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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 216715 matches for " Mark P. Foran "
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mHealth in Sub-Saharan Africa
Thomas J. Betjeman,Samara E. Soghoian,Mark P. Foran
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/482324
Abstract: Mobile phone penetration rates have reached 63% in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and are projected to pass 70% by 2013. In SSA, millions of people who never used traditional landlines now use mobile phones on a regular basis. Mobile health, or mHealth, is the utilization of short messaging service (SMS), wireless data transmission, voice calling, and smartphone applications to transmit health-related information or direct care. This systematic review analyzes and summarizes key articles from the current body of peer-reviewed literature on PubMed on the topic of mHealth in SSA. Studies included in the review demonstrate that mHealth can improve and reduce the cost of patient monitoring, medication adherence, and healthcare worker communication, especially in rural areas. mHealth has also shown initial promise in emergency and disaster response, helping standardize, store, analyze, and share patient information. Challenges for mHealth implementation in SSA include operating costs, knowledge, infrastructure, and policy among many others. Further studies of the effectiveness of mHealth interventions are being hindered by similar factors as well as a lack of standardization in study design. Overall, the current evidence is not strong enough to warrant large-scale implementation of existing mHealth interventions in SSA, but rapid progress of both infrastructure and mHealth-related research in the region could justify scale-up of the most promising programs in the near future. 1. Introduction Mobile phones are increasingly accessible worldwide. There are an estimated 6.8 billion mobile phones being used in the world in 2013, compared to 1 billion in 2002, corresponding to penetration rates of approximately 96% globally: 128% in developed countries and 89% in developing countries [1]. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the penetration of cell phones is estimated to be 63% in 2013 and projected to pass 70% by 2015 [2]. Hundreds of millions of people in SSA who never gained access to traditional landlines for telecommunication now use mobile phones on a regular basis [3]. In many developing countries, wireless technology is less expensive and more readily available than wired technology [4]. This technology has unique potential to reach large numbers of people living in resource-limited or remote locations. Mobile health (mHealth) is the use of mobile phone technology for health-related purposes. This relatively new, dynamic, and rapidly evolving field includes the development and study of mobile phone applications such as short messaging service (SMS), voice calling, and
Defining prediabetes in polycystic ovarian syndrome  [PDF]
Mark P. Trolice
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2011.12008
Abstract: Objective: The article will review the associations between Prediabetes (PD) and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and present factors that decrease the progression of PD into type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Metformin will also be examined for its role in ovulation induction, pregnancy and ameliorating the metabolic syndrome. Study Design: Medline search. Methods of study: Keyword search: Prediabetes (PD), Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), Metformin, Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT), Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Results: As the most common endocrinopathy during the reproductive years, PCOS has a genetic multifactorial inheritance and is associated with a high risk of insulin resistance. The use of metformin has shown mixed results in this patient population as a therapy to improve ovulation function and the metabolic syndrome and showed no definitive reduction in the rate of miscarriage. PCOS patients are significantly predisposed to PD and T2DM. Conclusion: Lifestyle changes such as weight loss and physical activity reduce the progression of PD into T2DM in PCOS patients. The new AACE and ADA guidelines establish simplified methods of screening and treating PD. The role of metformin remains undefined in the infertile PCOS patient.
Expanding Assessment of Fear of Falling among Older Adults with an Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study to Assess the Value of Proxy Responses
Sinéad Foran,Mary McCarron,Philip McCallion
ISRN Geriatrics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/493042
Abstract: Introduction. Fear of falling (FOF) has emerged as an important health concern in older adults, yet it has rarely been investigated in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Valid and reliable measurement approaches are a particular challenge. Scales that have been developed to measure FOF have not been validated for use with older people with ID and are not routinely used with proxy respondents. Method. 63 people comprised purposeful samples of 3 groups, people with ID , their nominated key workers , and additional support workers . Test-retest reliability and interrater reliability were assessed for using a dichotomous, single-item FOF screening measure. The degree of FOF and activity restriction due to FOF were also investigated. Results. Inter-rater reliability was found to be moderate to excellent with Kappa?=?0.77 on ratings of the FOF item. Test-retest reliability for each group of reviewers for the FOF item were also found to be excellent (0.95). Conclusion. The global item is a suitable screening measure for FOF in older adults with ID and can assist in identification of individuals requiring further assessment. Proxies, if carefully selected, can provide consistent and reliable reports of the presence of FOF in people with ID. 1. Introduction Fear of falling (FOF) has emerged as an important health concern in all older adults given its demonstrated association with restrictions in daily activity and in many cases activity avoidance [1]. The substantial body of literature that has emerged addresses prevalence, risk factors, and consequences [2–4]. Reported prevalence of FOF in the general elderly population is as high as 85% [3]; identified risk factors include having had a previous fall [5], increasing age [4], female gender [6], dizziness, depression and anxiety [7], and balance and gait disorders [8] and documented consequences of FOF include a decline in physical and mental performance, activity avoidance, and a loss of health-related quality of life [9, 10]. A consequence of FOF is an increased risk of falling [5, 11] and there is a likelihood of additional falls, given reported rates of 29% and 92% of FOF among recent fallers with previous falls [3, 12]. Studies suggest that FOF is a psychological experience resulting in reduced physical activity leading to poor balance, mobility impairment, and social isolation [13]. Such consequences may lead to increased likelihood for falling in the future. By comparison very little is known about FOF among older people with ID despite studies showing that older people with ID have higher rates
