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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 160644 matches for " Mark B. Neider "
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Falls Risk and Simulated Driving Performance in Older Adults
John G. Gaspar,Mark B. Neider,Arthur F. Kramer
Journal of Aging Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/356948
Abstract:
Falls Risk and Simulated Driving Performance in Older Adults
John G. Gaspar,Mark B. Neider,Arthur F. Kramer
Journal of Aging Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/356948
Abstract: Declines in executive function and dual-task performance have been related to falls in older adults, and recent research suggests that older adults at risk for falls also show impairments on real-world tasks, such as crossing a street. The present study examined whether falls risk was associated with driving performance in a high-fidelity simulator. Participants were classified as high or low falls risk using the Physiological Profile Assessment and completed a number of challenging simulated driving assessments in which they responded quickly to unexpected events. High falls risk drivers had slower response times (~2.1 seconds) to unexpected events compared to low falls risk drivers (~1.7 seconds). Furthermore, when asked to perform a concurrent cognitive task while driving, high falls risk drivers showed greater costs to secondary task performance than did low falls risk drivers, and low falls risk older adults also outperformed high falls risk older adults on a computer-based measure of dual-task performance. Our results suggest that attentional differences between high and low falls risk older adults extend to simulated driving performance. 1. Introduction Per mile driven, adults over age 65 are more likely to be involved in motor vehicle collisions than are younger experienced drivers [1], and declines in attention are related to older driver impairment [2, 3]. Attention is also critical to balance and gait, especially for older adults. Walkers must monitor for changes in environment and plan their next step. When a walking or balance task is combined with a cognitively challenging secondary task (e.g., memorizing a list of words), performance decrements are found for both tasks relative to performing each task separately [4]. These dual-task costs suggest that walking competes for shared attentional resources, as predicted by resource models of attention [5–9]. Older adults often have increased difficulty when multitasking, including paradigms that involve balancing or walking [10–12]. For example, older adults show larger dual-task costs on walking while memorizing task than do younger adults [13–16]. Such declines in multitasking ability are theorized to result in an increased risk for falls among older adults. Approximately 30% of community-dwelling older adults experience one or more falls annually [17, 18]. Age-related declines in the ability to multitask are related to an increase in falls risk. For example, performance on a counting while walking task predicts falls in older adults ([19]; see also [20–22]). Similarly, older adults at high
Training and Transfer of Training in Rapid Visual Search for Camouflaged Targets
Mark B. Neider, Cher Wee Ang, Michelle W. Voss, Ronald Carbonari, Arthur F. Kramer
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083885
Abstract: Previous examinations of search under camouflage conditions have reported that performance improves with training and that training can engender near perfect transfer to similar, but novel camouflage-type displays [1]. What remains unclear, however, are the cognitive mechanisms underlying these training improvements and transfer benefits. On the one hand, improvements and transfer benefits might be associated with higher-level overt strategy shifts, such as through the restriction of eye movements to target-likely (background) display regions. On the other hand, improvements and benefits might be related to the tuning of lower-level perceptual processes, such as figure-ground segregation. To decouple these competing possibilities we had one group of participants train on camouflage search displays and a control group train on non-camouflage displays. Critically, search displays were rapidly presented, precluding eye movements. Before and following training, all participants completed transfer sessions in which they searched novel displays. We found that search performance on camouflage displays improved with training. Furthermore, participants who trained on camouflage displays suffered no performance costs when searching novel displays following training. Our findings suggest that training to break camouflage is related to the tuning of perceptual mechanisms and not strategic shifts in overt attention.
Change Detection: Training and Transfer
John G. Gaspar, Mark B. Neider, Daniel J. Simons, Jason S. McCarley, Arthur F. Kramer
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067781
Abstract: Observers often fail to notice even dramatic changes to their environment, a phenomenon known as change blindness. If training could enhance change detection performance in general, then it might help to remedy some real-world consequences of change blindness (e.g. failing to detect hazards while driving). We examined whether adaptive training on a simple change detection task could improve the ability to detect changes in untrained tasks for young and older adults. Consistent with an effective training procedure, both young and older adults were better able to detect changes to trained objects following training. However, neither group showed differential improvement on untrained change detection tasks when compared to active control groups. Change detection training led to improvements on the trained task but did not generalize to other change detection tasks.
Robust Linear Temporal Logic
Paulo Tabuada,Daniel Neider
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: Although it is widely accepted that every system should be robust, in the sense that "small" violations of environment assumptions should lead to "small" violations of system guarantees, it is less clear how to make this intuitive notion of robustness mathematically precise. In this paper, we address this problem by developing a robust version of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL), which we call robust LTL and denote by rLTL. Formulas in rLTL are syntactically identical to LTL formulas but are endowed with a many-valued semantics that encodes robustness. In particular, the semantics of the rLTL formula $\varphi \Rightarrow \psi$ is such that a "small" violation of the environment assumption $\varphi$ is guaranteed to only produce a "small" violation of the system guarantee $\psi$. In addition to introducing rLTL, we study the verification and synthesis problems for this logic: similarly to LTL, we show that both problems are decidable, that the verification problem can be solved in time exponential in the number of subformulas of the rLTL formula at hand, and that the synthesis problem can be solved in doubly exponential time.
