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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 17975 matches for " Mark Fenton "
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Bacteriophage-Derived Peptidase Eliminates and Prevents Staphylococcal Biofilms
Mark Fenton,Ruth Keary,Olivia McAuliffe,R. Paul Ross
International Journal of Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/625341
Building Trust: Children Experiences with Food Allergies at Summer Camp  [PDF]
Sydney Leibel, Nancy Fenton
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.814143
Abstract: Introduction: The objective of this study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of children with food allergies at summer camp. Methods: Qualitative draw-and-tell interviews were conducted with 14 food allergic individuals aged 5 - 12 years to capture their lived experience with food allergies at summer camp. Results: Four key interdependent themes: trust, accommodation, proactive parents and coping strategies were identified in how children perceive their food allergies in unregulated summer camp environments.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and productivity of schizophrenia trials: an ecological study
Carina Moll, Ursula Gessler, Stephanie Bartsch, Hany El-sayeh, Mark Fenton, Clive Adams
BMC Psychiatry , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-3-18
Abstract: Ecological study – investigating the relationship between four economic/demographic variables and number of schizophrenia RCTs per country. The variable with closest correlation was used to predict the expected number of studies.GDP closely correlated with schizophrenia trial output, with 76% of the total variation about the Y explained by the regression line (r = 0.87, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.92, r2 = 0.76). Many countries have a strong tradition of schizophrenia trials, exceeding their predicted output. All nations with no identified trial output had GDPs that predicted zero trial activity. Several nations with relatively small GDPs are, nevertheless, highly productive of trials. Some wealthy countries seem either not to have produced the expected number of randomised trials or not to have disseminated them to the English-speaking world.This hypothesis-generating study could not investigate causal relationships, but suggests, that for those seeking all relevant studies, expending effort searching the scientific literature of Germany, Italy, France, Brazil and Japan may be a good investment.Most randomised trials are produced in the USA. Certainly, when it comes to trials relevant to the care of people with schizophrenia, certain countries have a strong tradition of trialling, and others have not [1]. This study investigates whether certain accessible economic and/or demographic variables are, in some way linked, and can be predictive of productivity of schizophrenia trials.The Cochrane Schizophrenia Group has constructed a unique collection of reports of randomised controlled trials relevant to schizophrenia [2]. In this collection a single electronic record is made per study and the multiple references/reports/presentations of that study are appended to that single record. This attempt to decrease the confusion caused by 'salami' publication is made possible using custom made specialised reference/study management software [3]. A study-based register affords an opportun
Bacteriophage-Derived Peptidase Eliminates and Prevents Staphylococcal Biofilms
Mark Fenton,Ruth Keary,Olivia McAuliffe,R. Paul Ross,Jim O'Mahony,Aidan Coffey
International Journal of Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/625341
Abstract: New antibacterial agents are urgently needed for the elimination of biofilm-forming bacteria that are highly resistant to traditional antimicrobial agents. Proliferation of such bacteria can lead to significant economic losses in the agri-food sector. This study demonstrates the potential of the bacteriophage-derived peptidase, , as a biocidal agent for the rapid disruption of biofilm-forming staphylococci, commonly associated with bovine mastitis. Purified applied to biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus DPC5246 completely eliminated the staphylococcal biofilms within 4?h. In addition, was able to prevent biofilm formation by this strain. The lysin also reduced S. aureus in a skin decolonization model. Our data demonstrates the potential of as a biocidal agent for prevention and treatment of biofilm-associated staphylococcal infections or as a decontaminating agent in the food and healthcare sectors. 1. Introduction Staphylococcal species commonly colonise the skin and mucosal membranes of both humans and animals. They are a significant causative agent of bovine mastitis in dairy herds [1] and are also associated with a number of diseases in humans, ranging from a variety of skin conditions to more serious infections such as septicemia [2]. Staphylococcal food poisoning is among the most common food-borne microbial diseases [3] and contamination of food industrial surfaces with staphylococcal species has been demonstrated to be a considerable risk factor [4–6]. Along with the urgent requirement for novel antibacterials to combat the prevalence of antibiotic/disinfectant resistant staphylococci in food processing, veterinary and healthcare settings, there is an increasing need for effective antimicrobial agents which can prevent and treat staphylococcal biofilm-associated infections [7–11]. Biofilms are multilayered communities of sessile cells protected by an extracellular matrix, which often adhere to food contact surfaces, damaged tissue and indwelling medical devices [12–14]. Once formed, biofilms may be up to 1,000 times more resistant to antimicrobial agents than planktonic cells alone making them particularly difficult to eliminate [15]. This can ultimately lead to increased risk of persistent infections, as is commonly the case with bovine mastitis [16]. In addition, because of their increased levels of resistance, biofilm-associated infections can result in a need for explantation of medical devices in human healthcare settings [17, 18]. Although the precise mechanisms of biofilm antibiotic resistance have yet to be fully resolved, failure to
