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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 18502 matches for " Mark Boyd "
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Industry and Bioethics: What Price the Relationship?
Mark Boyd ,Wendy Rogers
PLOS Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030281
Squarefree values of trinomial discriminants
David W. Boyd,Greg Martin,Mark Thom
Mathematics , 2014, DOI: 10.1112/S1461157014000436
Abstract: The discriminant of a trinomial of the form $x^n \pm x^m \pm 1$ has the form $\pm n^n \pm (n-m)^{n-m} m^m$ if $n$ and $m$ are relatively prime. We investigate when these discriminants have nontrivial square factors. We explain various unlikely-seeming parametric families of square factors of these discriminant values: for example, when $n$ is congruent to 2 (mod 6) we have that $((n^2-n+1)/3)^2$ always divides $n^n - (n-1)^{n-1}$. In addition, we discover many other square factors of these discriminants that do not fit into these parametric families. The set of primes whose squares can divide these sporadic values as $n$ varies seems to be independent of $m$, and this set can be seen as a generalization of the Wieferich primes, those primes $p$ such that $2^{p-1}$ is congruent to 1 (mod $p^2$). We provide heuristics for the density of squarefree values of these discriminants and the density of these "sporadic" primes.
The Propensity of a Science-Based Discipline towards Surface Learning Compared to the Arts—A Fresh Look at Two Cultures  [PDF]
Warren Lake, William Boyd, Wendy Boyd
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.616175
Abstract: The propensity of science students towards surface and deep learning approaches was investigated to determine whether they were more likely to be encouraged toward a surface rather than deep approach to learning: more specifically do undergraduate environmental science students favour a surface approach to a greater extent than students in other disciplines such as the arts. Examining whether a discipline favours towards students adopting a particular approach to learning, this study surveyed over 500 undergraduate students across seven discipline areas at one university to examine patterns of learning approaches. Analysis of scores reflected tendencies towards surface and deep approaches: motivations and strategies indicated that environmental science students do not adopt a significantly different overall approach compared to students in all other disciplines, apart from a greater tendency towards a surface approach on the main scale and surface strategy subscale compared, specifically, to arts and social science. The findings appear to indicate that both the Schools of Arts & Social Science and Environment, Science & Engineering, while multi-disciplinary in nature, may still show apparent remnants of “two cultures”.
Age, Maturity and Gender, and the Propensity towards Surface and Deep Learning Approaches amongst University Students  [PDF]
Warren Lake, William Boyd
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.622242
Abstract: The approach that a student takes towards their study has a substantial impact on the quality of their learning and academic success—a deep rather than surface approach more likely to be associated with academic success. Using the validated study processes questionnaire developed by Biggs et al. (2001), this study surveys over 500 undergraduate students across one university to examine patterns of learning approaches against age, maturity and gender. Analysis indicates that age is important in terms of the tendency towards adopting a deep or surface learning approach; mature age students are more likely to adopt a deep learning approach and less likely to adopt a surface approach. There are no significant differences in deep or surface approach scores between genders. However, in relation to maturity, both mature age males and females score a statistically higher score on deep motive compared to usual age females. However, this is not the case for usual age males, with no significant difference found. This same pattern also occurred for the deep strategy subscale component. Mature males and females, as well being more motivated to adopt deep learning approaches, undertake strategies that are more likely to lead to a higher scale scores compared to usual age females but not usual age males.
Adaptive Expertise—In Understanding and Teaching “Eco-Friendly” Design, Are Teachers Googling It Right?  [PDF]
David Ellis, Bill Boyd
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.623256
Abstract: Any curriculum is a construct of perceived social, political and economic needs developed at a point in time. Given that these needs are in a constant state of flux, the curriculum is subjected to periodical renewal and development processes. Gaining more visibility in the iterations of curriculum documentation is the need for Australians to be more aware of their activities impacting on the environment. Comparable to a specific curriculum document, the content knowledge delivered through initial teacher education is specific to the conditions at a point in time, requiring teachers to adapt as the curriculum evolves. Peering through the lens of teacher content knowledge, research has shown that teachers need to efficiently adapt to these changes and effectively develop their expertise in the new content material. Those that can innovate in applying their existing knowledge to the new content are said to possess adaptive expertise. Given the breadth and diversity of school curriculum, the economisation of formalised professional learning opportunities does not address the shortfall in teacher content knowledge. As a result, qualified teachers have resorted to autonomous methods of professional learning to bridge the knowledge gap. This study examines whether autonomous professional learning approaches are an effective method for teachers to gain an understanding of new syllabus content. Using a case study of technology education teachers self-educating around the concepts of eco-friendly technology education, the study identifies the intrinsic motivation of teachers to know and understand their evolving subject, and provides a basis for self-directed and autonomous professional learning. What this results in is the successful development of a basic understanding of new information and concepts in technology education.
Corrections to the Bjorken and Voloshin sum rules
C. Glenn Boyd,Zoltan Ligeti,Ira Z. Rothstein,Mark B. Wise
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.55.3027
Abstract: We calculate near zero recoil the order $\alpha_s$ corrections to the Bjorken and Voloshin sum rules that bound the $B\to D^{(*)}\ell\bar\nu$ form factors. These bounds are derived by relating the result of inserting a complete set of physical states in a time ordered product of weak currents to the operator product expansion. The sum rules sum over physical states with excitation energies less than a scale $\Delta$. We find that the corrections to the Bjorken bound are moderate, while the Voloshin bound receives sizable corrections enhanced by $\Delta/\Lambda_{QCD}$. With some assumptions, we find that the slope parameter for the form factor $h_{A_1}$ in $B\to D^*\ell\bar\nu$ decay satisfies $0.4\lesssim\rho_{A_1}^2 \lesssim 1.3$.
