level model; where both two-level and a many-state models are found to be appropriate, depending on the symmetry.

Abstract:
Because of the potentially large number of important applications of nonlinear optics, researchers have expended a great deal of effort to optimize the second-order molecular nonlinear-optical response, called the hyperpolarizability. The focus of our present studies is the {\em intrinsic} hyperpolarizability, which is a scale-invariant quantity that removes the effects of simple scaling, thus being the relevant quantity for comparing molecules of varying sizes. Past theoretical studies have focused on structural properties that optimize the intrinsic hyperpolarizability, which have characterized the structure of the quantum system based on the potential energy function, placement of nuclei, geometry, and the effects of external electric and magnetic fields. Those previous studies focused on single-electron models under the influence of an average potential. In the present studies, we generalize our calculations to two-electron systems and include electron interactions. As with the single-electron studies, universal properties are found that are common to all systems -- be they molecules, nanoparticles, or quantum gases -- when the hyperpolarizability is near the fundamental limit.