Sprouting Wings in the Hyper-Colonial: High-Octane Desire and Youth-Targeted Market Predation  [PDF]
Mark B. Borg
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2010.14040
Abstract: In this article, the author utilizes a novel action research approach to developing an interpretation of a colonial discourse that reproduces an otherness that is consistent with traditional views of history and ideology. Through this unique educational—for both author and client—approach, further analysis reveals a colonial discourse that has become unhinged from its historical roots and taken flight into supermolecular space where its origins and impact have been thoroughly dissociated from its cultural impact. When our identities are thoroughly absorbed into and taken over by consumer products, we enter a corporately induced, mass-media augmented hyper-colonial in which our minds, bodies, and senses of self become defined by those products. A primary research question is: how can we intervene in colonialism when the colonized is an inferior/lacking version of our own self ? The ways in which this hyper-colonial state captures and makes use of desire and is then marked—marketed—by/through a society-level drive is explored throughout this article. The author “takes a walk”—that is, he uses a week-long organizational consultation that was conducted for a marketing research organization to analyze the ways that the dynamics of a hyper-colonialized consumer culture were at play in the consultee’s marketing strategies that target American youth.
Disability, Social Policy and the Burden of Disease: Creating an “Assertive” Community Mental Health System in New York  [PDF]
Mark B. Borg, Jr.
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2010.12018
Abstract: One conclusion of the decade-long epidemiological Global Burden of Disease Project is that five of the top 10 disease “burdens” the world will face by 2020 will be related to mental disabilities. Therefore, developing social policy and community responses to the ways that people with mental disabilities are treated is becoming an important focus for community practitioners, political activists and legislators. The author explores some of the dynamics of our culture’s approach to dealing with difference, especially when manifested in disenfranchized individuals. He discusses a community development project created by a New York City advocacy and social policy organization following the 1999 murder of a woman by an individual whose mental health disability was never treated. Parallels are drawn between the civil rights and community mental health movements, which created a precedent for the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act. Also examined are the ways in which community mental health systems manifest social policy that alternately resists, repeats and colludes with power operations. The unexamined assumptions that drive this dynamic are examined as ableism or disability oppression.
Suicide by Cop-A Psychology of Institutional Betrayal  [PDF]
Mark B. Malmin
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.86059
Abstract: This positional paper examines institutional law enforcement (LE) deadly force encounters with the mentally ill in the United States, with an emphasis on those who threaten or attempt suicide by cop while armed with a weapon other than a firearm. Research reveals a disproportionate number of mentally ill people are killed by police during LE confrontations. The social psychology of suicide by cop and the contributory LE institutional facilitation of these encounters is examined. Causational attribution is attributable, in part, to LE epistemological correlation factors that include a one-size-fits all shooting methodology of shooting center mass body-torso that invariably produces death, a lack of LE crisis intervention de-escalation training, and other contributing sociological geopolitical-jurisprudential factors that are elucidated. LE use-of-force is exegetically examined in the legal context of requirements that it be objectively reasonable and necessary. A reduction in homicides of the mentally ill at the hands of LE is conceptually possible if the institutional culture of LE agrees to increase crisis intervention de-escalation training for officers, and LE modifies its shooting tactics, so as to permit discretionary implementation of incapacitating force, permitting a more calculated disabling level of force, using a fewer rounds fired methodology. Such a change in policy and tactics could mitigate the number of mentally ill fatalities with LE encounters, potentially improve community policing relationships, and reduce wrongful death litigations and settlement awards that are routinely paid out by municipalities with tax dollars. The author recommends the implementation of a pilot program that would test the efficacy of these change proposals.
Down the Borel Hierarchy: Solving Muller Games via Safety Games
Daniel Neider,Roman Rabinovich,Martin Zimmermann
Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science , 2012, DOI: 10.4204/eptcs.96.13
Abstract: We transform a Muller game with n vertices into a safety game with (n!)^3 vertices whose solution allows to determine the winning regions of the Muller game and to compute a finite-state winning strategy for one player. This yields a novel antichain-based memory structure and a natural notion of permissive strategies for Muller games. Moreover, we generalize our construction by presenting a new type of game reduction from infinite games to safety games and show its applicability to several other winning conditions.
Abstract Learning Frameworks for Synthesis
Christof L?ding,P. Madhusudan,Daniel Neider
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: We develop abstract learning frameworks (ALFs) for synthesis that embody the principles of CEGIS (counter-example based inductive synthesis) strategies that have become widely applicable in recent years. Our framework defines a general abstract framework of iterative learning, based on a hypothesis space that captures the synthesized objects, a sample space that forms the space on which induction is performed, and a concept space that abstractly defines the semantics of the learning process. We show that a variety of synthesis algorithms in current literature can be embedded in this general framework. While studying these embeddings, we also generalize some of the synthesis problems these instances are of, resulting in new ways of looking at synthesis problems using learning. We also investigate convergence issues for the general framework, and exhibit three recipes for convergence in finite time. The first two recipes generalize current techniques for convergence used by existing synthesis engines. The third technique is a more involved technique of which we know of no existing instantiation, and we instantiate it to concrete synthesis problems.
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