Abstract:
We identify putative load-bearing structures (bridges) in experimental colloidal systems studied by confocal microscopy. Bridges are co-operative structures that have been used to explain stability and inhomogeneous force transmission in simulated granular packings with a range of densities. We show that bridges similar to those found in granular simulations are present in real experimental colloidal packings. We describe critically the bridge-finding procedure for real experimental data and propose a new criterion-Lowest Mean Squared Separation (LSQS)-for selecting optimum stabilisations.

Abstract:
Oscillatory flows are common in the environment, industrial applications and rheological investigations. We experimentally characterise the response of the alga {\it Dunaliella salina} to oscillatory shear and squeeze flows, and report the surprising discovery that algal swimming trajectories orient perpendicular to the flow-shear plane. The ordering has the characteristics of a resonance in the driving parameter space, which is qualitatively reproduced by a model accounting for helical swimming. Our discovery challenges current understanding of swimmers in flows and provides the foundations for the oscillatory rheology of active suspensions, of particular relevance to algal processing applications.

Abstract:
We study the flow of model experimental hard sphere colloidal suspensions at high volume fraction $\Phi$ driven through a constriction by a pressure gradient. Above a particle-size dependent limit $\Phi_0$, direct microscopic observations demonstrate jamming and unjamming--conversion of fluid to solid and vice versa--during flow. We show that such a jamming flow produces a reduction in colloid concentration $\Phi_{x}$ downstream of the constriction. We propose that this `self-filtration' effect is the consequence of a combination of jamming of the particulate part of the system and continuing flow of the liquid part, i.e. the solvent, through the pores of the jammed solid. Thus we link the concept of jamming in colloidal and granular media with a 'two-fluid'-like picture of the flow of concentrated suspensions. Results are also discussed in the light of Osborne Reynolds' original experiments on dilation in granular materials.

Abstract:
We analyse structure and dynamics in simulated high-concentration hard sphere colloidal suspensions by means of calculations based on the void space. We show that remoteness, a quantity measuring the scale of spaces, is useful in studying crystallization, since ordering of the particles involves a change in the way empty space is distributed. Calculation of remoteness also allows breakdown of the system into mesoscopic neighbor sets: statistics of mean remoteness and local volume fraction in these neighbor sets reveal that nuclei are formed at locally higher concentration, i.e. nucleation involves increased heterogeneity of the system. Full crystallization results in the transformation of the neighbor set mean remoteness distribution to an exponential form. The temporal fluctuation of local volume fractions in neighbor sets reveals significant details of dynamics, including abrupt dilations and compressions of local regions: leading to a clearer picture of the physical components of 'cage' dynamics in the colloidal glass.

Abstract:
We examine the geometry of the spaces between particles in diffusion-limited cluster aggregation, a numerical model of aggregating suspensions. Computing the distribution of distances from each point to the nearest particle, we show that it has a scaled form independent of the concentration phi, for both two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) model gels at low phi. The mean remoteness is proportional to the density-density correlation length of the gel, xi, allowing a more precise measurement of xi than by other methods. A simple analytical form for the scaled remoteness distribution is developed, highlighting the geometrical information content of the data. We show that the second moment of the distribution gives a useful estimate of the permeability of porous media.

Abstract:
Granulation is a process whereby a dense colloidal suspension is converted into pasty granules (surrounded by air) by application of shear. Central to the stability of the granules is the capillary force arising from the interfacial tension between solvent and air. This force appears capable of maintaining a solvent granule in a jammed solid state, under conditions where the same amount of solvent and colloid could also exist as a flowable droplet. We argue that in the early stages of granulation the physics of dilatancy, which requires that a powder expand on shearing, is converted by capillary forces into the physics of arrest. Using a schematic model of colloidal arrest under stress, we speculate upon various jamming and granulation scenarios. Some preliminary experimental results on aspects of granulation in hard-sphere colloidal suspensions are also reported.

Abstract:
The amount of water stored in snowpack is the single most important measurement for the management of water supply and flood control systems. The available water content in snow is called the snow water equivalent (SWE). The product of snow density and depth provides an estimate of SWE. In this paper, snow depth and density are estimated by a nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm. The inputs to this algorithm are global positioning system (GPS) signals and a simple GPS interferometric reflectometry (GPS-IR) model. The elevation angles of interest at the GPS receiving antenna are between 5^{0} and 30^{0}. A snow-covered prairie grass field experiment shows potential for inferring snow water equivalent using GPS-IR. For this case study, the average inferred snow depth (17.9 cm) is within the in situ measurement range (17.6 cm ± 1.5 cm). However, the average inferred snow density (0.13 g^{.}cm^{-3}) overestimates the in situ measurements (0.08 g^{.}cm^{-3} ± 0.02 g^{.}cm^{-3}). Consequently, the average inferred SWE (2.33 g^{.}cm^{-2}) also overestimates the in situ calculations (1.38 g^{.}cm^{-2} ± 0.36 g^{.}cm^{-2}).

Abstract:
We systematically investigate the photoexcited (PE) quasi-particle (QP) relaxation and low-energy electronic structure in electron doped Ba(Fe_{1-x}Co_{x})_{2}As_{2} single crystals as a function of Co doping, 0<= x <=0.11. The evolution of the photoinduced reflectivity transients with $x$ proceeds with no abrupt changes. In the orthorhombic spin-density-wave (SDW) state a bottleneck associated with a partial charge-gap opening is detected, similar to previous results in different SDW iron-pnictides. The relative charge gap magnitude decreases with increasing x. In the superconducting (SC) state an additional relaxational component appears due to a partial (or complete) destruction of the SC state proceeding on a sub-0.5-picosecond timescale. From the SC component saturation behavior the optical SC-state destruction energy, U_p/k_B=0.3 K/Fe, is determined near the optimal doping. The subsequent relatively slow recovery of the SC state indicates clean SC gaps. The T-dependence of the transient reflectivity amplitude in the normal state is consistent with the presence of a pseudogap in the QP density of states. The polarization anisotropy of the transients suggests that the pseudogap-like behavior might be associated with a broken point symmetry resulting from nematic electronic fluctuations persisting up to T~200 K at any x. The second moment of the Eliashberg function, obtained from the relaxation rate in the metallic state at higher temperatures, indicates a moderate electron phonon coupling, lambda <~0.3, that decreases with increasing doping.