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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 18510 matches for " Mark Hanson "
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Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion
Mark Hanson
Theological Librarianship , 2010,
Learning about Vegetarian Diets in School: Curricular Representations of Food and Nutrients in Elementary Health Education  [PDF]
Clara Hanson
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2012.21010
Abstract: This paper examines the way non-meat and plant based diets are discussed in four elementary curricula. The author used an open coding technique of grounded theory to understand the way food, nutrition and vegetarianism was discussed. The curricula relied heavily upon the USDA Food Pyramid and a related concept of “balance” for nutritional information. The curricula also discussed nutrition in terms of food and food groups, rather than in terms of nutrients. Although some of the curricula included information about the benefits of vegetarian diets, the high level of use of the Food Pyramid often overwhelmed the low level of information about vegetarianism.
Developmental origins of health and disease: reducing the burden of chronic disease in the next generation
Peter D Gluckman, Mark A Hanson, Murray D Mitchell
Genome Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/gm135
Abstract: The concept of developmental origins of health and disease is predicated upon the assumption that environmental factors acting early in life (usually in fetal life) have profound effects on vulnerability to disease later in life, often in adulthood. The range of experimental, clinical and epidemiological data linking conditions in early life to later health is now overwhelming [1]. Initially, the focus was on a small fraction of children -those who were born small - but it is now clear that the environment impacts on the development of every child [2]. Observations and experimental approaches have generally considered nutritional changes or, classically, alterations in glucocorticosteroid exposure, reflecting the critical maturational events linked to such events. Indeed, the placenta is in a critical position to cause or modify such challenges by altering nutritional transport functions or the pattern and nature of endocrine signals impacting the fetus. Nor does the story end at birth, because epigenetic development can be influenced by how the infant is fed, and perhaps how its gut is colonized with commensal bacteria.Yet there has been considerable resistance to these ideas. Medicine is replete with reductionist biomedical thinking and this has, in some ways, limited not only our understanding but also our ability to address the challenge of some contemporary health problems. Nowhere is this clearer than in the outcomes of genome-wide association studies where, despite substantial investment, only a relatively small proportion of risk of common non-communicable diseases (NCDs) - such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes - is explained [3]. The economic and humanitarian costs of NCDs are enormous in both the developed and the developing world, and indeed they may destabilize the economies of low-income countries where recent data show that risk markers for these diseases become evident early in the process of socioeconomic improvement, and well below the level o
Trends in U.S. Voting Attitudes with a Consideration of Variation by Gender and Race/Ethnicity  [PDF]
Sandra L. Hanson
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2016.64038
Abstract: Low turnout rates and discussions of disaffected voters are receiving considerable attention as we approach the 2016 U.S. presidential elections. Do trends in American’s attitudes about voting and correlates of these attitudes (political involvement, efficacy, and social connectedness) confirm the pessimistic assessments and do voters across gender and race/ethnic groups think similarly? Data from the American National Election Studies (ANES) provide some reason for optimism. Trends over the past few presidential election periods show a majority of Americans intend to vote and this majority is increasing. Trends show increases or stability on numerous correlates of voting attitudes including political involvement and social connectedness. Trends in voting attitudes by gender and race/ethnicity show considerable variation. Women and race/ethnic minorities (especially African Americans) are an important element of the positive trends shown here. Findings on external efficacy are an exception to the generally optimistic trends with data showing a majority of respondents don’t believe public officials care what people like the respondent think. However, trends do not show an increase in negative attitudes about public officials. Implications of the findings are considered.
Dietary Protein Restriction during F0 Pregnancy in Rats Induces Transgenerational Changes in the Hepatic Transcriptome in Female Offspring
Samuel P. Hoile,Karen A. Lillycrop,Nicola A. Thomas,Mark A. Hanson,Graham C. Burdge
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021668
Abstract: There is considerable evidence for non-genomic transmission between generations of phenotypes induced by environmental exposures during development, although the mechanism is poorly understood. We investigated whether alterations in expression of the liver transcriptome induced in F1 offspring by feeding F0 dams a protein-restricted (PR) diet during pregnancy were passed with or without further change to two subsequent generations. The number of genes that differed between adult female offspring of F0 protein-restricted (PR) and protein-sufficient (PS) dams was F1 1,684 genes, F2 1,680 and F3 2,062. 63/113 genes that were altered in all three generations showed directionally opposite differences between generations. There was a trend toward increased proportions of up-regulated genes in F3 compared to F1. KEGG analysis showed that only the Adherens Junctions pathway was altered in all three generations. PR offspring showed altered fasting glucose homeostasis and changes in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase promoter methylation and expression in all three generations. These findings show that dietary challenge during F0 pregnancy induced altered gene expression in all three generations, but relatively few genes showed transmission of altered expression between generations. For the majority of altered genes, these changes were not found in all generations, including some genes that were changed in F3 but not F1, or the direction and magnitude of difference between PR and PS differed between generations. Such variation may reflect differences between generations in the signals received by the fetus from the mother as a consequence of changes in the interaction between her phenotype and the environment.