On the Impact of the Frequency of Saved Thermal Time-Steps in a Weakly-Coupled FE Weld Simulation Model  [PDF]
Richard P. Turner, R. Mark Ward
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2016.44052
Abstract: Finite element (FE) modelling methods were implemented to perform a weakly-coupled weld simulation activity on a series of simple plate welds, to determine the effects of altering the frequency of saving the thermal time-step result upon the mechanical results. By definition, the thermal results will be unaffected, but the mechanical results are calculated from the saved thermal results, hence can be changed when the frequency of saving thermal time-steps is altered. By default, most weakly-coupled thermal-mechanical solvers will save every single thermal time-step, for accuracy. Results indicated that during the welding operation, the thermal time-steps could be reduced to saving 1-in-every-2 thermal time-steps with minimal loss in mechanical accuracy. However, during the cooling operation, every time-step was required to be saved. Whilst this seems almost counter-intuitive that the time-step during the cooling operation is in some way more critical than during welding, it must be stated that the FE software employed for this exercise has a setting allowing the time-steps to become progressively large during cooling, when thermal gradients are much lower and as such both thermal and mechanical calculations are easier to converge.
Properties and Modeling of GWAS when Complex Disease Risk Is Due to Non-Complementing, Deleterious Mutations in Genes of Large Effect
Kevin R. Thornton ,Andrew J. Foran,Anthony D. Long
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003258
Abstract: Current genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have high power to detect intermediate frequency SNPs making modest contributions to complex disease, but they are underpowered to detect rare alleles of large effect (RALE). This has led to speculation that the bulk of variation for most complex diseases is due to RALE. One concern with existing models of RALE is that they do not make explicit assumptions about the evolution of a phenotype and its molecular basis. Rather, much of the existing literature relies on arbitrary mapping of phenotypes onto genotypes obtained either from standard population-genetic simulation tools or from non-genetic models. We introduce a novel simulation of a 100-kilobase gene region, based on the standard definition of a gene, in which mutations are unconditionally deleterious, are continuously arising, have partially recessive and non-complementing effects on phenotype (analogous to what is widely observed for most Mendelian disorders), and are interspersed with neutral markers that can be genotyped. Genes evolving according to this model exhibit a characteristic GWAS signature consisting of an excess of marginally significant markers. Existing tests for an excess burden of rare alleles in cases have low power while a simple new statistic has high power to identify disease genes evolving under our model. The structure of linkage disequilibrium between causative mutations and significantly associated markers under our model differs fundamentally from that seen when rare causative markers are assumed to be neutral. Rather than tagging single haplotypes bearing a large number of rare causative alleles, we find that significant SNPs in a GWAS tend to tag single causative mutations of small effect relative to other mutations in the same gene. Our results emphasize the importance of evaluating the power to detect associations under models that are genetically and evolutionarily motivated.
New Insights into the Skull of Istiodactylus latidens (Ornithocheiroidea, Pterodactyloidea)
Mark P. Witton
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033170
Abstract: The skull of the Cretaceous pterosaur Istiodactylus latidens, a historically important species best known for its broad muzzle of interlocking, lancet-shaped teeth, is almost completely known from the broken remains of several individuals, but the length of its jaws remains elusive. Estimates of I.?latidens jaw length have been exclusively based on the incomplete skull of NHMUK R3877 and, perhaps erroneously, reconstructed by assuming continuation of its broken skull pieces as preserved in situ. Here, an overlooked jaw fragment of NHMUK R3877 is redescribed and used to revise the skull reconstruction of I.?latidens. The new reconstruction suggests a much shorter skull than previously supposed, along with a relatively tall orbital region and proportionally slender maxilla, a feature documented in the early 20th century but ignored by all skull reconstructions of this species. These features indicate that the skull of I.?latidens is particularly distinctive amongst istiodactylids and suggests greater disparity between I.?latidens and I. sinensis than previously appreciated. A cladistic analysis of istiodactylid pterosaurs incorporating new predicted I.?latidens skull metrics suggests Istiodactylidae is constrained to five species (Liaoxipterus brachyognathus, Lonchengpterus zhoai, Nurhachius ignaciobritoi, Istiodactylus latidens and Istiodactylus sinensis) defined by their distinctive dentition, but excludes the putative istiodactylids Haopterus gracilis and Hongshanopterus lacustris. Istiodactylus latidens, I. sinensis and Li. brachyognathus form an unresolved clade of derived istiodactylids, and the similarity of comparable remains of I. sinensis and Li. brachyognathus suggest further work into their taxonomy and classification is required. The new skull model of I.?latidens agrees with the scavenging habits proposed for these pterosaurs, with much of their cranial anatomy converging on that of habitually scavenging birds.