The Epidemiology of District Surgery in Malawi: a Two Year Study of Surgical Rates and Indices in Rural Africa
PM Fenton
East and Central African Journal of Surgery , 2011,
Abstract: Background: The true surgical requirement of a rural African population is also not precisely known. Methods: Data gathered over a 2-year period from 1993 to 1995 on surgical and anaesthetic activities in 18 District Hospitals in Malawi are presented. Results: Theatre records showed that 45,032 operations were carried out at District Hospitals in the study area which had a catchment population of 6,100,000 giving an average annual rate of 369 operations per 100,000 population (range 151-1337). Of the total, 11,466 operations were classed as major, giving an average annual rate of 94 per 100,000 population (range 31-242 / 100,000). Comparable rates for total and major operations carried out in the central referral hospital were 865 and 269 per 100,000, respectively, allowing for referrals. A total of 7,288 caesarean sections (CS) were carried out, constituting 65.6% of all major operations. The rural CS rate was 60 per 100,000 compared to the central hospital rate of 151 per 100,000. In the district hospitals, 75% of all surgery, including most major operations, was carried out by paramedical cadres (Clinical Officers or Medical Assistants), 8.2% by the resident District Health Officer and 0.8% by visiting specialists. All general and regional anaesthesia was given by paramedical cadres. The ratios of CS to all operations and laparotomy to all major operations showed a different pattern of surgery between district hospitals and between district and central hospitals. The value of these indices in identifying deficiencies in the surgical services is discussed. East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2011 Nov/ December;16 (3)
Why the United States Decided not to Fulfil the Arms Embargo on Bosnia in November 1994? Analysis of the Domestic Political Game
Paul Fenton
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 1996,
Abstract: The United States’ decision to stop enforcing, selectively, the arms embargo against the Bosnian Muslims (which also exempted the Federation between Bosnia and Croacia) in November 1994 helped change, then, the military, political and social dynamics of the war by a) indirectly allowing for a balancing of military capabilities to take place in the region and b) directly sending a message to the allies in NATO that the US was intent on achieving more decision-making autonomy regarding the United Nation’s resolutions and its allies’ stances toward Bosnia. Whereas the decision satisfied the US domestic political expectations of not getting bogged down militarily in Bosnia and demonstrated a pragmatic approach toward ethnicbased conflicts in Europe, it did not meet with approval from many of the NATO allies and other countries in the European Union. On the other hand, the US decision may havefound support in those countries belonging to the Organization of the Islamic Conference.The decision, which took place during a Congressional election year, was the outcome of a national debate about the United States’ political and military role and responsability in post-Cold War Europe. This decision pit the influences and the strategically wider or longer-term objectives of the Defense and State Departments and the National Security Council, and most importantly, those part of the agenda directed by a rather disengaged (initially) and less persuasive President Clinton (foreign policy-wise regarding Bosnia) inhis second year in the White House, against the punctual, diverse objectives and expectations of a more opportunistic Congress set on pressuring the President.
The Ketogenic Diet Is an Effective Adjuvant to Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Malignant Glioma
Mohammed G. Abdelwahab, Kathryn E. Fenton, Mark C. Preul, Jong M. Rho, Andrew Lynch, Phillip Stafford, Adrienne C. Scheck
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036197
Abstract: Introduction The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that alters metabolism by increasing the level of ketone bodies in the blood. KetoCal? (KC) is a nutritionally complete, commercially available 4:1 (fat: carbohydrate+protein) ketogenic formula that is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for the management of refractory pediatric epilepsy. Diet-induced ketosis causes changes to brain homeostasis that have potential for the treatment of other neurological diseases such as malignant gliomas. Methods We used an intracranial bioluminescent mouse model of malignant glioma. Following implantation animals were maintained on standard diet (SD) or KC. The mice received 2×4 Gy of whole brain radiation and tumor growth was followed by in vivo imaging. Results Animals fed KC had elevated levels of β-hydroxybutyrate (p = 0.0173) and an increased median survival of approximately 5 days relative to animals maintained on SD. KC plus radiation treatment were more than additive, and in 9 of 11 irradiated animals maintained on KC the bioluminescent signal from the tumor cells diminished below the level of detection (p<0.0001). Animals were switched to SD 101 days after implantation and no signs of tumor recurrence were seen for over 200 days. Conclusions KC significantly enhances the anti-tumor effect of radiation. This suggests that cellular metabolic alterations induced through KC may be useful as an adjuvant to the current standard of care for the treatment of human malignant gliomas.