Fetal size in the second trimester is associated with the duration of pregnancy, small fetuses having longer pregnancies
Synn?ve L Johnsen, Tom Wilsgaard, Svein Rasmussen, Mark A Hanson, Keith M Godfrey, Torvid Kiserud
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-8-25
Abstract: We analysed duration of gestation data for 541 women who had a spontaneous delivery having previously been recruited to a cross-sectional study of 650 low-risk pregnancies. All had a regular menses and a known date of their last menstrual period (LMP). Subjects were examined using ultrasound to determine fetal head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) at 10–24 weeks of gestation. Length of the pregnancy was calculated from LMP, and birth weights were noted. The effect of fetal size at 10–24 weeks of gestation on pregnancy duration was assessed also when adjusting for the difference between LMP and ultrasound based fetal age.Small fetuses (z-score -2.5) at second trimester ultrasound scan had lower birth weights (p < 0.0001) and longer duration of pregnancy (p < 0.0001) than large fetuses (z-score +2.5): 289.6 days (95%CI 288.0 to 291.1) vs. 276.1 (95%CI 273.6 to 278.4) for HC, 289.0 days (95%CI 287.4 to 290.6) vs. 276.9 days (95%CI 274.4 to 279.2) for AC and 288.3 vs. 277.9 days (95%CI 275.6 to 280.1) for FL. Controlling for the difference between LMP and ultrasound dating (using HC measurement), the effect of fetal size on pregnancy length was reduced to half but was still present for AC and FL (comparing z-score -2.5 with +2.5, 286.6 vs. 280.2 days, p = 0.004, and 286.0 vs. 280.9, p = 0.008, respectively).Fetal size in the second trimester is a determinant of birth weight and pregnancy duration, small fetuses having lower birth weights and longer pregnancies (up to 13 days compared with large fetuses). Our results support a concept of individually assigned pregnancy duration according to growth rates rather than imposing a standard of 280–282 days on all pregnancies.It was N?gele and his contemporaries who first suggested counting 40 weeks from the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) to predict the day of confinement [1]. Subsequently, WHO has also defined the normal length of pregnancy to be 40 weeks (280 days)[2], but s
Developmental origins of non-communicable disease: Implications for research and public health
Robert Barouki, Peter D Gluckman, Philippe Grandjean, Mark Hanson, Jerrold J Heindel
Environmental Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-11-42
Abstract: For many years biologists considered the developmental period to be controlled by a strict, hard-wired genetic program, and thus it was uncertain how it could be influenced by the environment. It is now clear that development is plastic, and that it allows the organism to respond to the surrounding environment, especially during early development when cells are differentiating and tissues are developing. This capacity is based on molecular pathways that lead to control of gene expression and induction of specific phenotypes in the absence of DNA sequence modification [1]. These pathways, as currently understood, include DNA methylation, histone covalent modification, and noncoding RNA expression. Such epigenetic modifications can be passed from one cell generation to the next and, in some cases, when germ cells are targeted, can be transgenerationally transmitted [2]. Furthermore, these changes can be cell, tissue, and sex specific, and time dependent. In many cases they may not be apparent during a latent period which may last from months to years or decades. Thus, each individual has one genome, but will hold multiple epigenomes.The ability to respond to environmental conditions can be evolutionarily advantageous by allowing fine-tuning of gene expression, likely through epigenetic mechanisms [3]. Thus, developmentally plastic processes allow the organism to adapt to changing environments in order to maintain or improve reproductive capability in part by sustaining health through the reproductive period. However, interference with these developmentally-adaptive processes may also have adverse consequences on some functions and disease risks later in life. Furthermore, these mechanisms are also sensitive to environmental stimuli other than the nutrients and physiological factors that are normative, in evolutionary terms, to the human environment. Indeed, drugs, industrial chemicals, tobacco smoke, and other environmental exposures can affect these same mechanisms l
Quality of outpatient clinical notes: a stakeholder definition derived through qualitative research
Hanson Janice L,Stephens Mark B,Pangaro Louis N,Gimbel Ronald W
BMC Health Services Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-12-407
