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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 216872 matches for " Mark P. McEwen "
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Can latent heat safely warm blood? – in vitro testing of a portable prototype blood warmer
Mark P McEwen, David Roxby
BMC Emergency Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-227x-7-8
Abstract: Rapid infusion of red cells into patients was timed to sample typical clinical flow rates.An approved dry heat blood warmer was compared with a prototype blood warmer using a supercooled liquid latent heat storage material, to warm red cells whilst monitoring inlet and outlet temperatures. To determine the effect of warming on red cell integrity compared to the normal storage lesion of blood, extracellular concentrations of potassium, lactate dehydrogenase and haemoglobin were measured in blood which had been warmed after storage at 2°C – 6°C for 1 to 42 days.A prototype latent heat fluid warmer consistently warmed red cells from approximately 4°C to approximately 35°C at typical clinical flow rates. Warming of stored blood with latent heat did not affect red cell integrity more than the approved dry heat blood warmer.Using latent heat as an energy source can satisfactorily warm cold blood or other intravenous fluids to near body temperature, without any adverse affects.Victims of major trauma are considered to be at risk of hypothermia which often results in deleterious effects (including coagulopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, peripheral vasoconstriction, metabolic acidosis, compensatory increased oxygen requirements during rewarming, and impaired immune response) leading to an associated increased mortality and morbidity [1,2]. Up to 66% of trauma patients are reported to be hypothermic at the time of hospital admission [2]. Those patients with a core temperature lower than 34°C suffer a mortality rate up to 35% higher than euthermic patients [3-6].At trauma sites it is common to transfuse red cells that have been stored and transported at 4°C and/or colloid/crystalloid fluids at ambient temperature. This administration of cold intravenous fluids has been identified as one of the main factors that contribute to the high incidence of hypothermia in the trauma population [1].To prevent falls of temperature, in hospitals there are several mains powered devices available
Light Transmission Patterns in Occluded Tissue: Does Rouleaux Formation Play a Role?
Mark P. McEwen,Karen J. Reynolds
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2012,
Light Transmission during Occlusion in Species with Differing Rouleaux Formation
Mark P. McEwen,Karen J. Reynolds
Engineering Letters , 2012,
Human Milk Oligosaccharides Enhance Innate Immunity to Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Influenza in Vitro  [PDF]
Geralyn Duska-McEwen, Albert P. Senft, Teah L. Ruetschilling, Edward G. Barrett, Rachael H. Buck
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.514151

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) contribute to innate immunity by enhancing growth of beneficial bacteria, epithelial cell maturation and mucosal barrier integrity. They have immunomodulatory effects and can block pathogen binding to host cell surface glycans or receptors. We investigated the effects of 2’-fucosyllactose (2’FL), 6’-sialyllactose (6’SL), 3’-sialyllactose (3’SL) and lacto-N-neoTetraose (LNnT) on human respiratory epithelial cell lines or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) following respiratory viral infectionin vitro. Expression of cytokines and viral load were monitored in infected cells. These biomarkers of innate immunity were selected since viral load and cytokine levels (IP-10, MIP-1α, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) have been correlated with disease severity in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza (IAV) virus infectionin vivo. 2’FL significantly decreased RSV viral load and cytokines associated with disease severity (IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1α) and inflammation (TNF-α, MCP-1) in airway epithelial cells. LNnT and 6’SL significantly decreased IAV viral load in airway epithelial cells. 6’SL dose-dependently down-regulated IP-10 and TNF-α in RSV infected PBMCs. HMO at or below levels found in breast milk enhance innate immunity to respiratory viruses in vitro and may interact directly with cells to modulate biomarkers of innate immunity.

Complex data processing: fast wavelet analysis on the sphere
Y. Wiaux,J. D. McEwen,P. Vielva
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1007/s00041-006-6917-9
Abstract: In the general context of complex data processing, this paper reviews a recent practical approach to the continuous wavelet formalism on the sphere. This formalism notably yields a correspondence principle which relates wavelets on the plane and on the sphere. Two fast algorithms are also presented for the analysis of signals on the sphere with steerable wavelets.