The StrongWomen Change Clubs: Engaging Residents to Catalyze Positive Change in Food and Physical Activity Environments
Rebecca A. Seguin,Sara C. Folta,Mackenzie Sehlke,Miriam E. Nelson,Eleanor Heidkamp-Young,Mark Fenton,Bridgid Junot
Journal of Environmental and Public Health , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/162403
Abstract: Introduction. The epidemic of obesity is a multifaceted public health issue. Positive policy and environmental changes are needed to support healthier eating and increased physical activity. Methods. StrongWomen Change Clubs (SWCCs) were developed through an academic-community research partnership between researchers at Cornell University and Tufts University and community partners (cooperative extension educators) in rural towns in seven U.S. states. Extension educators served as the local leader and each recruited 10–15 residents to undertake a project to improve some aspect of the nutrition or physical activity environment. Most residents had limited (or no) experience in civic engagement. At 6 and 12 months after implementation, the research team conducted key informant interviews with SWCC leaders to capture their perceptions of program process, benchmark achievement, and self-efficacy. Results. At 12 months, each SWCC had accomplished one benchmark; the majority had completed three or more benchmarks. They described common processes for achieving benchmarks such as building relationships and leveraging stakeholder partnerships. Barriers to benchmark achievement included busy schedules and resistance to and slow pace of change. Conclusion. Findings suggest that community change initiatives that involve stakeholders, build upon existing activities and organizational resources, and establish feasible timelines and goals can successfully catalyze environmental change. 1. Introduction Obesity is understood to be the result of complex socioecological factors and interventions that target multiple levels of the socioecological framework, including individual, social, built environment, and policy factors, are more likely to be successful [1–3]. Civic engagement is one approach to create support for environmental change. However, the effectiveness of civic engagement projects and/or coalition work to address obesity is difficult to measure, primarily because goals and activities differ between communities [4]. In a comprehensive review examining community coalitions focused on a range of health promotion initiatives, Zakocs and Edwards report inconsistent results when examining factors associated with coalition effectiveness; some factors associated with success were group cohesion, leadership, agency collaboration, member participation, and diversity [5]. Similarly, Roussos and Fawcett reported that while findings are insufficient to make strong conclusions, community-level coalitions aimed at changing systems and/or behavior hold potential in affecting
A new growth chart for preterm babies: Babson and Benda's chart updated with recent data and a new format
Tanis R Fenton
BMC Pediatrics , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-3-13
Abstract: The literature was searched from 1980 to 2002 for more recent data to complete the pre and post term sections of the chart. Data were selected from population studies with large sample sizes. Comparisons were made between the new chart and the Babson and Benda graph. To validate the growth chart the growth results from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network (NICHD) were superimposed on the new chart.The new data produced curves that generally followed patterns similar to the old growth graph. Mean differences between the curves of the two charts reached statistical significance after term. Babson's 10th percentiles fell between the new data percentiles: the 5th to 17th for weight, the 5th and 15th for head circumference, and the 6th and 16th for length. The growth patterns of the NICHD infants deviated away from the curves of the chart in the first weeks after birth. When the infants reached an average weight of 2 kilograms, those with a birthweight in the range of 700 to 1000 grams had achieved greater than the 10th percentile on average for head growth, but remained below the 3rd percentile for weight and length.The updated growth chart allows a comparison of an infant's growth first with the fetus as early as 22 weeks and then with the term infant to 10 weeks. Comparison of the size of the NICHD infants at a weight of 2 kilograms provides evidence that on average preterm infants are growth retarded with respect to weight and length while their head size has caught up to birth percentiles. As with all meta-analyses, the validity of this growth chart is limited by the heterogeneity of the data sources. Further validation is needed to illustrate the growth patterns of preterm infants to older ages.Growth monitoring is a part of the medical and nutritional assessment of preterm infants. Growth charts provide the basis for this assessment by providing a comparison to a reference which allows for a visual picture of both
A perspective on bats (Chiroptera)
M. Brock Fenton
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 2013,
Abstract: With over 130 species, bats are the most diverse group of mammals almost everywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2000, two books (Monadjem et al. 2010; Taylor 2000) have made it much easier to appreciate this reality. Species previously unrecognised are frequent discoveries (e.g. Taylor et al. 2012). Whilst most species are mainly insectivorous, some rely more directly on plants, taking fruit and visiting flowers to obtain nectar and pollen. The combination of mobility, long lifespan and diversity of trophic roles makes bats potentially valuable as indicators of ecosystem health (Cumming & Spiesman 2006). Lack of detailed information, however, makes it easy to overlook bats when focusing on issues of conservation.
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