Abstract: Background There are no empirically-grounded criteria or tools to define or benchmark the quality of outpatient clinical documentation. Outpatient clinical notes document care, communicate treatment plans and support patient safety, medical education, medico-legal investigations and reimbursement. Accurately describing and assessing quality of clinical documentation is a necessary improvement in an increasingly team-based healthcare delivery system. In this paper we describe the quality of outpatient clinical notes from the perspective of multiple stakeholders. Methods Using purposeful sampling for maximum diversity, we conducted focus groups and individual interviews with clinicians, nursing and ancillary staff, patients, and healthcare administrators at six federal health care facilities between 2009 and 2011. All sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed and qualitatively analyzed using open, axial and selective coding. Results The 163 participants included 61 clinicians, 52 nurse/ancillary staff, 31 patients and 19 administrative staff. Three organizing themes emerged: 1) characteristics of quality in clinical notes, 2) desired elements within the clinical notes and 3) system supports to improve the quality of clinical notes. We identified 11 codes to describe characteristics of clinical notes, 20 codes to describe desired elements in quality clinical notes and 11 codes to describe clinical system elements that support quality when writing clinical notes. While there was substantial overlap between the aspects of quality described by the four stakeholder groups, only clinicians and administrators identified ease of translation into billing codes as an important characteristic of a quality note. Only patients rated prioritization of their medical problems as an aspect of quality. Nurses included care and education delivered to the patient, information added by the patient, interdisciplinary information, and infection alerts as important content. Conclusions Perspectives of these four stakeholder groups provide a comprehensive description of quality in outpatient clinical documentation. The resulting description of characteristics and content necessary for quality notes provides a research-based foundation for assessing the quality of clinical documentation in outpatient health care settings.
Content validity and reliability of a food frequency questionnaire to measure eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intakes in young adults: A pilot study
Jennifer A. Hanson,Richard R. Rosenkranz,Carol Ann Holcomb,Mark D. Haub
Functional Foods in Health and Disease , 2012,
Abstract: Background: The food environment is rapidly changing with regard to omega-3 fatty acids.Research is hindered by the lack of a tool specifically designed to measure intakes of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in US populations. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the content validity and reliability of a novel 14-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed to measure contemporary sources of eicosapentaenoic aid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).Methods: During May of 2009, college students (n = 165) completed the FFQ and provided feedback. Forty-five completed the questionnaire a second time allowing for the evaluation of test-retest reliability.Results: None of the students reported consuming a food naturally rich in EPA and DHA that was not included in the FFQ. Overall instrument reliability (n = 54) was strong (ρ = 0.86, p < 0.001) and the reliability for each of the non-functional food items ranged from moderate to strong (ρ = 0.48 to 0.86, p < 0.001). Correlation coefficients for each of the functional food items were low and/or non-significant. Uncertainty regarding omega-3 functional foods was listed as a reason by eight of the twelve who felt one or more of the questions were difficult to answer. Conclusions: Overall instrument reliability was strong and content validity was good. Nonetheless, participant feedback, and the decreased test-retest coefficients for the omega-3 functional foods, suggests unfamiliarity may be problematic when measuring intakes from these food sources.
Quenching Spin Decoherence in Diamond through Spin Bath Polarization
Susumu Takahashi,Ronald Hanson,Johan van Tol,Mark S. Sherwin,David D. Awschalom
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.047601
Abstract: We experimentally demonstrate that the decoherence of a spin by a spin bath can be completely eliminated by fully polarizing the spin bath. We use electron paramagnetic resonance at 240 gigahertz and 8 Tesla to study the spin coherence time $T_2$ of nitrogen-vacancy centers and nitrogen impurities in diamond from room temperature down to 1.3 K. A sharp increase of $T_2$ is observed below the Zeeman energy (11.5 K). The data are well described by a suppression of the flip-flop induced spin bath fluctuations due to thermal spin polarization. $T_2$ saturates at $\sim 250 \mu s$ below 2 K, where the spin bath polarization is 99.4 %.
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