The Solar Neighborhood XXVII: Discovery of New Proper Motion Stars with mu > 0.18 "/yr in the Southern Sky with 16.5 > R_59F > 18.0
Mark R. Boyd,Todd J. Henry,Wei-Chun Jao,John P. Subasavage,Nigel C. Hambly
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/142/3/92
Abstract: Here we present 1584 new southern proper motion systems with mu > 0.18 "/yr and 16.5 > R_59F > 18.0. This search complements the six previous SuperCOSMOS-RECONS (SCR) proper motion searches of the southern sky for stars within the same proper motion range, but with R_59F < 16.5. As in previous papers, we present distance estimates for these systems and find that three systems are estimated to be within 25 pc, including one, SCR 1546-5534, possibly within the RECONS 10 pc horizon at 6.7 pc, making it the second nearest discovery of the searches. We find 97 white dwarf candidates with distance estimates between 10 and 120 pc, as well as 557 cool subdwarf candidates. The subdwarfs found in this paper make up nearly half of the subdwarf systems reported from our SCR searches, and are significantly redder than those discovered thus far. The SCR searches have now found 155 red dwarfs estimated to be within 25 pc, including 10 within 10 pc. In addition, 143 white dwarf candidates and 1155 cool subdwarf candidates have been discovered. The 1584 systems reported here augment the sample of 4724 systems previously discovered in our SCR searches, and imply that additional systems fainter than R_59F = 18.0 are yet to be discovered.
Feeling Good about Teaching Mathematics: Addressing Anxiety amongst Pre-Service Teachers  [PDF]
Wendy Boyd, Alan Foster, Jubilee Smith, William Edgar Boyd
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.54030

Research regarding pre-service teachers’ attitudes towards teaching mathematics has revealed that many pre-service teachers experience high levels of mathematics anxiety about both the learning of mathematics and the teaching of the mathematics curriculum. Little is known about the particular characteristics of pre-service teachers that make them more likely to experience anxiety about mathematics in the early years. Addressing anxiety towards mathematics and the teaching of mathematics could effectively eliminate later problems in teaching. Teaching mathematics confidently is associated with teachers’ beliefs about their mathematical ability, which is their mathematical self-efficacy. This paper reports on an investigation into the anxiety of first- year pre-service teachers towards their future teaching of mathematics. 223 students enrolled in a first-year mathematics unit for birth to eight years, in the Bachelor of Education of Early Childhood and Primary Education Courses attributed their beliefs about mathematics to external—their past teachers—or internal factors: that one is either good at mathematics or not. The findings highlight the need for pre-service teacher’s anxiety about mathematics to be addressed within the university education classroom context so that pre-service teachers become capable and competent teachers of mathematics.

Procedural Skills, SketchUp and Vodcasting: Distance Teaching of Design Drawing Skills and Student Learning Autonomy  [PDF]
David Ellis, William E. Boyd
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.512125
Abstract: The popularity of sites like YouTube demonstrates the potential preference for users to use video podcasts (vodcasts) as an instructional tool. As educators have been encouraged to become more literate in authoring Web 2.0 technologies, the implementation of vodcasts as an effective pedagogy has been increasingly used in educational settings. The recent proliferation of distance education courses caused educators in higher education settings to consider why some programs are more suitable for distance education than others, and whether procedural knowledge and skills that are required in various industries may be able to be delivered using contemporary technologies. This article discusses the efficacy of using vodcasting as a pedagogical tool, in developing procedural knowledge and skills in computer aided design and drawing, to pre-service teachers studying via distance education, and demonstrates the capacity for vodcasts to foster autonomous student learning.
Regulation to Create Environments Conducive to Physical Activity: Understanding the Barriers and Facilitators at the Australian State Government Level
Jane Shill, Helen Mavoa, Brad Crammond, Bebe Loff, Anna Peeters, Mark Lawrence, Steven Allender, Gary Sacks, Boyd A. Swinburn
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042831
Abstract: Introduction Policy and regulatory interventions aimed at creating environments more conducive to physical activity (PA) are an important component of strategies to improve population levels of PA. However, many potentially effective policies are not being broadly implemented. This study sought to identify potential policy/regulatory interventions targeting PA environments, and barriers/facilitators to their implementation at the Australian state/territory government level. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with senior representatives from state/territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n = 40) to examine participants': 1) suggestions for regulatory interventions to create environments more conducive to PA; 2) support for preselected regulatory interventions derived from a literature review. Thematic and constant comparative analyses were conducted. Results Policy interventions most commonly suggested by participants fell into two areas: 1) urban planning and provision of infrastructure to promote active travel; 2) discouraging the use of private motorised vehicles. Of the eleven preselected interventions presented to participants, interventions relating to walkability/cycling and PA facilities received greatest support. Interventions involving subsidisation (of public transport, PA-equipment) and the provision of more public transport infrastructure received least support. These were perceived as not economically viable or unlikely to increase PA levels. Dominant barriers were: the powerful ‘road lobby’, weaknesses in the planning system and the cost of potential interventions. Facilitators were: the provision of evidence, collaboration across sectors, and synergies with climate change/environment agendas. Conclusion This study points to how difficult it will be to achieve policy change when there is a powerful ‘road lobby’ and government investment prioritises road infrastructure over PA-promoting infrastructure. It highlights the pivotal role of the planning and transport sectors in implementing PA-promoting policy, however suggests the need for clearer guidelines and responsibilities for state and local government levels in these areas. Health outcomes need to be given more direct consideration and greater priority within non-health sectors.
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