On the computation of directional scale-discretized wavelet transforms on the sphere
J. D. McEwen,P. Vandergheynst,Y. Wiaux
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1117/12.2022889
Abstract: We review scale-discretized wavelets on the sphere, which are directional and allow one to probe oriented structure in data defined on the sphere. Furthermore, scale-discretized wavelets allow in practice the exact synthesis of a signal from its wavelet coefficients. We present exact and efficient algorithms to compute the scale-discretized wavelet transform of band-limited signals on the sphere. These algorithms are implemented in the publicly available S2DW code. We release a new version of S2DW that is parallelized and contains additional code optimizations. Note that scale-discretized wavelets can be viewed as a directional generalization of needlets. Finally, we outline future improvements to the algorithms presented, which can be achieved by exploiting a new sampling theorem on the sphere developed recently by some of the authors.
Polar ionospheric responses to solar wind IMF changes
Y. Zhang,D. J. McEwen,W. Guo,P. C. Anderson
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: Auroral and airglow emissions over Eureka (89° CGM) during the 1997-98 winter show striking variations in relation to solar wind IMF changes. The period January 19 to 22, 1998, was chosen for detailed study, as the IMF was particularly strong and variable. During most of the period, Bz was northward and polar arcs were observed. Several overpasses by DMSP satellites during the four day period provided a clear picture of the particle precipitation producing the polar arcs. The spectral character of these events indicated excitation by electrons of average energy 300 to 500 eV. Only occasionally were electrons of average energy up to ~1 keV observed and these appeared transitory from the ground optical data. It is noted that polar arcs appear after sudden changes in IMF By, suggesting IMF control over arc initiation. When By is positive there is arc motion from dawn to dusk, while By is negative the motion is consistently dusk to dawn. F-region (anti-sunward) convections were monitored through the period from 630.0 nm emissions. The convection speed was low (100-150 m/s) when Bz was northward but increased to 500 m/s after Bz turned southward on January 20. Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (airglow and aurora) - Ionosphere (particle precipitation) - Magnetospheric Physics (polar cap phenomena)
S2LET: A code to perform fast wavelet analysis on the sphere
B. Leistedt,J. D. McEwen,P. Vandergheynst,Y. Wiaux
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201220729
Abstract: We describe S2LET, a fast and robust implementation of the scale-discretised wavelet transform on the sphere. Wavelets are constructed through a tiling of the harmonic line and can be used to probe spatially localised, scale-depended features of signals on the sphere. The scale-discretised wavelet transform was developed previously and reduces to the needlet transform in the axisymmetric case. The reconstruction of a signal from its wavelets coefficients is made exact here through the use of a sampling theorem on the sphere. Moreover, a multiresolution algorithm is presented to capture all information of each wavelet scale in the minimal number of samples on the sphere. In addition S2LET supports the HEALPix pixelisation scheme, in which case the transform is not exact but nevertheless achieves good numerical accuracy. The core routines of S2LET are written in C and have interfaces in Matlab, IDL and Java. Real signals can be written to and read from FITS files and plotted as Mollweide projections. The S2LET code is made publicly available, is extensively documented, and ships with several examples in the four languages supported. At present the code is restricted to axisymmetric wavelets but will be extended to directional, steerable wavelets in a future release.
A directional continuous wavelet transform on the sphere
J. D. McEwen,M. P. Hobson,A. N. Lasenby
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: A new construction of a directional continuous wavelet analysis on the sphere is derived herein. We adopt the harmonic scaling idea for the spherical dilation operator recently proposed by Sanz et al. but extend the analysis to a more general directional framework. Directional wavelets are a powerful extension that allow one to also probe oriented structure in the analysed function. Our spherical wavelet methodology has the advantage that all functions and operators are defined directly on the sphere. The construction of wavelets in our framework is demonstrated with an example.
Optimal filters on the sphere
J. D. McEwen,M. P. Hobson,A. N. Lasenby
Mathematics , 2006, DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2008.923198
Abstract: We derive optimal filters on the sphere in the context of detecting compact objects embedded in a stochastic background process. The matched filter and the scale adaptive filter are derived on the sphere in the most general setting, allowing for directional template profiles and filters. The performance and relative merits of the two optimal filters are discussed. The application of optimal filter theory on the sphere to the detection of compact objects is demonstrated on simulated mock data. A naive detection strategy is adopted, with an initial aim of illustrating the application of the new optimal filters derived on the sphere. Nevertheless, this simple object detection strategy is demonstrated to perform well, even a low signal-to-noise ratio. Code written to compute optimal filters on the sphere (S2FIL), to perform fast directional filtering on the sphere (FastCSWT) and to construct the simulated mock data (COMB) are all made publicly available from http://www.mrao.cam.ac.uk/~jdm57/
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