Cancer models, genomic instability and somatic cellular Darwinian evolution
Mark P Little
Biology Direct , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6150-5-19
Abstract: This article was reviewed by RA Gatenby and M Kimmel.The biology of cancer is reviewed and evidence adduced that it can be modelled as a somatic cellular Darwinian evolutionary process; evidence for involvement of genomic instability is also reviewed.In this review article we shall critically review evidence on initiation and progression of cancer. In particular we shall attempt to justify why cancer can be treated as a somatic cellular Darwinian evolutionary process. A variety of quasi-mechanistic models of carcinogenesis will be reviewed, all based on this somatic Darwinian evolutionary hypothesis; in particular, the multi-stage model of Armitage and Doll [1], the two-mutation model of Moolgavkar, Venzon, and Knudson (MVK) [2,3], a multistage generalization of the MVK model of Little [4] and various generalizations of these incorporating effects of transmissible genomic instability (GI) [5,6]. In the "Biological background" section we shall review the basic biological data, and in the section "Genomic instability and somatic cellular Darwinian evolution in cancer" we shall examine the evidence for GI as an initiating event in cancer. In the section "Is somatic cellular Darwinian evolution in cancer plausible?" we shall consider the evidence for regarding development of cancer as a somatic Darwinian evolutionary process. Finally in the section "Carcinogenesis models and somatic cellular Darwinian evolution" we shall consider in turn various stochastic cancer models developed and widely employed in the last 50 years, all based on this hypothesis.The biology of cancer is a vast subject and inevitably in a review of this nature one can only touch on what might be regarded as the more important and relevant themes - those needing more background biology are advised to consult one of number of basic texts, for example, the recent book by Weinberg [7].Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by autonomous, uncontrolled cell proliferation, evasion of cell death, self-c
Well-spread sequences and edge-labellings with constant Hamilton-weight
P. Mark Kayll
Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science , 2004,
Abstract: A sequence (a i) of integers is well-spread if the sums a i +a j, for i
On Inflation with Non-minimal Coupling
Mark P. Hertzberg
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1007/JHEP11(2010)023
Abstract: A simple realization of inflation consists of adding the following operators to the Einstein-Hilbert action: (partial phi)^2, lambda phi^4, and xi phi^2 R, with xi a large non-minimal coupling. Recently there has been much discussion as to whether such theories make sense quantum mechanically and if the inflaton phi can also be the Standard Model Higgs. In this note we answer these questions. Firstly, for a single scalar phi, we show that the quantum field theory is well behaved in the pure gravity and kinetic sectors, since the quantum generated corrections are small. However, the theory likely breaks down at ~ m_pl / xi due to scattering provided by the self-interacting potential lambda phi^4. Secondly, we show that the theory changes for multiple scalars phi with non-minimal coupling xi phi dot phi R, since this introduces qualitatively new interactions which manifestly generate large quantum corrections even in the gravity and kinetic sectors, spoiling the theory for energies > m_pl / xi. Since the Higgs doublet of the Standard Model includes the Higgs boson and 3 Goldstone bosons, it falls into the latter category and therefore its validity is manifestly spoiled. We show that these conclusions hold in both the Jordan and Einstein frames and describe an intuitive analogy in the form of the pion Lagrangian. We also examine the recent claim that curvature-squared inflation models fail quantum mechanically. Our work appears to go beyond the recent discussions.
Quantum Radiation of Oscillons
Mark P. Hertzberg
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.82.045022
Abstract: Many classical scalar field theories possess remarkable solutions: coherently oscillating, localized clumps, known as oscillons. In many cases, the decay rate of classical small amplitude oscillons is known to be exponentially suppressed and so they are extremely long lived. In this work we compute the decay rate of quantized oscillons. We find it to be a power law in the amplitude and couplings of the theory. Therefore, the quantum decay rate is very different to the classical decay rate and is often dominant. We show that essentially all oscillons eventually decay by producing outgoing radiation. In single field theories the outgoing radiation has typically linear growth, while if the oscillon is coupled to other bosons the outgoing radiation can have exponential growth. The latter is a form of parametric resonance: explosive energy transfer from a localized clump into daughter fields. This may lead to interesting phenomenology in the early universe. Our results are obtained from a perturbative analysis, a non-perturbative Floquet analysis, and numerics.
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